Chapter 16 a new Civilization Emerges in Western Europe chapter summary

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The West's Expansionist Impulse. The ongoing political and economic changes spurred European expansion beyond initial postclassical borders. From the 11th century Germanic knights and agricultural settlers changed the population and environmental balance in eastern Germany and Poland. In Spain and Portugal small Christian states in the 10th century began the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from Muslims. Viking voyagers crossed the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and Canada. The most dramatic expansion occurred during the Crusades against Muslims in the Holy Land. Pope Urban II called the first in 1095. Christian warriors seeking salvation and spoils established kingdoms in the Holy Land enduring into the 13th century. Their presence helped to expose Europeans to cultural and economic influences from Byzantium and Islam

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