Chapter 13 Toward Modern Times

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Chapter 13

Toward Modern Times

Chapter Preview: People, Places, and Events

Age of Exploration 1400s

King Ferdinand's support of a young Italian explorer changed the world. Lesson 1, Page 350

Elizabethan Age 1500s

The reign of Elizabeth I was a high point in England's history. Find out why. Lesson 1, Page 351

Industrial Revolution 1700s

What happened when machines began to do work formerly done by people? Lesson 2, Page 358


Lesson 1

European Exploration and Conquest

Main Idea European exploration led to changes around the world.

Key Vocabulary



On September 8, 1522, a battered ship limped into the harbor at Seville, Spain. It had set sail three years earlier, with four other ships and a crew of about 250. Only 18 men remained. The others had been lost at sea, killed in battle, or had died of disease. Ferdinand Magellan, the expedition's commander, had been killed during one island stopover. Still, the survivors had done what they had set out to do: They were the first to circumnavigate, or sail completely around, the world.

Magellan's ambitious voyage was one of many journeys into regions unknown to Europeans. From information provided by explorers, Europeans' view of the rest of the world would change. The lives and civ­ilizations of the people who lived in other lands would also change.

Key Events

1492 Columbus arrives in North America

1519 Cortes meets Montezuma

1522 Magellan's crew returns from circling globe

---When European explorers returned home, they told tall tales about the strange sights they had seen.

French Revolution 1789

Thousands of people were executed during the Reign of Terror. Lesson 2, Page 362

Neon Bonaparte 1799

This painting shows the French dicta­tor Napoleon. Why is he famous? Lesson 2, Page 363

British Imperialism 1800

It took 10 years to construct the Suez Canal. What were its benefits? Lesson 3, Page 368


The Age of Exploration

Focus Why did European rulers finance voyages of exploration?

Beginning in the 1400s, European kings and queens supplied the money for voyagers to explore the world. These rulers weren't just curious. They had economic and religious interests in mind as well.


1497-1498 Vasco da Gama Portuguese

established sea route around southern tip of Africa to India

1500 Pedro Cabral Portuguese

claimed Brazil for Portugal

1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa Spanish

first European to see the Pacific Ocean

1513 Juan Ponce de Leon Spanish

Discovered Florida while searching for the "Fountain of Youth"

1609-1611 Henry Hudson English

Sailed up Hudson River and claimed region for the Netherlands

1673 Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet French

explored Great Lakes and Mississippi River Valley

---This painting shows the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain in 1469.

The monarchs needed precious metals for coins. Europe's gold deposits had been used up, and its silver deposits were small. Many Europeans believed they would find treasure troves of gold and silver in faraway lands.

Spices were also valuable to the Europeans. Before refrigerators, meat spoiled easily. Large amounts of spices were used by the Europeans to hide the bad taste and to help preserve the meat. Spices were expensive and they grew far away — in distant Asia. Europeans were hoping to find faster and easier ways to get there and bring the spices back to Europe.

Finally, the Christian kings and queens of Europe wanted to spread their religion throughout the world. This was especially true of Portugal and Spain's Catholic rulers, who were ending Muslim rule of their lands.

Portugal, Spain, and England

Portugal, a small country on the western edge of Europe, was a nation of excellent sailors. They were experienced in navigating both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coast. Portugal's leader, Prince Henry (1394-1460), was even nicknamed "the Navigator." He believed, correct­ly, that reaching the southern tip of Africa would be a good way to sail to Asia. In Sagres, Portugal, Prince Henry set up a center for exploration, where Jews, Muslims, Italians, and later, West Africans gathered to share their knowledge.

Spain's rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella (shown at left), were interested in exploration, too. In 1492, they financed a seaman named Christopher Columbus. He believed, incorrectly, that he could find a direct route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic. Columbus landed in the Americas instead. As a result of Columbus's error, Spain would become the most powerful nation of the time: By 1550, Spain ruled Mexico, Central America, most of South America, and what is now the southwest­ern United States.

In 1558 in England, Queen Elizabeth I came to power (her portrait is on the next page). She, too, wanted to find a shortcut from Europe to Asia. During her reign, several English explorers searched for a water route through North America to Asia. They did not succeed. In the 1600s, Spain grew weaker, and England went on to set up colonies in the Americas, as well as in Africa and Asia.


Sharing Ideas and Inventions

Contact with other cultures had brought many ideas and inventions to the Europeans. The Age of Exploration was made possible partly because Europeans were able to use the knowledge of others.

From the Arabs, Europeans learned to improve their wooden ships by adding triangular sails (see below). To cross open oceans, European explorers used compasses made with magnetic needles. Such needles, in use in China about 400 years before, may have been brought to Europe over the Silk Road.

