Chapter 10 The Presidency

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CHAPTER 10 The Presidency

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. An obvious and important difference between a president and a prime minister is that the prime minister always has 

A. interest-group support.
B. support in the opposing party.
C. support of the military.
D. majority support in parliament.
E. complete control over the timing of elections.


2. Presidents, even those with great majorities of their own party in Congress, experience difficulty in exercising legislative leadership because 

A. the president must compete against interest groups for influence.
B. the president is unable to control Congress, unlike a prime minister.
C. the president's use of the veto is easily defeated by Congress.
D. Congress attracts greater publicity when challenging the president.
E. the president cannot counteract the influence of committee chairs.


3. The powers that the president shares with the Senate include 

A. receiving ambassadors.
B. making treaties.
C. granting pardons for federal offenses.
D. ensuring that the laws are faithfully executed.
E. being commander in chief.


4. The greatest source of presidential power is 

A. the power of referendum.
B. the threat of a veto.
C. the power to remove members of Congress from office for violating their oath of office.
D. politics and public opinion.
E. the power to make political appointments.


5. One source for the expansion of presidential power has been 

A. civil-service reform.
B. the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment.
C. the president's role in foreign affairs.
D. the electoral college.
E. the conference committee.


6. The first problem for the Framers was to establish __________ the presidency. 

A. the legitimacy of
B. the power of
C. the prestige of
D. a lead role for
E. a position of primacy for


7. To win a presidential election, a candidate must receive at least ____ electoral votes. 

A. 210
B. 250
C. 270
D. 290
E. 230


8. Each state determines how to cast its electoral college votes. Today, the system adopted by most of the states is 

A. winner-take-all.
B. proportional division.
C. the use of national party conventions.
D. a vote by the members of Congress from that state.
E. a combination of proportional representation and lottery.


9. When a presidential election is thrown into the House, each __________ casts one vote. 

A. member
B. state delegation
C. representative
D. member of the majority party
E. representative and senator


10. Doing away with the electoral college would 

A. make it more difficult for third parties to form.
B. heighten the influence of local politics.
C. heighten the influence of states in national politics.
D. encourage third parties to form.
E. take power away from third parties.


11. The first presidents exercised the veto power sparingly and with particular concerns for the __________ of legislation. 

A. wisdom
B. efficiency
C. impact
D. constitutionality
E. bipartisan nature


12. The first presidents established the legitimacy of the office by 

A. exerting leadership over Congress through regular use of vetoes and legislative proposals.
B. treading cautiously.
C. demonstrating popularity with the people by winning popular referendums on their proposals.
D. defeating all votes of "no confidence" in Congress.
E. removing those who disagreed with them from Congress.


13. Andrew Jackson established the practice that the president's veto can be used 

A. only on constitutional grounds.
B. without first having a law declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
C. even when Congress is still in session.
D. on policy grounds, even when a bill may be constitutional.
E. before legislation actually was passed.


14. President Lincoln’s unprecedented use of the vague powers granted in Article II were in response to the 

A. debates of the Framers.
B. platform of the Republican Party.
C. conditions created by civil war.
D. philosophy of the Whig Party.
E. the intentions of state conventions during ratification of the Constitution.


15. The examples in the text teach that emergency conditions and __________ can offer presidents the opportunity for substantial increases in power. 

A. a strong Congress
B. a popular and strong-willed personality
C. an uninterested public
D. majority support in the cabinet
E. a supportive Supreme Court


16. The Rule of Propinquity states that 

A. power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
B. power tends to be shared most evenly when leadership is weakest.
C. power tends to be wielded by people who are in the room where a decision is made.
D. power is greatest when legitimacy is strongest.
E. power can never be exercised without the consent of all relevant parties.


17. The function of the White House Office is to 

A. oversee the political and policy interests of the president.
B. head federal departments as the president's representative.
C. prepare the national budget for the president.
D. direct national security agencies such as the CIA and FBI.
E. inform members of the media of legislative initiatives.


