Chapter 11, a world in Flames, 1931–1941 Test Review

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Hemispheric Defense Zone - U.S. still officially neutral, Roosevelt declared the entire western half of the Atlantic was part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore also neutral. He then ordered the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic and reveal the location of German submarines to the British.

The Atlantic Charter - committed both U.S. and Britain to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement, and freedom of the seas.

America embargoes Japan - “economic war” on Japan. Japan depended on the United States for many key materials, including scrap iron, steel, and especially oil. In July 1940, Congress gave the president the power to restrict the sale of Strategic Materials (items important for fighting a war), resulting in the Japanese signing an alliance with Germany and Italy, becoming a member of the Axis.

Pearl Harbor - Japan’s surprise attack on the U.S., December 7, 1941. Eight battleships, three cruisers, three destroyers, and four other vessels were sunk or damaged. The attack destroyed over 180 aircraft and killed 2,403 Americans. Another 1,178 were injured.

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