Another important source of "new" information was more than 1,000 years old! A copy of a set of books about geography by Ptolemy (TAHL uh mee) was brought to Italy in 1400. Ptolemy was a Greek who lived in Egypt in the A.D. 100s. These eight books summed up the ancient world's knowledge of geography. The Europeans now studied ancient texts.

---The Versatile Caravel

A new vessel called a "caravel" was well suited for exploration. The small ship could easily navigate shallow waters. The mix of square and triangular sails was designed to make use of shifting winds. The crew of about 20 men usually slept on deck.

---Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603) was the daughter of King Henry VIII. A very intelligent person, she learned Italian, French, Greek, and Latin. England's "Elizabethan Age," named for her, is known for its great writers and thinkers.


Tell Me More

What Happened to the Aztecs?

In 1519, the Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortes discovered the thriving Aztec Empire (see Chapter 12). Within two years, he had destroyed it. How could Cortes and his few men defeat this mighty empire? For one thing, they had guns and horses, which the Aztecs had never seen before. In addition, the Aztecs had enemies who were willing to join Cortes in the battle against the Aztecs. Finally, Aztec warriors were weakened by disease. Epidemics swept through Mexico's population, which scholars estimate may have dropped more than 90 percent in just a hundred years.

The Spanish soldiers wore helmets like this one. In this 16th-century illustration, the Aztec ruler Montezuma (on the right) welcomes Hernando Cortes.

The Impact of Exploration

Focus What were the results of European exploration in the Americas?

Europeans were discovering many parts of the globe that had been unknown to them. Their arrival often led to great suffering for many indigenous (ihn DIH juh nuhs), or native, people they encountered.

The Effects of Exploration

Parts of the world that had been independent for centuries now came under the control of European nations. The Europeans, unknowingly, carried deadly germs with them to the Americas. The indigenous people had never been exposed to diseases such as smallpox and measles. Hundreds of thousands of them died (read the Tell Me More, above).

Europeans also brought guns with them. They used these weapons to control the native people and force them to work. When the Native Americans got some of these guns, they often fought back.

The Europeans found gold and silver in the Americas, but they quickly realized the land itself was far more valuable. Europeans set up


large farms, or plantations, to grow tobacco, sugar, and other cash crops. To work the land, they enslaved people from the western regions of Africa and brought them to the Americas on slave ships.

Missionaries and other Europeans converted many indigenous people to Christianity. Sometimes they used persuasion. Sometimes they com­bined the people's traditional beliefs with Christian ideas. Usually they used force to get the Native Americans to adopt Christian beliefs.

Some Europeans strongly opposed the mistreatment of the Native Americans. Bartolome de las Casas, a Spanish missionary, demanded:

Tell me, by what right or justice do you keep these Indians in such cruel and horrible servitude? On what authority have you waged a detestable war against these people, who dwelt quietly and peace­fully on their own land?”

Ask Yourself

Explorers traveled the world to find treasure, to spread their religious views, and to discover better travel routes. They found foods, tools, styles of dress, and customs that they had never seen before. Many of these things were brought back to Europe to improve the lives of people there. What do we learn from other cultures today?

The Europeans benefited from their conquests in many ways. Their countries grew wealthy, and the lives of individual Europeans improved. Maize (corn), potatoes, and chocolate brought back to Europe became popular food items. Sailors, who used to sleep on a ship's wooden deck, now strung up hammocks like those they had first seen used in the Americas. The world was changing quickly. Revolutions were soon to occur in the sciences, the workplace, and even the royal courts of Europe.

Lesson Review

1492 Columbus arrives in North America

1519 Cortes meets Montezuma

1522 Magellan's crew returns from circling globe

1. Key Vocabulary: Use circumnavigate and indigenous to describe European explo­ration.

2. Focus: Why did European rulers finance voyages of exploration?

3. Focus: What were the results of European exploration in the Americas?

4. Critical Thinking: Predict How might the world be different today if the Age of Exploration had never taken place?

5. Theme: Contact and Interaction How do you think Europeans reacted to items explorers brought home?

6. Geography/Writing Activity: Write a journal entry to describe the thoughts a sailor might have had as he voyaged across the ocean in search of a shortcut to Asia.




The World in Spatial Terms

What Did Captain Cook Learn About the Earth?

Nearly 250 years after Magellan led the first expedition to circle the globe, Europeans still knew little of the Pacific. By the late 1770s, however, most of the mysteries of "the Great South Sea" had been solved. This was largely due to the efforts of one man: British navigator and mapmaker James Cook.

