Chapter 10 The Struggle for North America thinking about history and geography

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The Struggle for North America


Chapter 10 takes place west of the Appalachian Mountains. On the map you can see that the British were not the only Europeans in North America. From the time line and the map you can see how the French and Spanish also claimed lands that had long been home to the Native Americans. In time the British would challenge other European powers for control of North America.




Focus Activity


Why did the Spanish build missions in the West and the Southwest?




Don Juan de Onate

Antonio de Otermin


Diego de Vargas

Juniperro Serra


St. Augustine

New Mexico

Santa Fe

El Camino Real


San Antonio


San Diego

San Francisco


In the morning when the bell rang, Pueblo people came to church from all around. They came from their homes, from the fields, and from their workshops. When they reached the church, the Spanish priests greeted them. The priests were proud to have brought their religion to the Pueblo. Yet they were also puzzled. Why did the Pueblo continue to practice their traditional religion?


As you read in Chapter 6, the Spanish had settled in North America long before the English formed the 13 colonies. You have read about how Francisco Coronado explored the Southwest from 1540 to 1542 in search of the Seven Cities of Gold. By the late 1500s New Spain included most of present-day Mexico, the Caribbean islands, Central America, and the southwestern United States. The Spanish also claimed parts of South America.

In 1565, to protect their sea routes from the English "sea dogs" and their lands from French traders, Spain founded St. Augustine. St. Augustine was Spain's first settlement in what is now the United States. It lay on the Atlantic Coastal Plain in the colony of Florida. St. Augustine was founded 20 years before the English came to Roanoke and over 40 years before the founding of Jamestown.

Later in the 1500s the Spanish began building settlements in the West and the Southwest. Why did they come? What resulted when they met the Pueblo and the other Native Americans who lived there?



Although Coronado found no gold in the Southwest, other Spanish explorers including Don Juan de Onate (DAHN HWAHN day oh NYAH tay) continued the search. A Spanish noble who was born in Mexico, Onate was one of the last conquistadors to search for gold in the American Southwest. In 1595 Ovate got permission from King Philip III of Spain to build a settlement in the lands the Spanish called New Mexico.

In 1598 he built San Gabriel, a settlement where the Rio Grande and Chama River meet. When the Pueblo people in the area resisted Spanish claims to their lands, the colonists left San Gabriel. In 1609 these colonists founded Santa Fe and made it the capital of New Mexico.

The Spanish Missions

During the next 20 years, the Spanish built over 100 settlements in New Mexico. Many of them were missions. A mission is a religious settlement where missionaries live and work. The Spanish also built towns and set up encomiendas in New Mexico.

The purpose of the Spanish missions was to convert the Pueblo and other Native Americans to the Roman Catholic religion. The center of mission life was the Catholic Church. The missions also had farms, ranches, orchards, workshops, and sleeping quarters. You can see what most Spanish missions in the Southwest looked like in the diagram on page 258.

Spain's Southwestern colonies were connected to Mexico by El Camino Real. (EL kah MEE noh RAY ahl). El Camino Real means "the royal road" in Spanish. Part of El Camino Real began as several Native American trails. (Mate turned it into a major route between New Mexico and Mexico to the south. Many Spanish missions were built along this road.

Today Santa Fe is the capital of New Mexico. It is also a well-known art center, famous for its mix of Native American and Spanish cultures.



As you have read in Chapter 4, the Pueblo had been living in the Southwest for hundreds of years. Hove did they respond to the Spanish newcomers?

The Spanish and the Pueblo

As Onate traveled through the Southwest, he asked Pueblo leaders to meet with him in their kivas. Read the account of one of these meetings. How do you think the Pueblo might have reacted to Onate's speech?



Account of a speech

by Don Juan de Onate to the Pueblo in about 1598, recorded by Juan Perez de Donis, a member of Onate's expedition.

