Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 1 Definitions Greenback

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Chapter 11 Vocabulary

Section 1
1. Greenback -- A piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
2. Conscription – Required people to enter military service
3. Habeas Corpus – Legal order for an inquiry to determine if a person has been lawfully imprisoned
4. Attrition – The act of wearing down by constant harassment or attack
1. Robert E. Lee – one of the best senior officers in the U.S. Army, resigned his position to lead the Confederacy, from Virginia
2. Copperheads – also known as Peace Democrats, opposed the War and wanted to negotiate and reunite the states
3. James Mason
4. John Slidell
5. Trent Affair – attempt by South to get support for the war

  1. Anaconda Plan – Military strategy by the North to attack the South

Ch. 11 Section 1 Notes

Section 1 – Opposing Sides

  • Assess the strengths and weaknesses of each region’s economy

  • Contrast the political situations of the Union and the Confederacy


Robert E. Lee—chose the Confederacy

1/3 of U.S. military’s officers chose the Confederacy

South had strong military tradition – 7 of 8 military colleges were in the South

President Lincoln’s plan was to preserve the Union, even if that meant allowing slavery to continue

War Democrats – supported the Civil War; opposed ending slavery

Many southerners opposed President Jefferson Davis’s policies

  • new taxes and forcing men to join Army

North urged Europeans not to recognize the South as a country, respect blockades on Southern ports

First modern war – new technology and tactics were used

  • cone shaped bullets

  • instead of standing in formations – trenches and barricades were used

Advantages of the North Advantages of the South

Strong Navy Strong military tradition

All ships and ship yards in North Good military officers

Population of 22 million Produce own food

Money – national treasury, factories

Factories to make weapons

Disadvantages of the South

Small population and 1/3 were slaves

1 factory to make cannons


Farmers in debt

Had half as much RR tracks as north

Weak government

Chapter 11

Section 2

1. Bounty – Given as a reward, to encourage enlistment in the Army
2. Blockade Runner – Ships that run through a blockade to smuggle goods through a protected area
1. Stonewall Jackson – Thomas J. Jackson one of the most effective commanders in the Confederate army – nicknamed Stonewall after Bull Run
2. Irwin McDowell – Union Commander – decided to retreat at Bull Run
3. David G. Farragut – Veteran of the War of 1812 and the War with Mexico, commanded 42 Union Warships – became a hero for the North
4. Ulysses S. Grant – Union General – victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg
5. George B. McClellan – led the Union army in the East

  1. Emancipation Proclamation – A decree freeing all slaves

Chapter 11

Section 2 Notes

Section 2 – The Early Stages

Objectives: Describe the progress of War in the West

Compare the eastern campaign to those in the West

Lincoln under pressure to strike quickly against the South
The First Battle of Bull Run

Confederate Victory – they were led by P.G.T. Beauregard

After this battle Pres. Lincoln signed a bill that enlisted 500,000 men for 3 years
All Southern ports were blockaded – which cut their trade with rest of the world
Naval War

Farragut Captures New Orleans

North wanted to get New Orleans to gain control of the lower Mississippi River

Farragut was in charge of 42 warships and 15,000 soldiers

He sent ships up the Miss. River – The north took New Orleans

War in the West

Ulysses S. Grant took Fort Donelson and Fort Henry now the Union controlled the Cumberland River and the Tennessee River

These victories gave the North a deep water route into Southern territory
Shiloh – April 6, 1862

Shiloh small Church – 20 miles from Corinth

Confederates launched a surprise attack on Grant

Grant attacked the South the next day and the South retreated

20,000 casualties and people were stunned by the battle – bloodiest battle of the Civil War with no real winner
War in the East

Both sides were moving and trying to capture Richmond, Virginia

George B. McClellan ordered to lead the North in the East

General Johnston injured in battle and Robert E. Lee takes over for the South
Seven Days Battle – Confederate victory

Lee vs. McClellan – North retreated

30,000 casualties
The Second Battle of Bull Run – Confederate Victory
A Turning Point of Civil War was Battle of Antietam

Lee and Davis of the Confederacy decided to invade Washington D.C.

A victory for the South could convince the North to accept the South’s independence

And also might persuade Britain to aid the south in the war effort

A union soldier found the written plans of Lee and Davis on a road in Maryland

North then surprise attacked the South ---resulted in the bloodiest one day battle of the war

6,000 men killed --- 16,000 wounded – Lee retreated

This battle convinced Pres. Lincoln to end slavery

Sept. 22, 1862 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation—all slaves were freed – except in border states

Now the war was a war against slavery

Ch. 11 Section 3

Section 3 Vocabulary

  1. Hardtack – A hard biscuit made of wheat flour


1.) 54th Massachusetts – 1st African American regiments officially recognized; fought near Charleston Harbor – lost nearly half of their soldiers
2.) Elizabeth Blackwell – 1st female physician in the U.S., started the nations 1st training program for nurses
3.) United States Sanitary Commission – Organization that provided medical assistance and supplies to Army camps and hospitals
4.) Henry Wirz – Commandant at Andersonville Prison Camp – the only person executed for war crimes during the Civil War