Beginning in 1768, Cook led three long voyages to explore and chart the Pacific Ocean. The Royal Society of London, a British scientific organization, sponsored these voyages. Cook became the first European to reach and chart Australia's east coast and the islands of Hawaii. He also collected detailed information about the plants, animals, and people he found along the way. Cook's explorations literally put the southern Pacific on the map and led to the establishment of European colonies throughout the region.

---This map shows "All places which Capt. Cook has visited and explored." The main area shows the earth as if viewed from over the South Pole. What continent is missing from the center of the map?

---To calculate longitude, navigators needed an accurate clock. British clockmaker John Harrison developed just such a device, the chronometer, in 1759. Why do you think Cook described the one he took on his second voyage as "our never-failing guide"?

1. Australia


Cook and his crew gathered information about many plants and animals they had never seen before. When Cook first saw a kangaroo he nearly mis­took it for a kind of dog. Do you know any other unusual animals that live in Australia?


Science Connection

One of the greatest dangers faced by sailors in the 1700s was scurvy. This disease caused low energy, bleeding gums, loosened teeth, and death. Cook had heard that citrus fruits and vegetables could prevent it. To test the reports, he served his crew fresh fruits and vegetables. On three long voyages, not one member of Cook's crew died of scurvy. What other health problems can poor nutrition cause?

Cook kept a daily "log" or journal in which he wrote observations about the voyage.

3. Hawaii

The "Sandwich" Island'

During his third voyage, Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands and claimed them for Britain. He called them the Sandwich Islands after Britain's naval minister, the Earl of Sandwich. What nation are the Hawaiian Islands a part of today?

2. Tahiti

A Voyage for Astronomy

On his first voyage, Cook sailed to Tahiti to watch the planet Venus pass between the Earth and sun. By observ­ing this event from different places, geographers were bet­ter able to calculate the Earth's distance from the sun.

In three voyages, Cook explored the South Pacific, but never saw Antarctica. He got within 75 miles of it but was forced back by the huge icebergs. Map Skill: In which of his voyages did Cook sail east to reach the Pacific?

Research Activity

1. Choose one place Cook explored and research it.

2. Find information about the plants and animals that live there. Which ones would have been new to Europeans?

3. Write a brief report and share your findings with the class.


Lesson 2

The Age of


Main Idea Scientific, industrial, and political revolutions changed daily life forever.

Key Vocabulary

scientific method

labor force


constitutional monarchy


"What time is it?" How many times have you heard, or asked, this ques­tion? Before the 1700s, most people in Europe never needed to know the answer. As farmers, their day began when the sun rose in the morning and ended when it set.

All this changed when people began working in factories. Suddenly, clock time became very important. People were paid to work a 14-hour day. To get to work on time, they had to wake up before sunrise. (One worker had the job of waking up the other workers by tapping on their windows.) Some people saved up their money to buy a watch, like the one shown here. The way people looked at time had changed. In fact, the whole world was changing around them.

The Scientific Revolution

Focus How did the Scientific Revolution change the way people studied and learned?

In the 1600s, scientific discoveries began to change the way people thought about the world. Not all discoveries were well received at first. Using a telescope, a new invention, the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (gal uh LEE oh gal uh LAY) found evidence that the Earth revolved around the sun. At the time, people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. Galileo's discovery challenged the beliefs of the

Key Events

1600s Scientific Revolution

1780s Introduction of the steam engine

1789 French Revolution begins

1800s Spread of Industrial Revolution

1832 Britain's Reform Act

---This silver watch was made in 1724 by John Canter of Salisbury, England. Economics: Do some research to find out how much the watch would have cost new and how that compared to peo­ple's weekly wages.


day. The Catholic Church forced Galileo to announce that he had changed his mind.

In spite of setbacks like these, scientists continued to make discoveries with far-reaching results. Advances in medicine, for instance, improved people's health. With more people living longer, the population rose. By the 1700s new inventions and discoveries began improving daily life for many Europeans. This period of rapid progress in the sciences is called the Scientific Revolution.

Leeuwenhoek and the Microscope

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (LAY wuhn hook) (1632-1723) was a Dutch cloth dealer. He used a special instrument to inspect the quality of the cloth he sold. Leeuwenhoek never attended a university, but the improvements he made to the device shown below led to one of the most important instruments of modern science — the microscope.

In the 1670s, Leeuwenhoek thought of using his microscope to inspect something other than cloth. After examining marsh water, he wrote that a tiny drop of water contained "little animals." Today we know that those "little animals" are simple organisms known as bacteria. This discovery made Europeans realize there was another, unseen world under their very eyes.

---An Unseen World

Below is one of the microscopes used by Leeuwenhoek. It is about 2 inches long. The lens is the small circle near the top.

The drawing at left shows an insect that Leeuwenhoek saw through his microscope. The Cent­ral picture shows Leeuwenhoek n 1686.