He told them that he had been sent by the most powerful king and ruler in the world, Don Philip, king of Spain, who desired especially to serve God our Lord and to bring about the salvation of their souls, but wished also to . . . protect arm bring justice to them, as he was doing for other natives of the East and West Indies. To this end he sent the Spaniards from such distant lands to theirs, at enormous expense and great effort. . . . By [agreeing to be ruled by Spain] they would live in peace, justice, and orderliness, protected from their enemies.

salvation: saving

At first many Pueblo accepted the food, clothing, and shelter the Spanish missions provided. Even so, under Spanish rule, more people than ever went hungry. For centuries Pueblo farmers had been giving part of their crops to help the needy in their own communities. Now they also had to give a portion to the Spanish. They were often forced to work for the Spanish without pay. The Spanish also punished the Pueblo for practicing their traditional religion.

The Pueblo Revolt of 1680

By the 1670s thousands of Pueblo people had become Catholics. At the same time, most of them also continued to practice their traditional religion, which angered the Spanish governor, Antonio de Otermin (ahn TOH nee oh day oh tair MEEN). In 1675 he put 47 Pueblo religious leaders in jail. One of them was named Pope (poh PAY). When the Pueblo threatened to leave the missions, the religious leaders were set free. Immediately after Pope was released, he began planning a rebellion.

Pope convinced Pueblo leaders that they had to force the Spanish to leave. He got them to agree to work together with the Apache who were living in the countryside. By 1680 the Pueblo were united as never before.

Before the revolt was to take place, runners brought knotted cords to each Pueblo village. The knots showed how many days were left before the revolt. On August 10, 1680, the Pueblo attacked "with shamelessness and daring," Otermin wrote. The Spanish were forced to flee New Mexico.


Father Serra tried to treat the Native Americans fairly. Later, he also fought to end slavery.


The Spanish later began plans to take back New Mexico. They sent an army there in 1692. Diego de Vargas (dee AY goh day VAHR gus) led this force of about 200. Without firing a shot, Vargas convinced 23 Pueblo villages to return to Spanish rule.

How did Vargas do it? In 12 years, much had changed. Pope and other Pueblo leaders had died. The Pueblo were no longer united. Yet the Pueblo of New Mexico had still won an important victory. In return for peace, Vargas agreed to allow them to live apart from the Spanish. He also promised to let the Pueblo practice their own religion.

Texas and California Missions

In the 1680s the Spanish also began building settlements in the part of New Spain that is now the state of Texas. These settlements were built to keep the French explorers and traders out of the area. The missions the Spanish built around what is today the city of San Antonio became known as "the Alamo chain."


The area along the Pacific Coast was the last part of New Spain to be settled by the Spanish. In 1769 a Spanish missionary named Father Juniperro Serra (hoo NEE pair roh SEH rah) walked from Mexico to the land the Spanish called California. That same year Father Serra founded San Diego, the first mission in California. By 1823 there were 21 missions in California. As you can see from the map on page 260, these missions stretched as far north as present-day San Francisco.

Father Serra believed that the Native Americans should "have their own lands and crops so that poverty will not make them [leave the mission]." Despite his crippled leg, Father Serra visited each of his missions regularly.


The Pueblo revolt was only one event in the struggle between Europeans and Native Americans. Although the Pueblo regained some of the rights they had lost, their victory did not stop the growth of Spanish settlements. By 1800 the Spanish controlled much of the land in what is now the United States.

Both Native American and Spanish influences can still be seen in many parts of the United States. Many cities, like Taos, New Mexico, have Pueblo names. Others, like San Antonio, Texas, have Spanish names.

Today many Navajo raise sheep, an animal that the Spanish introduced in what is now the American Southwest.

Reviewing Facts and Ideas


• From the late 1500s to the early 1800s the Spanish built many missions in what is today the United States.

• A Pueblo religious leader named Pope organized a successful revolt against Spanish rule in 1680. But in 1692 the Spanish returned and regained control of New Mexico.

• In 1769 the Spanish priest Father Junipero Serra built a series of missions throughout California.


1. Where in our present-day country did the Spanish build missions?

2. What reasons did Onate give the Pueblo for agreeing to Spanish rule?

3. FOCUS How did the building of missions change the lives of Native Americans in New Mexico?

4. THINKING SKILL What alternatives could the Pueblo or the Spanish have chosen to prevent the Pueblo revolt of 1680? Decide which alternative you think would have worked best. Why did you make the choice you did?

5. WRITE Write a diary entry about working in a mission from the point of view of a Pueblo person. Include details shown in the diagram on page 258.