  1. Clara Barton – Battlefield Nurse

Ch 11 Section 3 Notes
Section 3 – Life During the War


Contrast the effects of war on regional economies

Evaluate the soldiers’ wartime experiences

Life During the War -- South

Collapse of transportation systems in the south led to food shortages

Many soldiers deserted

Southern soldiers had to sleep without blankets

Some soldiers had no shoes

Food shortage was a major issue

North – they experienced an economic boom as a result of the war
Many African Americans joined the military after the Emancipation Proclamation

Infections spread – unsterilized instruments were used on patients

Disease was a big threat to soldiers – small pox and typhoid, dysentery, and pneumonia

Limbs were amputated to keep infections from spreading


Helped run farms and business’ with the men fighting the war

Many served as nurses inspired by Florence Nightingale

Some founded small hospitals

Some volunteered by raising money to send bandages, medicine, food and clothing to soldiers

Civil War was a turning point for the nursing profession

Military Prisons


At the beginning of the war both sides exchanged prisoners

After Eman. Proc. --- they quit exchanging prisoners

Chapter 11

Section 4


1.) Forage – To search or raid for food
2.) Seige – Military blockade of a city or fortified place to force it to surrender

1.) Benjamin Grierson -- ordered by Grant to distract Confederate troops so Grant could move troops into position to take Vicksburg
2.) Ambrose Burnside – Hired by Lincoln when McClellan was fired to lead the Union Army
3.) Joseph Hooker – Hired to lead the Union Army, to defeat Lee, when Burnside was fired
4.) George Meade – Hired to lead the Union Army, to defeat Lee, when Hooker was fired
5.) Picketts Charge – attack by the South ordered by Lee, assault by 15,000 men under George Pickett and A.P. Hill, resulted in 7,000 casualties in less than 30 min. for South
6.) William Tecumseh Sherman – Ordered by Grant to attack Confederates – Battle of Chattanooga – led destructive raids through the state of Georgia

Ch 11 Section 4 Notes
Section 4 – The Turning Point


Evaluate the importance of events at Vicksburg and Gettysburg

Describe how the battles in Tennessee helped turn the War increasingly in favor of the Union

Vicksburg Falls

In order to gain complete control of the Mississippi River and divide the South in half the Union needed to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi

Mission was carried out by Grant of the North – North took control July 1863
The Road to Gettysburg

General McClellan fired for not destroying Lee at Antietam

Ambrose Burnside took over for the North

After a battle at Fredericksburg he was fired and Joseph Hooker took over

Lee defeated Hooker at Chancellorsville

Hooker fired and George Meade took over for the North

Fighting Starts at Gettysburg -- July 1, 1863

South forces the North into the hills – Troops from both sides arrive

July 2 – Lee attacked the North

July 3 – Lee ordered Pickett’s Charge – North was waiting with guns and cannons – less than 30 min. – 7,000 southern casualties

North suffered 23,000 casualties / South 28,000 casualties

The Battle of Gettysburg was another turning point of the Civil War

November 1863 – President Lincoln came to Gettysburg to dedicate part of the Battlefield -- his speech is known as Gettysburg Address
Grant Secures Tennessee

Union wanted to capture Chattanooga to control railroad running to Atlanta

Rosecrans forces Confederates out of Chattanooga

South attacked Union at Chickamauga – Union retreats to Chattanooga

Meade comes to the aid of Rosecrans in Chattanooga

Union forces defeated South at Battle of Chattanooga (Lookout Mountain)

Grant was placed in charge of Union forces for his victories at Chattanooga and Vicksburg

Chapter 11

Section 5


1.) Pillage – To loot or plunder
2.) Mandate – Authorization to act…… given to a representative

1.) Philip Sheridan – Ordered by Grant to raid Richmond Virginia
2.) Sherman Neckties – Nickname given to the destruction, by General Sherman, of the roads and railways that led to Atlanta
3.) March To The Sea – Path of destruction through Georgia, destroyed homes, crops and livestock, led by General Sherman
4.) Thirteenth Amendment – Banned slavery in the U.S.
5.) Appomattox Courthouse – Place where Lee surrendered to Grant – Civil War came to an end

  1. John Wilkes Booth – Assassinated President Lincoln

Ch. 11

Section 5 Notes

Section 5 – The War Ends

Objectives: Explain the importance of Union victories in Virginia and Deep South

Discuss Lee’s surrender and the events of the war’s aftermath

Grant Versus Lee

General Ulysses S. Grant started a campaign to get Lee

  • 1st battle was fought in the Wilderness near Fredericksburg, Va.

  • 2nd battle was at Spotsylvania

  • 3rd battle was at Cold Harbor

The South Surrenders

The terms of surrender guaranteed that the U.S. would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason

The Civil War saved the Union and strengthened the power of the federal gov. over the states. It changed American society by ending the enslavement of African Americans. The South’s economy and society were devastated.

  • 620,000 soldiers died in the war

  • 360,000 Union

  • 260,000 Confederate

The total sum of soldiers killed in the Civil War is almost as many as the combined American dead in all other American wars from the American Revolution to the Vietnam War.

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