The object to be studied was held in place on this screw.


---In 1768, Joseph Wright painted An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump. The painting drama­tizes an experiment with oxygen conducted by the French scientist Lavoisier (lah vwah ZYAY) (shown in the red cloak). Lavoisier is often considered the founder of modern chemistry because of his research on oxygen, which he named in 1777. Arts: What is the mood of this painting?

A New Way of Learning

The Scientific Revolution did more than pro­duce new knowledge about the natural world. It also popularized a new way of doing research: identify a problem, gather evidence about the problem, propose an explanation for the evidence, and finally test the explanation. Known as the scientific method, this is how sci­entists still go about their work today.

Using reason as a way to state, observe, and solve problems would affect how people thought about other things as well.

The Industrial Revolution

Focus How did the Industrial Revolution affect daily life in England?

As science advanced, so did technology. Beginning in the 1750s, inven­tions such as the mechanical clock, power loom, and steam engine were introduced in England (see the timeline below). Work that had been done before by animals and humans was now done by machines.

Machines were grouped in large buildings called factories. Great amounts of goods could be produced cheaply and quickly in factories. By the end of the 1800s, machines had transformed the way people worked

Major Inventions 1600 -1900

Inventors of all time periods worked to make people's lives easier. Many of the inventions of the 1600s were in math and science. Later inventions often helped industry.

1642 - The Calculator

At age 18, Blaise Pascal invents a machine for adding and subtracting to help his father, a tax collector.

1609 - The Telescope

Hans Lippershey invented a telescope in 1608. One year later, Galileo designs one that is far more advanced.

1670s - Leeuwenhoek's Microscope Using his improved microscope, Leeuwenhoek is the first person ever to see bacteria.

1785-The Power Loom Edmund Cartwright designs the first steam-powered loom.

1769 - Watt's Steam Engine James Watt improves on past designs to invent the first efficient steam engine.


and lived in western Europe. This transformation is known as the Industrial Revolution.

The Machine Age

Artisans had once made goods with their own hands, but now a single factory could replace hundreds of workshops. In factories, each step in the making of a product was done by a different machine. Each machine did one part, over and over. Women, men, and even children tended the machine that did the work. The people available for work, called the labor force, did not need special training. Factory owners controlled the raw materials and the machines and made decisions about the organiza­tion of the work. The private ownership, by individuals or groups, of the equipment to produce the goods is called capitalism.

The British Textile Industry

The first factories in Great Britain made cloth, or textiles. They were built near streams to make use of water power. By the end of the 1700s, steam replaced streams, and the steam engine was used to run the machinery. Now factories could be built in or near cities. Over time fewer people made cloth by hand and more people worked in factories. As the chart on the next page shows, machines made cloth much faster than people did.

Cities grew as people moved from the countryside to find work in the factories. Cities became very crowded and dirty; diseases and crime spread. Factories changed the look, the smell, and the activities of cities.

1804 - The Locomotive The first steam-powered locomotive travels at less than 5 mph. In 1829, "The Rocket" won a race going 29 mph. It is the first locomotive to go faster than a horse.

1876-The Telephone Alexander Graham Bell, a teacher of the deaf, builds the first telephone,

1820s – Photography The first photograph is taken in France The camera is developed from da Vinci's basic idea of 1482.

c. 1817-The Bicycle This hobby horse is the fore­runner of the modern bicycle.


Curious Fact

Before the Industrial Revolution, the com­mon peppered moths of England were usually light gray or white, and dark-colored peppered moths were rare. After factories were built, their smokestacks cov­ered nearby trees with soot. Birds now easily preyed on light moths; they could not see the dark ones. By 1898, dark peppered moths far outnumbered light ones in the industrial regions of England.

In 1854, the English writer Charles Dickens described one English cotton manufacturing town in his novel Hard Times. He wrote:

It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would save been red if the smoke and ash had allowed it .. .It was a town of machinery and ,tall chimneys, out of which interminable [unendl'ng] serpents of smoke trailed themselves forever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye ...”

Factory owners could hire and fire people at will. Because many married women had families to raise, they often were not given jobs. Young chil­dren, however, were desirable as workers. A seven-year-old spinner in a textile factory was asked how he could stick to a 15-hour-a-day schedule. He answered, "There were three over-lookers; there was one head over-looker, and there was one man kept to grease the machines, and there was one kept on purpose to strap [beat the children]." Such mistreatment of young children in the early textile factories finally led to the passage of laws in the first half of the 1800s to protect them.