18. A strong chief of staff is an important player in the __________ model of organization. 

A. circular
B. pyramidal
C. rectangular
D. cluster
E. trapezoidal.


19. Presidents who favor personal involvement in the details of policy favor __________ structures. 

A. circular and cluster
B. pyramidal
C. rectangular
D. pyramidal and circular
E. trapezoidal and rectangular


20. Presidents who favor order and clear lines of authority favor __________ structures. 

A. circular
B. pyramidal
C. rectangular
D. cluster
E. trapezoidal


21. The text describes the president's cabinet as 

A. a primary feature of the Constitution.
B. a key element in presidential decision making.
C. the final authority in White House policy making.
D. a functional, highly coordinated group.
E. largely a fiction.


22. Which of the following is the oldest cabinet department? 

A. Labor
B. Interior
C. Commerce
D. Agriculture
E. State


23. There are _____ administrative departments (or cabinet departments) in the executive branch. 

A. six
B. nine
C. twelve
D. fifteen
E. forty-six


24. The president appoints federal judges, subject to consent of the 

A. House.
B. Senate.
C. House and Senate.
D. Supreme Court.
E. House, Senate and Supreme Court.


25. Rivalries tend to develop between the White House staff and department heads because 

A. heads of large organizations tend to adopt the perspective of that organization.
B. department heads tend to seek political favors.
C. staff members tend to be more experienced than the department heads.
D. department heads are perceived as naïve and lacking in experience.
E. of typical office politics.


26. In recent administrations, presidential cabinet nominees are not likely to have had 

A. a strong political following.
B. expertise.
C. interest-group support.
D. prior government experience.
E. party affiliations.


27. The impact of the presidential race on the outcome of congressional elections 

A. is quite strong, with a popular presidential candidate accounting for the victories of numerous congressional candidates of his or her party.
B. is important only to incumbents seeking reelection.
C. has declined in recent years and is quite small today.
D. makes a difference only when neither presidential candidate is the incumbent president.
E. is evident when candidates have little or no previous political experience.


28. The personal popularity of the president has its greatest effect on 

A. how well members of his or her party do in House elections.
B. how well members of his or her party do in Senate elections.
C. how Congress treats his or her legislative proposals.
D. how he or she conducts foreign policy.
E. which leaders of the international community he or she is associated with.


29. A president’s popularity tends to be highest 

A. at the end of his term.
B. after the first 100 days.
C. at mid-term.
D. after the mid-term elections.
E. right after an election.


30. President __________ was criticized for appearing to be bumbling and incoherent. 

A. Eisenhower
B. Kennedy
C. Johnson
D. Nixon
E. Ford


31. President __________ was a master legislative strategist who struggled to maintain popular support. 

A. Eisenhower
B. Kennedy
C. Johnson
D. Nixon
E. Ford


32. President __________ held a deep suspicion of the media and disliked personal confrontation. 

A. Eisenhower
B. Kennedy
C. Johnson
D. Nixon
E. Ford


33. President __________ was a Washington outsider who probably tried to do too many things. 

A. Carter
B. Reagan
C. George H. W. Bush
D. Clinton
E. George W. Bush


34. President __________ gave wide discretion to subordinates and was a superb leader of public opinion. 

A. Carter
B. Reagan
C. George H. W. Bush
D. Clinton
E. George W. Bush


35. President __________ ran as a "centrist" but, once elected, began governing as a "liberal." 

A. Carter
B. Reagan
C. George H. W. Bush
D. Clinton
E. George W. Bush


36. The veto message must be sent to Congress within _____ days. 

A. two
B. five
C. ten
D. thirty
E. sixty


37. The likelihood of Congress overriding a president's veto is 

A. extremely high.
B. most likely on bills dealing with foreign affairs.
C. more likely when a pocket veto is involved.
D. extremely low.
E. low if the president is in the fourth year of the term.


38. The Supreme Court was able to avoid the issue of executive privilege until 

A. the Civil War.
B. the Great Depression.
C. The Teapot Dome scandal.
D. Watergate.
E. the Whitewater scandal.


39. In the Watergate tapes case, the Supreme Court held that 

A. there is no executive privilege.
B. there is absolute presidential immunity from the judicial process.
C. there is no unqualified presidential privilege of immunity from the judicial process.
D. no presidential aides were involved.
E. the executive branch cannot generally be investigated by the legislative branch.


40. On the issue of a president's right to impound funds, the Constitution says 

A. that a president must spend the money that Congress appropriates.
B. that a president does not have to spend money that Congress appropriates.
C. that a president may spend money that Congress does not appropriate.
D. that Congress can limit the right when the funds are related to national defense.
E. nothing.


