Chapter 14 Expansion and Growth



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Chapter 14

Expansion and Growth

1789-1850

Georgia’s Land and Economic Growth

  • The key to GA’s prosperity was still its land.

  • Acquiring land from the Native Americans and distributing land to settlers became a major political and economic issue in the period from the Constitution until 1840.

  • In 1803, a new lottery system began, and the land given up by the Creeks and Cherokee became farms for new settlers to the state.

Georgia’s Land and Economic Growth

  • Georgia remained an agricultural state, but new inventions and new methods of transportation played a major role in making agriculture profitable.

  • Cotton was becoming king by the 1800s.

  • These 5 decades were mainly a time of a growing population and a flowering economy.

  • It was built however, on the sacrifice of land by Native Americans, and the sacrifice of freedom by enslaved African Americans.

The Creek and Their Land

  • The Creek Chief, Alexander McGillivray went to NYC to meet with George Washington and signed the Treaty of New York, which gave Georgians the land they wanted between the Ogeechee and Oconee Rivers.

  • In 1796, George Washington appointed North Carolina Senator Benjamin Hawkins to be the Agent for Indian Affairs in the South.

  • It was his job to carry out a new government policy to “civilize” the Indians. The goal was to make Indians into farmers who would eventually settle onto individual farms and give up their tribal lands.

  • He encouraged the men to grow corn and wheat and to raise cattle and pigs; the women were encouraged to spin thread and weave cloth.

  • This was a major cultural change for a society in which women had taken care of the crops.

  • These ideas led to a growing conflict within the Creek Nation between those who were willing to accept the new way and those who wanted to keep their traditional lifestyle.

The Yazoo Land Fraud

  • Eager settlers often crossed into the Indian lands without following the policy of having a treaty in place first.

  • In GA the government itself got involved with the illegal land dealings in what became called the Yazoo Land Fraud.

  • Three land companies had tried to buy a huge piece of GA’s land in the far western part of the state around the Yazoo River, which today is part of Mississippi. The sale fell through. Four new companies bribed new members of the GA legislature to pass a bill selling them between 35 and 50 million acres of land. They paid the state about 500,000 dollars or pennies per acre.

  • Many citizens were outraged. When the new GA legislature met, it repealed the Yazoo Act as a fraud.

  • The assembly members burned the act with a magnifying glass to focus the suns rays and start the fire.

  • The state refunded the money to the companies, but there was a problem, the companies had already sold some of the land. These disputes ended up in the courts.

Land Lotteries

  • Throughout the 1790s, GA continued to grant land to settlers through the headright system covered previously.

  • After the Yazoo Land Fraud, GA decided to change the way it granted land. All new land was to be surveyed into lots of 202 and ½ acres if it was very good land and 490 acres if it was not as fertile.

  • Each white male who had lived in GA at least one year and every family of orphans under twenty one years of age got one chance in a lottery.

  • Every family of a husband, wife, and at least one child, as well as every widow with children, got two chances.

  • Their names were written on pieces of paper and the land lot was written on pieces of paper. Each were put into separate drums. Then a drawing was held. Those lucky enough to get the land they wanted paid a fee of 4 cents an acre.

Agriculture

  • Tobacco grew very well in the piedmont region.

  • Removing seeds from the cotton to separate the white fibers was a problem. Eli Whitney had an inventive mind and wanted to solve this problem to make cotton growing more profitable. He invented the cotton gin. The cotton gin brushed the fibers through slits too small for the seeds to go through.

  • His invention put the south on the road to becoming the “Land of Cotton.”

Agricultural Class System

  • Georgia’s main crops (cotton, sugar cane, rice and tobacco) all required a large amount of labor to produce. Those who had slaves could produce a large quantity and could become wealthy.

  • At the top of the economic and social ladder were the planters who owned 20 or more slaves. Because slaves did much of the work the planters could spend their time in government which made them politically powerful.

  • Below the planters on the economic scale were the farmers who owned fewer than 20 slaves. Most of them owned 1-5 slaves. The owners worked in the fields with their slaves. This group made up half of the slave owners in GA.

  • Small farmers who owned no slaves made up most of the middle class in GA. They produced mostly food crops. These small farmers owned their land and produced for themselves.

  • The poorest whites in GA were landless. They worked as laborers or settled on poor land that they did not own, where they could raise only a little food and perhaps a few animals.

Subsistence Farming

  • Corn was an equally important crop and was raised on all middle class farms as well as by poor whites.

  • Corn fed GA’s people and animals. Many of northern GA’s areas were living at the subsistence level—able to produce just enough to survive.

Developments in Transportation--Steamboats

  • Horses and carts were the major modes of transportation by land. The fastest way to move people and goods was on the water.

  • Until the 1800s river boats were powered by humans.

  • In 1807 Robert Fulton used a steam engine to power paddle wheels on the sides of a boat.

  • A year before, William Longstreet had experimented with powering a boat by steam on the Savannah River. The Fulton paddle wheel was more practical and It became the new method of river transportation.

Canals

  • Because water transportation was faster and cheaper, many states became interested in building canals.

  • Canals are manmade waterways that connect one body of water to another.

  • In 1825, New York finished building the first such canal, the Erie Canal.

Railroads

  • With so many goods to get to market and with England having success with the steam engine, GA began to build railroads.

  • Savannahians began a company to build a railroad to Macon which became the center of GA.