The Spread of Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and flourished there for a number of reasons. The country had rich natural resources, including the iron ore and coal needed to make and run machines. British society was stable, that is, it didn't change quickly. This encouraged businesses to

Clothing Before and After the Industrial Revolution

1. Sheep are sheared, or have their fleece cut, to provide raw wool.

2. The wool is carded, or combed, to disentangle fibers and remove dirt.

3. The combed fibers are spun, or drawn out and twisted, to make thread called yarn.

4. The threads of wool are woven, or interlaced at right angle to create pieces of cloth.

BY HAND Before the Industrial Revolution, Steps 1-4 were done by hand.

BY MACHINE With the invention of the power loom, Steps 2-4 could be done by machine.


---Children hired to work in the textile factories were often from poor families and were paid very low wages. They were also the only workers small enough to crawl under the machines when needed.

invest, or spend money in order to make more money. The government encouraged investment in business by not taxing British goods. These investors made money when demand for products increased in Great Britain and in its colonies. In a short time, the Industrial Revolution had spread throughout Europe and to the United States. More things for sale meant countries had to search for new sources of raw materials to make new goods. It also led to the search for new places to sell them.

Along with hardships, the Industrial Revolution brought progress. After epidemics of diseases like cholera (KAHL uhr uh) swept through overcrowded cities in the 1860s, governments built huge water and sewer systems. As countries became industrialized, they also began to build rail­ways. The new railroads, along with new canals and highways, helped people, goods, and raw materials travel easily from place to place.

Changes in people's working lives made them wish for other changes as well. In addition to their new trade and business opportunities, people now wanted more political rights.

Political Revolutions

Focus What were the goals and outcome of the French Revolution?

During the 1600s and 1700s, some interesting ideas were beginning to spread. According to these ideas, all humans had the right to seek free­dom, happiness, and knowledge. Society was described as a contract between those who govern and those who are governed. In the 1700s, these democratic ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution. Not long afterwards, the citizens of France began to think about these ideas. They, too, thought it was time for a new form of government.

Then & Now

What kinds of jobs do you do? Chores around the house, probably. Maybe you have a paper route. During the Industrial Revolution, kids your age had jobs, too. Only theirs were in factories and mines, and were often incredi­bly dangerous. If you get a job nowadays, you can be sure there are laws and regula­tions to protect you.


---During the Reign of Terror, the sound of carts taking people to the guillotine (GIHL oh teen) became common. This killing machine had a large sharp blade held between two posts. When a cord was cut, the blade fell and chopped off the victim's head.

The French Revolution

In the 1770s, French society was divided into three classes: nobility, Church officials, and everybody else. This last group included the poor as well as the people in the middle class, or bourgeoisie (bur zhwah ZEE).

Because of unsuccessful investments and wars, by 1789 the French government was deeply in debt. The poor were increasingly resentful because of the heavy taxes they were forced to pay. As a result of a decline in the French textile industry, unemployment was high. Poor har­vests had led to food shortages and starvation.

The French king, Louis XVI, called a meeting to address the coun­try's problems. He met with representatives from each of the three classes. The representatives of the Church and the nobility found little to complain about. The poor and the bourgeoisie, however, voiced their anger. They demanded that France become a constitutional monarchy, in which a ruler's power is restricted by a written constitution and laws. They also announced that they were forming a National Assembly to help govern the country. The king agreed to some of their demands, but alarmed by the people's unrest, he gathered his troops near Paris.

The people of Paris, angered by the king's action, attacked the Bastille (ba STEEL). The city's prison and once a military fortress, the Bastille had become the symbol of the king's power. The people stormed and captured the fortress. It was July 14, 1789, and the French Revolution had begun. (Now known as Bastille Day, July 14 is celebrated as France's most important national holiday.) The storming of the Bastille inspired similar incidents throughout France. The uprising didn't last long, but when it was over, France had a new government.

A month later, the Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. All people were declared free and equal; the nobility and the Church now had to pay taxes. In 1792, France became a republic. A republic is governed by a group of elected citizens, not by a monarch.

The revolution ended total rule by French kings and created a stronger middle class. It also awakened within citizens a feeling of nationalism, which is pride in and loyalty to one's country.

The Reign of Terror

King Louis XVI, found guilty of treason, was executed in 1793. But France was not yet calm. Some revolutionary leaders, not satisfied with the changes, became increasingly violent. People who opposed them became their targets. From September 1793 to July 1794, 17,000 people were executed. This period became known as the Reign of Terror.


Soon the leaders were struggling for power among themselves. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, the French general and military hero, seized control of the government. The French. Revolution was over. But France did not yet have a democracy. Instead, it had a dictator.