41. Presidential impoundment of funds has been severely limited in recent years because of 

A. a string of unfavorable court decisions.
B. an act of Congress passed in 1974.
C. public outrage.
D. the opposition of the federal bureaucracy.
E. media scrutiny.


42. A signing statement is a statement issued 

A. by the president about a bill he has just signed into law.
B. by the courts that questions the constitutionality of a law.
C. by the House when a bill has been appropriated.
D. by the president about why he has vetoed a bill.
E. by the Senate.


43. The constraints imposed on the president suggest that the chief executive's best legislative strategy is to 

A. submit a large number of policies to Congress in hopes that a few will be enacted.
B. have a limited agenda and invest his or her influence carefully.
C. submit major proposals immediately prior to a congressional election.
D. announce important domestic policy initiatives while overseas to pressure Congress to act quickly.
E. use the media to goad Congress into accepting a wide-ranging agenda.


44. In recent decades all presidents have had to devote substantial amounts of their time to foreign affairs and to 

A. the economy.
B. law enforcement.
C. parks and recreation areas.
D. social issues such as abortion and the death penalty.
E. the war on drugs.


45. A president's success in getting Congress to go along with his or her programs can be measured in two ways—by the proportion of presidential proposals approved by Congress and by the 

A. total amount of funding allocated by Congress for the president's programs.
B. proportion of votes taken in Congress on which the president's position prevails.
C. speed at which the president's programs are acted on by Congress.
D. number of amendments and riders that Congress attaches to the president's various proposals.
E. the percentage of the president's party members who vote for his or her position.


46. The proportion of measures submitted by the president to Congress that are approved is 

A. less than half.
B. almost all because presidents have become selective in their proposals.
C. very low because members of Congress receive little publicity when agreeing with the president.
D. increasing steadily.
E. unknown.


47. The president is limited to two terms in office by 

A. the Succession Act of 1947.
B. the Twenty-second Amendment.
C. the Twenty-fifth Amendment.
D. tradition.
E. the rules of the electoral college.


48. Which of the following presidents was not assassinated? 

A. Lincoln
B. Garfield
C. McKinley
D. Taft
E. Kennedy


49. Which of the following was the first vice president to become president because of the death of a predecessor? 

A. Andrew Johnson
B. Theodore Roosevelt
C. Chester Arthur
D. John Tyler
E. Martin Van Buren


50. The constitutional duty of the vice president is to 

A. supervise the military.
B. preside over the cabinet.
C. preside over the Senate.
D. supervise the White House staff.
E. communicate with Senate and House leaders on a regular basis.


51. All the following have a say in presidential disability except 

A. the president.
B. the vice president.
C. the cabinet
D. Congress
E. the Supreme Court.


52. The objects of impeachment most frequently have been 

A. federal judges.
B. federal bureaucrats.
C. presidents.
D. military leaders.
E. cabinet members.


53. The __________ votes to remove the president from office following an impeachment trial. 

A. Joint Judiciary Committee
B. House
C. Senate
D. Supreme Court
E. cabinet


54. A president can be impeached for treason, bribery, and 

A. any civil offense.
B. mental disability.
C. physical incapacity.
D. high crimes and misdemeanors.
E. political incivility.


55. Most of the text’s examples of the exercise of presidential power have been in 

A. foreign affairs.
B. economic policy.
C. appointments.
D. policy making.
E. social welfare.


56. Before the president assumed dominance in the conduct of foreign policy, the cabinet officer who dominated this policy area was the 

A. Secretary of the Treasury.
B. Secretary of the Interior.
C. Secretary of Defense.
D. Secretary of State.
E. Secretary of Commerce.


57. In order to increase their own influence on foreign policy, recent presidents have brought __________ into the White House. 

A. a national security advisor
B. leaders of the opposite party
C. congressional whips
D. military judges
E. the heads of international corporations


58. Which of the following organizations is the smallest but perhaps the most influential? 

A. Department of State
B. Defense Department
C. Central Intelligence Agency
D. National Security Council
E. Interior Department


59. The War Powers Act 

A. placed restrictions on the president’s ability to use military force.
B. was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
C. gave the president unlimited power to declare war.
D. was endorsed by President Nixon.
E. placed restrictions on Congress’ ability to use military force.