A vaquero (top left) shows his roping skills. Frederic Remington painted Turn Him Loose, Bill (above) in the late 1800s Remington is known for his paintings of cowboys and Native Americans. Today women also work as cowhands (right).


Vaqueros caught cattle by using a braided rope called la reata (lah ray AH tah). This rope came to be called a lariat in the United States. Vaqueros wore wide-brimmed hats to keep out the sun and the rain.




Focus Activity


Why did France build colonies in North America?




coureur de bois


Samuel de Champlain

Jacques Marquette

Louis Jolliet

Robert La Salle

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable


St. Lawrence River


New France



St. Louis




They first arrived on fishing ships. Yet they soon "threw up their old [jobs] . . . for bear skins and beaver skins," wrote historian Francis Parkman. They "followed the Indians . . . , lived with them, [and] grew familiar with their language. . . ." Who were these Europeans who chose to live deep in the forests of North America?


While Spain was busy building colonies in Mexico and the Caribbean islands in the early 1500s, France was claiming land farther north in North America. As you read in the Infographic on pages 17 -177, French explorers such as Jacques Cartier (ka hr TYAY) first came to North America in search of Northwest Passage to Asia. Then in 1534 the French reached what is now Newfoundland and claimed the land along the St. Lawrence River. The French called it Canada, after the Huron word kanata, which means "village." Later the name of New France was given to France's lands along the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes.

For over 60 years, few French people settled in New France. Religious wars in Europe between Catholics and Protestants took up much of France's attention. However, some of the French did begin fishing off the coast of New France. They also began a fur trade with the Native Americans. This fur trade would soon bring wealth and power to France.



Furs were in great demand in France. New France's forests were filled with fur-skinned animals. So in the early 1600s France began to think about starting a colony there to help their fur-trading business. A colony would also make it easier to continue their search for a Northwest Passage, which you read about in Chapter 7.

In 1608 a French geographer and explorer named Samuel de Champlain (duh sham PLAYN) founded a trading post called Quebec (kwih BEK) on the St. Lawrence River. Quebec was the first permanent French settlement in North America.

The Huron and the French

Champlain knew that France's success in the fur trade depended on its Native American trading partners. Champlain made friends with the Huron near Quebec. He learned their language and respected their ways.

The French also sent missionaries to New France. Unlike most of the Spanish, the French did not, for the most part, force Native Americans to work for them or to live in French missions. Instead, the black-robed French missionaries lived in Huron villages in order to convert them to the Roman Catholic religion.

In 1609 the Huron agreed to supply Champlain with furs if he would help them defeat their rivals in the fur trade, the Iroquois. The French agreed. In return, the Huron helped the French increase their fur-trading business and remained their allies for many years. However, the Iroquois never forgot their defeat at the hands of the Huron and the French.

Champlain (above) is called "the Father of New France." The Huron tray (below) was stitched with moosehair.



France's attempts to encourage settlement in New France during the 1600s were not successful. French colonists were not allowed to own land, and farming in Canada's cold climate was difficult. In addition, only Catholics were allowed to settle in New France. As a result, the French who did come to New France were mainly fur traders and missionaries. By 1660 there were fewer than 3,000 French colonists living in Canada.

Marquette and Jolliet

Although Champlain made many explorations into Canada, he failed to find a Northwest Passage. Many other French explorers had also tried. One of them was Jacques Marquette (ZHAHK mahr KET). While working as a missionary in what is today the state of Michigan, Marquette heard Native Americans tell of a mighty river to the west. Could this river be the long-sought-for Northwest Passage?

In 1673 Marquette and a former fur trader named Louis Jolliet (LOO ee JOH LEE et), set out together to find the river Marquette had heard about—the Mississippi River. Marquette told of entering its waters "with a joy I cannot express." You can trace the route of Marquette and Jolliet on the map below. After a long while, when they had reached the Arkansas River, they saw that the Mississippi flowed south. Since the river did not flow west toward the Pacific Ocean, Marquette and Jolliet realized it could not be a Northwest Passage. They decided to return to Lake Michigan.


Because of its easy access to the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes, Chicago (left and below), founded by Du Sable, grew to become a major transportation center.