Reforms in Europe

The revolution in France had not worked out as planned, but people throughout Europe were inspired to ask for more political power. They were now workers in factories that produced goods; they were consumers who spent their wages in the markets. More and more, they were important to their countries' economies. Their demands could no longer be ignored. Power came slowly, but it came. Britain's Reform Act of 1832 gave manufacturers and middle-class professionals the right to vote. The rulers of Western Europe wanted more wealth and more power. They looked around and saw what other parts of the world had to offer.

---The storming of the Bastille. Arts: Can you tell the artist's point of view by looking at this painting? Was he for or against the Revolution?

Lesson Review

1600s Scientific Revolution

1780s Introduction of the steam engine

1789 French Revolution begins

1800s Spread of the Industrial Revolution

1832 Britain's Reform Act

1. Key Vocabulary: Describe the "Age of Revolutions" using scientific method, capi­talism, labor force, constitutional monarchy, and nationalism.

2. Focus: How did the Scientific Revolution change the way people studied and learned?

3. Focus: How did the Industrial Revolution affect daily life in England?

4. Focus: What were the goals and out come of the French Revolution?

5. Critical Thinking: Compare Then and Now Choose an environmental issue of today and compare it with a similar one from the Industrial Revolution.

6. Theme: Contact and Interaction How did the Industrial Revolution improve and worsen public health in different places?

7. Citizenship/Writing Activity: Create a short bibliography of books about the French Revolution. Ask teachers and librarians for suggestions.


Lesson 3

The Building of European


Main Idea European countries competed for control of the world.

Key Vocabulary





Key Events

c. 1800 Britain and others fight Napoleon

1858 British rule India

c.1870-1900 Age of Imperialism

It was the early 1800s. The French attempt at democracy had ended with the dictator Napoleon in power. England and other European coun­tries were fighting to stop France from expanding. They were fighting each other, too.

Who would control the world's trade? Which would be the most powerful nation? Could Europe's appetite for riches ever be satisfied?

In 1805, James Gillray drew the cartoon below. According to him, Great Britain and France were carving up the world as if it were a big plum pudding.

---William Pitt (1759-1806), prime minister of Great Britain, on the left, and Napoleon 1 (1769-1821), emperor of France, carve up the globe between them. Their countries occupied a small geographical region, yet when they made war, the world felt it. Economics: Why did European wars have an impact on the world?


---This map shows the portions of the world under the control of eight European nations near the end of the 1800s. Map Skill: Which European countries had the largest empires at this time?

Colonial Expansion

Focus Why did European countries establish colonies?

The years between 1875 and 1914 are sometimes called the Age of Imperialism. When a country controls the affairs of one or more other countries by force, it is practicing imperialism. Imperialist countries are also called colonial powers, since they hold colonies. Just as Greece and Rome had done centuries earlier, by the end of the 1800s many nations of Europe had built large empires. As you can see in the cartoon to the left, the leaders of these nations were helping themselves to the portions of the world they wanted.

Europe Divides Up the World

How did the powers of Europe carve up the world? By the second half of the 19th century, France, Great Britain, Belgium, the German states, Portugal, Spain, and Italy had divided up most of Africa. Great Britain tightened its grip on India and the present-day countries of Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Malaysia. The Netherlands held on to the East Indies. France grabbed Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos). (See the map above.)

It was mostly economics that drove the European nations to build empires. They wanted mines and plantations that would supply raw


materials for their growing factories. They wanted new places to sell the products their factories produced. They believed that for their economies to expand, their territo­ries had to expand, too.

Competition among nations was another factor that contributed to European imperialism. If one country had colonies in southeast Asia, for instance, other countries became interested in colonizing there, too. The British statesman Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914) summed matters up: "The day of small nations has long passed away. The day of Empires has come."

Not everyone agreed. While some people believed it was their duty to spread their culture to less developed countries, others condemned imperialism. They believed that the men and women of a nation had the right to choose their own representatives to govern them.

---Europeans went to the colonies for a variety of reasons. Many hoped to advance their careers. Some were missionaries who wanted to spread Christianity. Others went in search of knowl­edge. These included naturalists like Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717). Her painting above was published in 1730.

---The turmeric (TUR muhr ihk) root, (below, top), the dried fruit of the cardamom (KAHR duh muhm) plant (below, left), and the galangal (guh LANG guhl) root (below, right) are the kind of Indian spices that Europeans were looking for.

The British in India

Focus Why did Britain consider India "the jewel in the crown"?

Most western European countries had empires, but — thanks to the valu­able country of India — Great Britain's was the largest and wealthiest.

The British Empire

Great Britain is actually three countries — England, Wales, and Scotland — that share a single island. Wales and England came together in the 1500s, and Scotland joined them in 1707. Britain also controlled Ireland.

When Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), France gave up its colonies in India and North America, and Britain gained control. With no threatening French presence on the seas, Britain became active in the South Pacific and South Atlantic, along the coast of Africa, and in Asia. When Great Britain lost its 13 American colonies in 1783, it became more determined to conquer new territories and find new markets elsewhere.