  • By 1860 GA had one of the best rail systems in the South.

Business and Industry

  • Much of the industry was related to processing the crops that GA produced.

  • Most communities had flour mills to grind corn into flour and grits.

  • Sawmills cut logs into boards.

  • Tanneries turned animal hides into leather.

  • When the country went through a depression in the late 1830s others were attracted to building mills to strengthen the economy.

  • GA led the lower south in industry.

Questions for Your Chapter 14 Graded Question Sheet

  • Write on loose-leaf paper to be turned in (see syllabus for due date)

  • The key to GA’s prosperity was still its ________.

  • In ________, a new lottery system began, and the land given up by the Creeks and Cherokee became farms for new settlers to the state.

3) These ____ decades were mainly a time of a growing population and a flowering economy.

4) The Creek Chief, _____________went to NYC to meet with George Washington and signed the Treaty of New York, which gave Georgians the land they wanted between the Ogeechee and Oconee River.

5) The state refunded the money to the companies, but there was a problem, the companies had already sold some of the land. These disputes ended up in the ________.

6) After the Yazoo Land Fraud, GA decided to change the way it granted land. All new land was to be surveyed into lots of 202 and ½ acres if it was very good land and ______acres if it was not as fertile.

7) By ______ GA had one of the best rail systems in the South.

8) Most communities had flour mills to grind

_____ into flour and grits.

The War of 1812 and Indian Removal

  • Textile mills became an important part of the New England economy after the US had a second war with England and found itself needing the manufactured goods that England made, including cloth. This war ushered in change, the most profound effects being on Native Americans. The war began the push to remove them from the state’s borders. By 1840, the Creek and Cherokee were gone.

The War of 1812

  • By the time Thomas Jefferson became president in 1800, the French and British were once again at odds.

  • In 1805 the two were at war. The US didn’t want to be involved but traded with each country. France and England both tried to stop the other from trading with the US.

  • The British were also still in Canada and the Americans felt they were stirring up trouble with the Indians in the Northwest Territory.

  • There, a Shawnee chief named Tecumseh had begun to form a confederation of Indian groups against the US.

  • They were concerned the Americans wanted more and more land.

  • The Indians wanted to keep their land and their traditional ways of living.

  • Tecumseh came south to convince the Creek and Cherokee to join them. Some of the Creek joined but the Cherokee didn’t.

  • The destruction of his headquarters caused Tecumseh to join with the British during the war of 1812.

The War of 1812

  • Trade conflicts with Great Britain, their taking of American soldiers, and their support of the Indians caused President James Madison to ask for a declaration of war in 1812.

  • The US went into war with the major superpower of the time—Great Britain.

GA in the War

  • GA was concerned about the Creek Indians and the influence the British might have had on them.

  • Many of the Upper Creek, known as the Red Sticks, had joined Tecumseh’s resistance and were receiving guns from the British.

  • In 1814, Britain defeated France and began sending more troops across the Atlantic.

  • Soon, news came that peace was declared.

The Red Stick or Creek War

  • In 1813 the Red Stick Creek attacked and killed 400 Americans at Fort Mims in Alabama.

  • American troops attacked a Red Stick town forcing them to flee.

  • In March 1814, troops led by General Andrew Jackson soundly defeated the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama.

The Final Removal of the Native Peoples From GA

  • The Creek no longer had a homeland in GA.

  • By the 1820s the Cherokee were different in a major way—they could read and write.

  • The Cherokee were accepting many of the ways of life the Americans were encouraging them to accept.

  • But Georgia’s leaders wanted more land. The situation worsened when gold was found near Dahlonega. Fortune seekers soon poured into Cherokee country.

  • The Cherokee could do nothing to keep people off of their land.

Questions for Your Chapter 14 Graded Question Sheet

  • Write on loose-leaf paper to be turned in (see syllabus for due date)

1) By the time _______ became president in 1800, the French and British were once again at odds.

  • The British were also still in Canada and the Americans felt they were stirring up trouble with the Indians in the _____________.

3) Trade conflicts with Great Britain, their taking of American soldiers, and their support of the Indians caused President __________to ask for a declaration of war in 1812.

4) Many of the Upper Creek, known as the __________, had joined Tecumseh’s resistance and were receiving guns from the British.

5) In 1813 the Red Stick Creek attacked and killed ______ Americans at Fort Mims in Alabama.

6) The Cherokee were accepting many of the ways of life the ________ were encouraging them to accept.

7) In 1838, General Winfield Scott and nearly _______ troops arrived in New Echota. The troops built stockades to house the Cherokees. They took the Cherokees from their homes and forced them into the stockades.

8) Over______ died on this Trail of Tears.

Removal of Native Peoples

  • In 1830 president Andrew Jackson supported and Congress passed the Indian Removal Act to force the Cherokee west of the Mississippi River.

  • The Cherokee and supportive American citizens tried to fight the removal of their people from their lands but to no avail.

  • In 1838, General Winfield Scott and nearly 7000 troops arrived in New Echota. The troops built stockades to house the Cherokees. They took the Cherokees from their homes and forced them into the stockades.

  • Hundreds of men, women and children died of disease while in the stockades.

  • The army loaded several thousand Cherokees onto boats which were dirty and the food unfit to eat. They were sent down rivers to their new homes. By the time they had arrived nearly one third had died.

  • Over 4000 died on this Trail of Tears.



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