60. The decisive check on presidential authority in foreign policy is 

A. congressional intelligence oversight committees.
B. the president's advisers.
C. public opinion.
D. the professional military.
E. the cabinet.


61. When Barack Obama took office, what happened to the Patriot Act and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)? 

A. They were declared unconstitutional.
B. They were both renewed without any important changes.
C. They were both renewed with important changes.
D. The Patriot Act was renewed and FISA was declared unconstitutional.
E. The FISA was renewed and the Patriot Act was declared unconstitutional.


62. Which economic adviser to the president probably would be most concerned with the views of foreign bankers? 

A. The CEA chair
B. The Secretary of the Treasury
C. The OMB head
D. The Federal Reserve Board chair
E. The Secretary of Commerce


63. The __________ consists of seven persons who are appointed by the president and who serve fourteen-year terms. 

C. Treasury Department
D. Federal Reserve Board
E. Commerce Department


64. The purpose of a budget resolution is to 

A. override a presidential veto of an appropriation bill.
B. state the total amount of allowable spending before appropriation bills are passed.
C. have the president address Congress on the state of the union before the budget is considered.
D. raise the debt ceiling to enable more deficit spending.
E. inform Congress of contradictions in formal requests.


65. The shortfall between what the government takes in from taxes/fees and what it spends is the 

A. budget surplus.
B. budget deficit.
C. national debt.
D. appropriations.
E. continuing resolution.


66. The popularly elected president is an American invention. 

True    False


67. Under a parliamentary system, voters do not elect the chief executive. 

True    False


68. Article II provides a long list of formal presidential powers. 

True    False


69. The president cannot grant a pardon in a case involving impeachment. 

True    False


70. The president can convene Congress in special sessions. 

True    False


71. Woodrow Wilson viewed the presidency as an office that featured extraordinary powers. 

True    False


72. The greatest source of presidential power is found in public opinion. 

True    False


73. The president’s power has increased since Congress has begun leaving the details of many programs for the executive branch to determine. 

True    False


74. It was widely assumed that James Madison would be the nation's first president. 

True    False


75. There are 600 electoral votes. 

True    False


76. To become president, a candidate must collect 270 electoral votes. 

True    False


77. It is possible to become president with the electoral vote of only ten states. 

True    False


78. If no candidate receives a majority of the electoral college vote, the Senate selects the president. 

True    False


79. Polls suggest that most Americans would like to abolish the electoral college. 

True    False


80. If the electoral college were abolished, third parties would have greater incentives to form. 

True    False


81. To establish the legitimacy of the presidency as a powerful actor, early presidents frequently exercised the veto. 

True    False


82. Lincoln justified his expansive actions during the Civil War on the basis of presidential power and his role as commander in chief. 

True    False


83. Until the 1930s, Congress dominated the government in terms of formulating legislation. 

True    False


84. The Rule of Propinquity states that power is wielded by persons who are in the room when a decision is made. 

True    False


85. Senior White House staff members are typically drawn from the ranks of the president's campaign. 

True    False


86. Age (thirty-five) and natural-born citizen requirements are the only requirements for the presidency. 

True    False


87. The president earns an annual salary of around $1 million. 

True    False


88. The Department of State is one of the agencies in the Executive Office of the President. 

True    False


89. Members of the president's cabinet are selected with the consent of the Senate. 

True    False


90. The Department of Defense is the cabinet department with the highest number of civilian employees. 

True    False


91. The newest cabinet department is the Department of Veterans' Affairs. 

True    False


92. Presidents actually appoint a very small percentage of the employees in the various departments of government. 

True    False


93. Many presidential nominees and appointees are identified as "in and outers" because they are part of the "revolving door" of hires exchanged between government, universities, and various law firms. 

True    False


94. Most cabinet nominations in recent administrations have been made in recognition of policy expertise or administrative experience. 

True    False


95. Franklin D. Roosevelt successfully purged members of Congress who opposed his programs. 

True    False


96. The effect of presidential coattails in elections is quite small today. 

True    False


97. Popular presidents are more successful at getting bills that they support passed in Congress. 

True    False


98. The popularity that a president has immediately after being sworn in often declines by the midterm elections. 

True    False


99. In 2002 the Republicans gained seats in the House and the Senate. 

True    False


100. President Eisenhower's style of leadership was similar in public and in White House conferences. 

True    False


101. President Kennedy preferred clear hierarchical lines of authority. 

True    False


102. Because Lyndon Johnson knew almost everyone in Washington, he was comfortable delegating decisions. 

True    False


103. Richard Nixon disliked personal confrontations. 

True    False


104. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan were considered Washington outsiders. 