By 1829 it was said that "the sun never set" on the British Empire. What does that mean? Because Great Britain's holdings were so vast, there was always sunlight in at least one part of the empire as the earth revolved. London was the center of international finance, and British goods dominated the world's markets.


This period of Britain's great power is sometimes called the Pax Britannica, the Latin term for "British peace." During the Pax Britannica, Great Britain practiced imperialist policies without fear of challenge by other nations. The British Navy, the most powerful in the world, pro­tected British interests around the globe. The Pax Britannica ended only when other nations reached Britain's level of industrial development.

The Jewel in the Crown

India was Great Britain's prize possession, "the jewel in the crown" (see the map below). It was about the size of all of Europe, and it was rich in jewels, tea, cotton, and spices. The British East India Company was a large, successful company run by British businessmen. They had estab­lished trading posts in India in the 1600s, selling Indian spices, textiles, and other goods to Great Britain.

Until the early 1700s, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India. Following the death of the Mughal ruler in 1707, India fell into chaos. Rivalries among individual Indian rulers made it possible for a strong external power — Great Britain — to step in and take control.

---India was fragmented into many provinces and populated with many different kinds of peoples.


---This photograph shows Queen Victoria of England (1819-1901) (seated). She began her rule in 1837, while still a teenager. Forty years later she was given the additional title "Empress of India." Her long reign is known as England's Victorian Era.

The British East India Company built an army using Indian troops, called sepoys (SEE poyz). Worried about the growing power of the com­pany, in 1773 the British government became directly involved in ruling India. It sent a series of governors-general, personal representatives from the king. These men set up the first Indian Civil Service, a bureaucracy staffed mostly by Indians.

The Indian Civil Service practically governed India. Most of the responsible positions in the service, however, were held by the British. The Indians resented this situation bitterly.

In 1857, a group of sepoys revolted. Hearing rumors that cartridges for new rifles had been smeared with pork and beef grease, the Indians refused to use them. (The Muslim religion forbids the eating of pork and the Hindus consider cows to be sacred.) Eighty-five sepoys were arrested and jailed. Other sepoys stormed the jail, released the prisoners, and set fire to their living quarters.

As Indian civilians joined in the fight against the British, the Sepoy Rebellion spread throughout northern and central India. The British were not able to put it down until the summer of 1858. Britain then closed the East India Company and took over control of the country. This marked the beginning of the British raj, or rule, over India.

Movement Toward Independence

Even after Britain restored peace in India in 1858, a gulf of suspicion and fear continued to separate the British from the Indians. British Queen Victoria created a new position, that of viceroy, to replace the governor-general as head of the Indian government. She also appointed a governor over each of the 11 provinces of British India. Her choices were always British citizens.

---The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean and Red seas. (See the map in Chapter 17, page 458.) The construction took 10 years to complete. After the canal opened in 1869, the British could travel to India in less than three weeks. Before, the trip around Africa to India took three months. Geography: How do you think the Suez Canal changed relations between Britain and India?


Hundreds of millions of Indians were now ruled by thousands of British officials. The British, living in suburbs completely separated from Indians, had social clubs and even railroad cars that were off-limits to Indians.

In 1876 Surendranath Banerjea (soo rayn dur NAHTH bayn ur JEE) helped found the Indian Association. A political organization, it brought together Hindus and Muslims. Indians now had a place to express their political views. Other organizations, such as the Indian National Congress, were also important in India's move toward independence. Largely through the work of Mohandas K. Gandhi (GAHN dee), India finally won its independence in 1947.

Entering the Modern World

During the Middle Ages, people's lives changed little. Despite frequent wars and famines, people lived nearly the same way for a thousand years.

Then things started to change. The Reformation changed the role of religion in people's lives. Revolutions occurred in the sciences, in the way people worked, and in the way they thought about government. By the time the 19th century had ended, exploration of the world had given way to imperialism. In the 20th century, empires collapsed and most colonized nations won independence.

Though the modern world is far different from the world of the past, some things have not changed greatly. In many places, people continue to work to solve problems that began centuries ago.



Some Indians began vio­lent anti-British activities in the early 1 900s. But it was the nonviolence and civil disobedience preached by Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) that finally drove the British out of India. Gandhi became head of the Indian National Congress, whose activities helped bring about India's inde­pendence.

Lesson Review

C. 1800 Britain and others fight Napoleon

1858 British rule India

c. 1870-1900 Age of Imperialism

1. Key Vocabulary: Describe the British colonization of India using imperialism, governor-general, raj, and viceroy.

2. Focus: Why did European countries establish colonies?

3. Focus: Why did Britain consider India "the jewel in the crown"?

4. Critical Thinking: Generalize Compare the motives behind the Age of Imperialism with those behind the Age of Exploration.