Robert La Salle

The French explorer Robert La Salle (lah SAHL) learned of Marquette and Jolliet's journey. In 1682 he set out to find the mouth of the Mississippi River. Near the Arkansas River, La Salle met the Quapaw (KWAH pah). With their help he reached the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle became the first European to see the mouth of the Mississippi River. La Salle claimed the Mississippi River valley for France. He named it Louisiana after King Louis XIV of France. Find Louisiana on the map on page 266.

Settlements in New France

During the late 1600s and early 1700s, the French built forts, missions, and other settlements in New France. Some were built to keep the English from moving into French lands. Some settlements later became major cities.

In 1700 French priests built a mission along the Mississippi River in what is today Missouri. A trading post was soon added. Over the years it grew into the city of St. Louis. In 1701 the French built a trading post along the Detroit River between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. This trading post later became the city of Detroit.

On their return trip, Marquette and Jolliet had used a portage that connected the Mississippi River to the Great Lakes. A portage is a land route from one body of water to another. In the 1770s a Haitian fur trader named Jean Baptiste Point du Sable (ZHAHN bap TEEST PWAN doo SAH bluh) built a trading post along this portage. He became friendly with the Potawatomi who lived around the Great Lakes. The trading post Du Sable built grew to become the city of Chicago.



The fur trade was important to New France. In Europe, the forests had been overhunted for many years, which made fur-skinned animals rare. In addition, beaver hats had become very popular. The money to be made from fun such as beaver fur attracted many trappers and traders to North America.

Trading Posts

By the early 1700s there was a vast network of forts and trading posts in New France. Trappers who often lived in the forests for months at a time to sell or trade furs came to the trading posts for other goods as well.

Fur traders went to the forests and bought furs from French and Native American trappers. The furs were then transported to Quebec by voyageurs (vwah yah ZHURZ). The voyageurs were people who carried furs and other goods from post to post by canoe. From Quebec the furs were shipped to France.

The Coureurs de Bois

France granted only a few people the right to trap and trade in its American colonies. As a result, many trappers became coureurs de bois (KUR rer duh BWAH), which means "woods runners" in French. The coureur de bois trapped furs without permission from the French government. Because colonists could not own land, becoming a coureur de bois was the only way many of them could earn a living.

Many French trappers learned their trade from people such as the Huron, Chippewa, and Ottawa. They taught the French to use lightweight birchbark canoes that traveled quickly along rivers and lakes.

The furs traded by the coureurs de bois (above) were made into hats like this one worn by Franklin (left).


These also taught the French trappers how to survive in the forests.

An adventurous life attracted many voyageurs and coureurs de bois. According to one voyageur:

There is no life so happy as a voyageur's life; none so independent; no place where a man enjoys so much variety and freedom.


By building settlements throughout New France, the French surrounded English lands in North America. As a result, the 13 English colonies had no way to expand. By the middle of the 1700s, the French had won many Native American allies. The voyageurs and coureurs de bois helped to form strong partnerships with them. In the next lesson you will see how the French, English, and Native Americans fought to control much of North America.


Parlez-vous francais?

Parlez-vous francais? (PAHR lay VOO frahn SAY) means "Do you speak French?" You may know more French words than you think. As you learned in Chapter 4, the Iroquois call themselves the Hodenosaunee. The French called them the Iroquois, and that name stuck. The Wyandot are also generally known by their French name—Huron. Until recently, most people called the Lakota by their French name the Sioux.

Other French words are now part of the English language. Among them are glacier, plateau, lacrosse, and prairie.

Reviewing Facts and Ideas


• Samuel Champlain built the first permanent French settlement in North America, called Quebec, in 1608.

• Explorations by Marquette and Jolliet in 1673, and by La Salle in 1682, led to French control of the entire Mississippi River valley.

• By the early 1700s France had a vast network of forts and trading posts throughout North America.

• The fur trade became a source of wealth for the French, who developed good relations with their Native American trading partners.


1. Who were some of the French explorers who came to North America? Why did they come?

2. How did Native Americans such as the Huron help the French?

3. FOCUS How did the fur trade shape the growth of New France?

4. THINKING SKILL Compare and contrast the French and the English colonies of North America.

5. GEOGRAPHY Look at the map of New France on page 266. Plot a route that a voyageur might have taken from St. Louis to Quebec. Then list the trading posts where a fur trapper might have stopped.



