What Southeast Asian country today has more Muslims than any nation in the world?
How did Islam spread to West African kingdoms?
Muslim merchants crossed the Sahara to trade there.
What west African city become a leading center of Islam?
Struggles within Islam
What issue split Muslims into two groups (a division that has lasted into present day)?
The issue of who should be the next caliph after Muhammad died.
How did the Shiites and Sunnis differ? Be sure to include their beliefs about Ali, about all future caliphs, about the Umayyads, and about religious practices and customs.
The Shiites believed that Ali who was the son-in-law of Muhammad should succeed him and that all future caliphs should be his descendents. They did not agree that the Umayyads should be ruling in Damascus. The Sunnis accepted the Umayyad rule. Over time, the Shiites and Sunnis also developed different religious practices, traditions and customs.
Why did the Umayyads lose power c. 750 CE?
The Umayyads angered the Persian Muslims because the Arab Muslims were getting special treatment.
What dynasty followed the Ummayyads?
What was the capital of the empire under this dynasty? Where was the capital located?
Baghdad, near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Who were the Seljuk Turks and where did they come from?
They were nomads and great warriors that came from central Asia.
When the Seljuk Turks first moved into the Arab empire, did the Abbasids employ them?
When they first arrived the Abbasids hired them as warriors.
Explain how the Seljuk Turks took control of the Abbasid Empire. (Be sure to include the term “sultan” in your answer).
The Seljuks realized how weak the Abbasids were and decided to take power themselves. First, they took over much of what is now Iran and Turkey, and then they took over Baghdad. The Seljuks were satisfied to rule only the government and the army as the sultan, while the caliph remained as the religious ruler.
Who conquered the Seljuk Turks in 1258 CE?
Looking ahead to the “Later Muslim Empires,” without reading the whole section, what Muslim group finally conquered the city of Constantinople in 1493?