5. Theme: Contact and Interaction How did the spread of British cultural ideals to India unexpectedly help bring about the downfall of the raj?

6. Citizenship/Art Activity: Draw a political cartoon to illustrate some point about the relationship between the British and the Indians.




Predicting Outcomes Using Maps

Look into the Future

In 1891, who could have guessed how much Africa would change under imperialism over the next twenty-three years? One way to predict the outcome of a changing situation is to look closely at existing trends. Studying maps that focus on the same subject area over time helps you see trends and make predictions about what might happen next.

---This is an African statue of Queen Victoria.


1. Here's How

On these pages are maps of Africa in 1891 and 1914.

• Study both maps, note their titles, and read their legends. What is the main idea in these maps?

• Compare the maps. What do you notice that is the same on both? What has changed over time? What patterns do you notice? Identify the increases in European colonies on the 1914 map.

• Based on the trend shown in these maps, you can conclude that European empires expanded and strengthened between 1891 and 1914. You might then predict that this trend would continue in the years following 1914.

2. Think It Through

Suppose the main idea of these maps was to show areas of African independence. What if the trend were toward independence rather than imperialism? How would the maps look different?

3. Use It

1. What happened to Angola between 1891 and 1914? How might its borders change after 1914?

2. Based on these maps, what do you think might happen to Ethiopia and Liberia after 1914?

3. If you made a map of European imperialism in Africa after 1914, what European nations do you think would control the most African land?

4. Study maps of Africa from the 1920s and 1930s to prove or disprove your prediction.

---Until factors such as disease were brought under control, Europeans were unable to gain a foothold in African territory. This medicine chest contains quinine, which was very effective in treating malaria.


Chapter 13

Chapter Review

---See Chapter Review Timeline on page 372

Summarizing the Main Idea

1. Copy and complete the chart below, indicating a key person from each lesson and his or her accomplishment.


2. Using at least eight of the following terms, write a brief biography of an explorer, inventor or leader.

circumnavigate (p. 349)

indigenous (p. 352)

scientific method (p. 358)

labor force (p. 359)

capitalism (p. 359)

constitutional monarchy (p. 362)

nationalism (p. 362)

imperialism (p. 365)

governor-general (p. 368)

raj (p. 368)

viceroy (p. 368)

Reviewing the Facts

3. What were some of the reasons European royalty sponsored voyages of exploration?

4. What was Christopher Columbus's error, and how did it benefit Spain?

5. How did the Scientific Revolution change the world?

6. How were industrialization and imperialism connected?

7. In what ways did the French Revolution fail? In what ways did it succeed?

8. How did Britain become the wealthiest, most powerful empire in the world?

9. What did the people of India think of their country being "the jewel in the crown" of the British Empire?


Skill Review: Predicting Outcomes Using Maps

10. Look at the two maps on pages 370-371. What happened to the Congo Free State? Predict what happened to Belgian colonies ii the years following 1914. Study a map of Africa in the 1920s or 1930s to prove or dis­prove your prediction. Then look at a map of Africa today to find out what has happened to that part of Africa.

Geography Skills

11. Study the map on page 365, "European Empires." What problems might the countries of Europe face in controlling lands so far away?

12. Write two letters set at the time of the Industrial Revolution—one before a factory moves to your town, and one after. Describe the changes that have taken place.

Critical Thinking

13. Conclude Look at the map on page 365. Compare the sizes of the nations of Europe with the amount of land they controlled in their empires. How do you think they were able to control so much territory?

14. Predict Even though Galileo had to recant (or take back what he said), how do you think his discovery that the earth was not the center of the universe would affect the people of his day?

Writing: Citizenship and Economics

15. Citizenship Write a letter to Queen Victoria or another ruler of the time, explaining your point of view on imperialism.

16. Economics Write out a conversation between a factory owner and one of the young children working in his factory.


History/Language Arts

Do research to find out more about one of the explorers, inventors, or political leaders mentioned in the chapter. Share your findings with the class in an illus­trated lecture or dramatization.


Find out more about India's struggle for independence from Britain. Write a report describing Gandhi's role in the struggle. You may also compare it to the American War of Independence.

Internet Option

Check the Internet Social Studies Center for ideas on how to extend your theme project beyond your classroom.

Theme Project Check-In

Use the information about Europe in this chapter to finish your theme project.

• What would it have been like to explore a new land? What things might explorers have wanted to bring home with them?

• How did revolutions in science, industry, and politics affect European cultures?

• What cultural exchanges resulted from the growth of European empires?


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