Making Conclusions




As you read in the previous lesson, in 1682 the French explorer Robert La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi River. He was able to do this with the help of the Quapaw people. What did the Quapaw think when they first saw him? They needed to know if he was friendly or not. They looked at La Salle's face, which did not look angry. They saw that he did not reach for a weapon. They also noticed a peace pipe in his hand. From what they saw, the Quapaw made a conclusion that La Salle was friendly.

When you make a conclusion you are acting like a judge in a court. You pull together all the pieces of information and think about what they mean. You organize your facts and find the connections among them. Then you weigh all the evidence and form a conclusion about what it means.

Suppose you have to buy a birthday gift for a friend. You know that your friend likes to read. You also know that your friend enjoys learning about science. From this information, you might conclude that a book about robots would be a good gift.


You have also read about two other French explorers, Marquette and Jolliet, who searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. They had heard about a river that the Native Americans called "big river," or "Mississippi." Marquette and Jolliet thought that this big river might flow into the Pacific Ocean. The explorers paddled down the Mississippi and soon realized that it flowed south. They concluded that the river was probably not the Northwest Passage. Marquette and Jolliet turned back at the


mouth of the Arkansas River and headed north.

To make a conclusion, first identify the subject of all the information. In this instance the subject is the Mississippi River. Next look for connections between the pieces of information and what the connections might tell you. Marquette knew the Mississippi was a wide river. However, he soon found that the Mississippi flowed south. From all of this information he was able to conclude that he had, indeed, not found the Northwest Passage.


Now that you have learned how to make a conclusion, try to make a conclusion on your own. Marquette and Jolliet paddled down the Mississippi for two months. Finally the speed of the water slowed. They tasted the water and found it salty.

What conclusion do you think was made once they tasted the water? Explain how and why they might have made this conclusion. If you need help answering this question, refer to the Helping Yourself box on this page.


1. What is a conclusion?

2. What do you need to do before you can make a conclusion?

3. Was La Salle expecting to meet Native Americans on his journey? What information did you use to draw your conclusion?

4. Marquette and Jolliet concluded that the Mississippi River was not a Northwest Passage. How did they arrive at this conclusion?

5. What are some examples of how making a conclusion can help people make sense out of a lot of information

Marquette and Jolliet (right) were the first Europeans to reach the Mississippi. In the painting by George Catlin on page 270, La Salle feasts with Native Americans in what is now Illinois.




Focus Activity


What were the results of the French and Indian War?


French and Indian War

Treaty of Paris

Proclamation of 1763


George Washington

Edward Braddock


King George III


Ohio River Valley

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

New Orleans


George Washington, a 21-year-old lieutenant, looked out over his troops. British and Virginian soldiers marched stiffly in neat rows in red and blue coats. Washington was worried. The troops were an awesome sight. However, they also made an easy target for the enemy. The enemy was not marching in neat rows or wearing bright uniforms. Scattered throughout the forests, the enemy was hard to find.


The enemy George Washington worried about was the French. During the 1700s, England, now known as Great Britain, fought several wars with France over control of Europe. By the middle 1700s this struggle had spread to North America.

As you read in Chapter 9, the British colonies in North America were thriving. By the 1750s there were nearly 2 million colonists living there. Yet France had difficulty getting colonists to come to North America. Only about 60,000 French colonists lived in New France.

Trouble began when British colonists started moving into lands claimed by the French. In 1754 this conflict led to what the British called the French and Indian War. The war got its name from the people the British colonists were fighting—the French and their Native American allies.



The Ohio River Valley lies mostly in what is now the Middle Western region of the United States. Both Britain and France claimed the land in the Ohio River valley. Until the middle of the 1700s, the Native Americans who lived there had kept both groups of colonists from settling in the valley. Then disputes among themselves and with the colonists led some Native Americans in the valley to sell their land to the British colonists. Fearing the loss of the fur trade, the French began building a series of forts in the valley to keep the British out.

Fort Duquesne and Fort Necessity

In 1754 young George Washington was sent by the British to force the French to leave the Ohio River valley. There the French had built Fort Duquesne (doo KAIN) where the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, stands today. The British colony of Virginia also claimed this land in the valley.