True    False


105. George H. W. Bush had a recognized skill at one-on-one foreign diplomacy. 

True    False


106. When the Republicans gained control of Congress in 1994, President Clinton began governing as a liberal “old” Democrat. 

True    False


107. George W. Bush had little background in foreign affairs. 

True    False


108. Executive privilege refers a president's right to withhold information from Congress. 

True    False


109. The pocket veto may be used during both recesses and adjournments of Congress. 

True    False


110. Presidents must accept or reject bills in their entirety. 

True    False


111. Presidential vetoes are often overridden by Congress. 

True    False


112. George W. Bush made vigorous use of the veto power. 

True    False


113. The Constitution specifically allows presidents to withhold private communications between themselves and their principal advisers. 

True    False


114. In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court held that the president has a qualified executive privilege only. 

True    False


115. Presidential claims of executive privilege were supported in Supreme Court cases throughout the Clinton administration. 

True    False


116. The Budget Reform Act of 1974 may be unconstitutional because it contains a provision for a legislative veto. 

True    False


117. A signing statement can be controversial when it challenges the constitutionality of a bill. 

True    False


118. Although President Obama was opposed to the issuance of signing statements, he has signed five that raised constitutional objections. 

True    False


119. A typical work week for the president might be ninety hours. 

True    False


120. Most federal expenditures are beyond the president's control. 

True    False


121. The president's best legislative strategy is to have a policy on almost everything. 

True    False


122. Before the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment in 1951, several presidents served more than two full terms. 

True    False


123. Most vice presidents have had success in later running for the presidency. 

True    False


124. The only official task of a vice president is to appear at all state funerals. 

True    False


125. Presidential succession is a concern only in the event a president dies in office. 

True    False


126. When Ford and Rockefeller were sworn in as president and vice president, there was a crisis in public opinion. 

True    False


127. According to law, federal civil servants are not subject to impeachment. 

True    False


128. President Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives. 

True    False


129. There is a sense of rivalry between the president and Congress, even when they are of the same political party. 

True    False


130. The president tends to be stronger in foreign than in domestic policy. 

True    False


131. The Department of State has a reputation for representing the interests of other nations as well as those of the United States. 

True    False


132. The Department of Defense coordinates the military but plays a small role in the policy-making process. 

True    False


133. President Nixon vetoed the War Powers Act. 

True    False


134. Presidents have complained about the War Powers Act but have complied with all its provisions. 

True    False


135. Historically, military interventions have increased the popularity of presidents. 

True    False


136. Although President Obama made campaign promises to change our approach to terrorism, he has kept many policies in place. 

True    False


137. The American people tend to hold presidents more strictly accountable for foreign affairs than for domestic issues. 

True    False


138. Authority over economic policy is more widely dispersed in government than authority over foreign policy. 

True    False


139. The Federal Reserve Board, although nominated by the president, functions largely independently of the chief executive. 

True    False


140. The Federal Reserve Board influences both the supply and price of money. 

True    False


141. The term budget deficit refers to the accumulated debt since the founding of the nation. 

True    False


142. The recent recession started when President Obama took office. 

True    False


143. There is one main reason for the recent recession:  banks gave mortgages to people who could not afford them. 

True    False


144. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was passed in February 2009. 

True    False


145. Discuss the essentials of the electoral college, including size and rules related to the assignment of votes and winning. 






146. Identify and describe three types of organizational schemes for White House staff and link them with particular presidents. 






147. Summarize the constitutional qualifications for the president. 






148. Explain the circumstances surrounding the Court's 1973 ruling on executive privilege and the logic of its decision. 






149. Discuss some of the restraints on a president's ability to plan a program. 






150. Explain the two ways to measure presidential success in the legislature. 






151. Summarize the major provisions of the War Powers Act. 





CHAPTER 10 The Presidency Key


1. An obvious and important difference between a president and a prime minister is that the prime minister always has 

A. interest-group support.
B. support in the opposing party.
C. support of the military.

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