Chapter 13: Crisis and Rebirth: Europe in the 14th and 15th Centuries

Download 26.36 Kb.
Size26.36 Kb.
Chapter 13: Crisis and Rebirth: Europe in the 14th and 15th Centuries

  • Mongols created a vast empire and secured trade routes, same trade routes also spread disease: bubonic plague

  • 14th century: famine, economic depression, war, social upheaval, rise in crime and violence, decline in power of Catholic Church

  • 15th century: humanism, Renaissance

The Black Death

  • Yersinia pestis: spread by fleas carried by rats

  • Spread along trade routes: (video)

  • Europe: 1347-1350

  • Many felt it was punishment from God

    • Flagellants

    • Anti-Semitism


  • Price of labor increased

  • Peasant revolts

    • English Peasants Revolt 1381

    • Jacquerie in France 1358

  • Gender division of labor continued w/ new guilds

Economic Recovery

  • Italy/ Venetians

  • Hanseatic League: northern Europe (Flanders)

  • Banking: House of Medici Family

Hundred Years War

  • Began over duchy of Gascony: held by English King in France

  • Philip VI of France vs. Edward III of England

  • Foot soldiers important

  • Battle of Crecy: English Won

  • 1415: English Henry V vs. French dauphin Charles

    • Joan of Arc

      • Battle of Orleans

      • Accused of witchcraft and burned at the stake: (1920 made a saint)

  • Use of canon and gunpowder important

The “New Monarchies”

  • Centralization of power of monarchical governments

  • France, England, Spain

    • France: Louis XI “Spider” taille system

    • England: Henry VII: Tudors: diplomacy to avoid wars

    • Spain: Isabella and Ferdinand: military strengthened, Catholicism as unifier in Spain (Inquisition)

  • Holy Roman Empire

    • Germany: many independent principalities

    • Hapsburg Family: rose to prominence in Austria

  • Eastern Europe

Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine Empire

  • 1453: Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks and renamed Istanbul

  • Ottoman Turks: Muslim

  • Continued to expand into Eastern Europe

    • Europeans wanted alternate routes to Asia not controlled by Ottomans- leads to Exploration

The Italian States

  • Independent city-states

  • Venice

  • Milan

  • Florence

    • Medici Family

  • Isabella d’Este: “first lady of the world”


  • The Prince

    • Acquisition, maintenance, and expansion of political power as a means to restore and maintain order in his time

    • The ends justify the means

The Decline of the Church

  • Pope Boniface VIII vs. King Philip IV of France

    • Fought over right to tax French clergy

    • Boniface excommunicated Philip

    • Philip kidnapped Boniface who died from shock

    • New pope: Clement V was chosen and resided in Avignon (French influence)

Papacy at Avignon

  • most felt pope should reside in Rome

  • Influence of French kings over popes

The Great Schism

  • Two popes chosen: Urban VI (Italian) and Clement VII (French)

  • Many became disenchanted w/ the Catholic Church b/c of its political struggles

  • Council of Constance called: Pope Martin V instated (Roman)

Heresy and Reform

  • Jan Hus

  • Popes eventually regained position in Catholic Church but never regained comparable power over the temporal governments again

Renaissance Papacy

  • End of the Great Schism (1417) to beginning of Reformation

  • Spiritual vs. temporal responsibilities

  • Julius II – involved in War and politics (golden armor)

  • Nepotism

  • Ignoring vows of chastity: illegitimate children

  • Patrons of Renaissance culture

  • Pope Leo X of Medici Family

Chapter 13 continued…

Characteristics of Italian Renaissance

  • Urban Society

  • Secular spirit

  • Interest in Greco-Roman culture

  • Humanism: individual potential

  • Elitist movement

Renaissance Society

  • Middle Ages: 1. Clergy 2. Nobility 3. Everyone else

  • Aritstocrats:

    • The Book of the Courtier Baldassare Castiglione

      • Well-rounded and polished individuals

  • Third Estate

    • Decline of serfdom

    • Merchants/Artisans in Towns/Cities

  • Marriage

    • Often Arranged

    • Large Dowry from woman’s family to groom

    • Italy: children had to be emancipated to become adults

    • Childbirth dangerous, but wanted many children due to high child mortality rate

Intellectual Renaissance

  • Humanism

    • Study of the classics, liberal arts

    • Petrarch: “father of humanism”

      • Cicero and Virgil as standards

  • Neoplatonism

    • Synthesize Christianity and Platonism

    • Hierarchy of substances: plants to God w/ humans in the middle

    • Platonic love (all are bond by sympathetic love)

    • Ex: Platonic friendship

  • Hermeticism

    • Believed humans were created as divine but chose to enter the material world

    • Could regain their divinity through purification of the soul

    • Became Sages or Magi

  • Education

  • Vernacular

    • Language spoken in own regions

      • Dante: The Divine Comedy: souls progression to salvation: hell, purgatory, and heaven

      • Christine de Pizan: The Book of the City of Ladies

  • Impact of Printing

    • Movable metal type

    • Johannes Gutenberg

Artistic Renaissance

  • Perspective and outdoor space and light

  • Movement and anatomical structure

  • Leonardo da Vinci: Last Supper, Mona Lisa

  • Raphael: Madonnas, School of Athens

  • Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel

Northern Renaissance

  • Exact portrayal of their world

  • Jan van Eyck: oil paint Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride

  • Emotional intensity of religious feeling

  • Albrect Durer: Adoration of the Magi

Download 26.36 Kb.

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright © 2023
send message

    Main page