When Washington arrived, his troops attacked and defeated a small force of French soldiers in the woods near the fort. This short battle marked the beginning of the French and Indian War. An excited Washington wrote home, "I heard the bullets whistle; and believe me, there is something charming in the sound."

Washington's troops quickly built a temporary fort out of logs and called it Fort Necessity. Soon a larger French army attacked the fort, and Washington's men were defeated.

General Braddock's Defeat

In 1755 the British tried again to capture Fort Duquesne. This time General Edward Braddock led the troops. Braddock's soldiers were well trained. He felt they would easily win the battle. Yet as the British neared the fort, the bullets seemed to come from out of nowhere. Braddock's troops "broke and ran as sheep pursued by dogs," Washington wrote. Braddock himself died four days later from wounds he had received.

Washington learned an important lesson from Braddock's defeat. The French were using Native American methods of warfare. They made surprise attacks on the British from behind trees, large rocks—anywhere they could hide. The British and colonial soldiers' brightly colored jackets only made it easier for the French to take aim.

A young lieutenant in 1754, George Washington later would become one of our country's greatest generals.



Because British colonists greatly outnumbered them, French colonists had welcomed the help of the Huron. Washington had seen what valuable allies Native Americans could be. The British decided to ask the Iroquois for help.

The Iroquois were not eager to side with the British. While French settlements were few and scattered, British colonists had taken over much Iroquois land. "You have disregarded us, thrown us behind your back," said Tiyanoga (tih an OH guh), a Mohawk leader. Still, the Iroquois decided to join the British against their old enemies, the Huron and the French. In return the British promised to keep colonists away from Iroquois lands.

Britain Wins the War

The French won victory after victory over the British until 1758. Then Britain began to pour money into winning the war. It bought new equipment and sent more troops and its best generals to the colonies. These resources helped Britain to win the war.

In 1762, as the war was ending, France gave Spain much of Louisiana to keep it out of Britain's hands. This


Pontiac's request of his followers to "bury their hatchets" helped to end Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763.

agreement included the city of New Orleans, an important port in the French fur trade.

In 1763 Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris, which officially ended the French and Indian War. As you can see from the maps on page 274, Great Britain gained almost all of France's lands in North America. Because Spain had been an ally of France in the war, Britain also gained the Spanish colony of Florida.

Pontiac's Rebellion

When the war ended, British colonists again began moving west into the Ohio River valley. An Ottawa chief named Pontiac (PAHN tee ak) urged the Native Americans there to "drive off your land those . . . who will do you nothing but harm."

Pontiac asked the Native Americans of the Ohio Valley to unite in order to fight the British. In 1763 they captured and burned British settlements but were soon defeated by the British army.


Pontiac's Rebellion made King George III realize that protecting the colonists from conflict with Native Americans would be costly. As a result, he issued the Proclamation of 1763. This proclamation, or official announcement, gave all land east of the Appalachians to the colonists. Lands west of the mountains would be set aside for Native Americans "as their hunting grounds." This would give control of the fur trade there to Britain.

The colonists did not like being closed off from the western lands and the fur trade. They were also beginning to dislike British rule.

Reviewing Facts and Ideas


• In 1754 Britain and France began fighting for control of the Ohio River valley in the French and Indian War.

• By winning the war in 1763, Britain gained control of Florida, Canada, and almost all of New France.

• In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, George III issued the Proclamation of 1763, which granted the rights to lands in the Ohio River valley to the Native Americans who lived there.


1. Why were the British soldiers easy targets at Fort Duquesne?

2. Why did Native Americans unite under Pontiac to fight the British?

3. FOCUS How did North America change as a result of the French and Indian War?

4. THINKING SKILL Based upon the maps shown on page 274, what conclusions can you make about France's influence in North America?

5. WRITE Write a letter to a relative from the point of view of a British colonist in 1754. Explain how the French and Indian War is affecting your life.




Number a paper from 1 to 5. Beside each number write the word or term from the list below that matches the description.


