Chapter 13 section 1 Note Taking Study Guide The Meiji Restoration Causes

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Note Taking Study Guide

The Meiji Restoration


  • Social and economic unrest

  • Foreign pressure

  • Daimyo and samurai revolt.

Meiji Restoration

  • Strong central government

  • Businesses adopt Western methods.

  • Leaders encourage industrialization.

  • Social changes lead to nation building.


  • Builds an empire

  • Extends influence in Korea

  • Conflict with China

  • Defeats Russia

Summary (p. 141)

Reading Check its homogenous population Vocabulary Strategy Emphasizing means "stressing."

Reading Skill Causes: Perry's visit caused daimyo and samurai to revolt, emperor restored; Effects: new constitution, legislature, modernized, industrial society

Review Questions 1. They felt humiliated by the unequal treaties and revolted against the shogun. They unseated the shogun and restored the emperor Mutsuhito to power. 2. They tried to modernize Japan with a new political and social system and an industrial economy. All citizens gained equality before the law and a legislature was formed. An industrial economy boomed with government support of powerful banking and industrial families, known as zaibatsu.

Note Taking Study Guide (On-Level, p. 142; Adapted, p. 142)

Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific


  • Sea lanes opened between India and China.

  • Profitable crops of coffee, indigo, spices

  • Natural resources

  • Expansion of Christianity

  • Search for supply bases in the Pacific

  • Increased rivalry between the United States and European powers

  • Pressure from U.S. sugar growers


  • Dutch dominate the Dutch East Indies (now Indochina).

  • The British annex Burma.

  • The French seize Indochina.

  • Siam accepts unequal treaties to remain independent.

  • United States gains control of Philippines from Spain after Spanish-American War.

  • United States secures unequal treaty from Samoa.

  • United States annexes Hawaii.

  • United States, Britain, France, and Germany claim nearly every island in the Pacific.


  • Europeans introduce modern technology.

  • Europeans expand commerce and industry.

  • Missionaries spread Christianity and European languages to colonized people.

  • Missionaries establish schools and hospitals.

  • Filipino nationalists and other colonized people renew struggle for independence.

  • Colonized people grow cash crops instead of food to meet export goals.

  • Imports of machine-made goods destroy indige­nous cottage industries.

Summary (p. 143)

Reading Check Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia Vocabulary Strategy Transition means "passage from one way to another."

Reading Skill Causes include interest of industri­alized powers in Pacific islands and pressure for power from American sugar growers in the Hawaiian Islands. Effects include the overthrow of the queen and annexation of Hawaii by the United States.

Review Questions 1. They fought fiercely against colonization, but lost against superior military power. 2. Instead of gaining independence from Spain, the Philippines came under control of the United States in the treaty that ended the war.
Chapter 13 Section 3

Note Taking Study Guide (p. 144)

Self-Rule in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

Cause: Loyalist Americans flee to Canada. Event: Up to 30,000 loyalists settle in Canada. Effect: Eth­nic tensions arise between English- and French-speaking Canadians.

Cause: The British hurry to put down the rebel­lions in Upper and Lower Canada.

Event: British Parliament passes the Act of Union.

Effect: The act joins the two Canadas into one province and gives them an elected legislature.

Cause: Canada grows as thousands of English, Scottish, and Irish people immigrate to the coun­try. Event: Britain passes the British North America Act, creating the Dominion of Canada.

Effect: Canada becomes a self-governing nation.

Cause: Britain needs prisons for its convicts.

Event: British ships carrying convicts arrive in Australia.

Effect: Australia becomes a penal colony for British criminals.

Cause: British government offers land and tools to free citizens immigrating to Australia, and a gold rush starts in eastern Australia.

Event: British citi­zens settle in Australia.

Effect: The colonies grow. Newcomers thrust aside or kill the Aborigines.

Cause: Australians demand self-rule.

Event: Australian colonies unite into the independent Commonwealth of Australia.

Effect: Australia achieves self-government but keeps Britain's monarch as head of state.

Cause: New Zealand has a mild climate and good soil.

Event: White settlers come to New Zealand, which Britain annexes in 1840.

Effect: Colonists take more and more of the land, leading to wars with the Maori.

Cause: White New Zealanders seek self-rule.

Event: New Zealand wins independence in 1907.

Effect: New Zealand sets up its own parliament, prime minister, and elected legislature.

Summary (p. 145)

Reading Check They suffered; they were thrust aside or killed.

Vocabulary Strategy Compile means "to put together from several sources."

Reading Skill Captain James Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain. The Maori fought the colonists because they were the indigenous people of New Zealand and wanted to defend their land. The effects were that many Maori died and the strug­gle crumbled.

Review Questions 1. because a confederation would strengthen Canada against U.S. ambitions and help the development of Canada's economy; 2. It agreed because it wanted to keep other European powers from interfering and wanted to boost development of the country.


Note Taking Study Guide (On-Level, p. 146; Adapted, p. 146)

  1. Instability in Latin America

Causes: Colonial legacy leaves deep-rooted inequalities after independence.

Mexican Example: Large landowners, army lead­ers, and the Catholic Church dominate Mexican politics.

Causes: Efforts for reform are crushed.

Mexican Example: Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna poses as a liberal reformer, but then crushes the efforts at reform.

Causes: Violence develops between conservatives and liberals.

Mexican Example: Conservatives resist La Reforma and begin a civil war.

Causes: Dictators gain power.

Mexican Example: General Porfirio Diaz stages a military coup, takes power, and rules as dictator of Mexico.

  1. Effects of Foreign Influence

Cycle of economic dependence continues. Foreign capital helps Latin American economies grow.

Latin American elite benefits from the economic upturn, but most people remain poor.

On-Level Summary (p. 147)

Reading Check Benito Juarez

Vocabulary Strategy Enlightened means "edu­cated, informed."

Reading Skill The United States issued the Monroe Doctrine to discourage any new European colonization of the Americas. Its effects on Latin America include U.S. claim to right of "interna­tional police power," continued investment by American countries, presence of U.S. troops in Latin America, Latin American resentment and rebellion.

Review Questions 1. Factors that undermined democracy included deep-rooted inequalities, no tradition of unity, formation of private armies by caudillos, and resistance to central government. 2. Nothing really changed. Britain and the United States simply replaced Spain as Latin America's chief trading partners.

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