Pontiac's Rebellion


Proclamation of 1763


1. A settlement where missionaries lived and worked

2. An official announcement that gave all the land east of the Appalachian Mountains to the colonists and set aside the land west of the mountains for the Native Americans

3. People who transported furs by canoe for shipment to France

4. An attempt by united Native Americans to drive British colonists out of the Ohio River valley

5. A land route from one body of water to another


1. What was the purpose of the Spanish missions?

2. What route connected Spain's colonies in the Southwest to Mexico?

3. What agreement did Diego de Vargas make with the Pueblo people?

4. Why were French colonists slow to settle in New France in the 1600s?

5. What was the most important economic activity of the French in New France? What role did Native Americans play in this activity?

6. Who were the coureurs de bois?

7. What were the causes of the French and Indian War?

8. What did the British gain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763?

9. How was Louisiana claimed at the end of the French and Indian War?

10. Look at the time line above. What events happened in 1763? How were they related?




Using an atlas, write a list of places in the United States that have Native American and Spanish names. Then find out what these names mean in English.


Suppose that you are joining Marquette and Jolliet on their explorations. Write a log entry about what you might expect to find in your travels. Then write a log entry about what you actually find.


Suppose that you are a soldier defending either Fort Duquesne or Fort Necessity during the French and Indian War in 1754. Write a letter to someone at home describing the actions taking place.



Answer the questions below to practice the skill of making conclusions.

1. What is a conclusion?

2. After identifying the subject of the information, what should your next step be in making a conclusion?

3. Suppose that you have not heard the weather report for the day, but you see everyone on your street is carrying umbrellas. What conclusion would you make about the weather forecast?

4. From the information about the Pueblo revolt in this chapter, what conclusion can you make about the importance of unity during a conflict? What evidence leads you to this conclusion?

5. Why is it important to make conclusions about the information you read?

Summing Up the Chapter

Copy the conclusion chart on a separate piece of paper. Then review the chapter to complete the chart. After you have finished, use the information in the chart to answer the question "What are the differences and similarities between how the Spanish, French, and English settled in North America?"




Number a paper from 1 to 10. Beside each number write the word or term from the list that best completes the sentence.



coureurs de bois


fall line


King Philip's War


Pontiac's Rebellion

Treaty of Paris

1. The ____ officially ended the French and Indian War in 1763.

2. Each Puritan "free man" signed a ____ or special promise or agreement, to follow Puritan rules.

3. To ____ means to bring goods from another country for sale or use.

4. The ____ trapped furs in New France without the permission of the French government.

5. The people called the Pennsylvania Dutch built a large covered wagon called a ____ to carry their farm goods to market.

6. In 1675 a conflict called ____ began between Native Americans and the New England colonists.

7. The boss of a plantation was called an ____.

8. During ____, Native Americans of the Ohio River valley united to try to force the British out of western lands.

9. The drop in elevation from the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the flatter land along the coast is called the ____.

10. Benjamin Franklin wrote an ____, a reference book containing facts, figures, and witty stories.



Suppose you are a visitor to Philadelphia in 1775. Write a description of some of the below things you find there.


Suppose you are traveling to one of the British colonies in the 1700s. Write a journal entry in which you describe the voyage. Then write an entry about what you find when you arrive. Include the name and description of the colony to which you have come in the entry.


Reread the Making a Difference feature on page 251. Then think about how a person your age who lived in the 1700s would have viewed the events you read about in this chapter. Write a diary entry in which you describe one of the chapter events from a young person's point of view.


1. Elevation and relief Look at the map on page 214. At what elevation is the city of Rochester?

2. Elevation and relief Look at the same map. What happens to the elevation as you travel west of the Hudson River?

3. Climographs Identify three purposes for which climographs are used.

4. Climographs Look at the climographs on pages 242-243. Which city has the coldest winters? Which city has the wettest summers?

5. Conclusions If you have many pieces of information about a topic, what do you look for before making a conclusion?



In this unit you learned about people who moved to new lands for a variety of reasons. Why did the Puritans sail for North America? Why did some colonists move from the coast to the backcountry? What are some reasons that people move today? Will there be different reasons for people to move to new homes in the future?


Here are some books you might find at the library to help you learn more.


by Elizabeth Ilgenfritz

The biography describes a leader who raised the question of religious tolerance.


by Bobbie Kalman

The photos and text about the colonial time period make you feel as though you are there.


by David A. Adler

This fascinating biography is filled with stories and other accounts of Franklin's many outstanding accomplishments.


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