Chapter 10, Section 1: peasants, trade, and cities the Manorial System



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Daily Life in the Medieval City

Life in the Medieval City

Advantages

Disadvantages

jobs

crowded conditions

safety

lack of sanitation

Intellectual opportunities

disease

5. Industry and Guilds: List three purposes guilds accomplished in the economic life of cities.

a. set standards of production

b. specified methods of production

c. set prices for finished goods



Chapter 10, Section 2: CHRISTIANITY AND MEDIEVAL CIVILIZATION

The Papal Monarchy

1. What church reform took place under Pope Gregory VII?

a. Pope’s authority extended over all the Christian world

b. Church appointed clergy

c. Church governed its own affairs

d. improved Church’s ability to provide spiritual guidance to the faithful

2. What was the significance of the Concordant of Worms?

Compromise between King and Pope; German bishop would be elected by Church officials rather than appointed by the King.

3. How were popes able to force rulers to do what they wanted?

Through the use of the interdict, which forbids priests from giving the sacraments to a particular group of people. When people were denied sacraments, they pressured the ruler to give in to the pope.



New Religious Orders

4. How did the Church deal with heretics during the Middle Ages?

Through a court called the Inquisition, whose job was to find and try heretics.

Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages


  1. Why was the clergy so important in the lives of the medieval people?

Only clergy could administer the sacraments so anyone who hoped to gain salvation depended on the clergy to help them.

  1. Why were saints important to Christians in the Middle Ages?

They had the ability to intercede between mortals and God. Their relics were believed to have magical powers and pilgrimages to their shrines produced a spiritual benefit.
Chapter 10, Section 3: THE CULTURE OF THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES

The Development of Scholasticism

  1. Why did the works of Aristotle upset many Christian theologians?

Aristotle arrived at his conclusions through reason, not faith and some of his ideas contradicted the teachings of the Church.

2. List the steps used by Saint Thomas Aquinas for intellectual investigation.

a. Pose a question

b. Cite opposing opinions on the question



c. Reconcile them and arrive at a conclusion
Chapter 10, Section 4: LATE MIDDLE AGES

The Black Death



The Decline of Church Power



  1. How did the Great Schism damage the Church’s spiritual authority?

Two popes (Rome & Avignon); each said the other was the Anti-Christ, which damaged people’s faith in the papacy and the Church.

The Hundred Years’ War

  1. What caused the Hundred Years’ War?

When King Philip VI of France seized Gascony in 1337, King Edward of England declared war on Philip.

  1. Why was the Hundred Years’ War a turning point in the methods of warfare?

Peasant foot soldiers, not knights, won the major battles.

  1. How did Joan of Arc affect the outcome of the Hundred Years’ War?

She inspired the French army to capture Orléans. French later defeated the English in Normandy and Aquitaine and the war ended in 1453.

Political Recovery: identify ways in which European monarchs increased their power in the fifteenth century.




France

England

Spain

Ruler

Louis XI


Henry VII

Ferdinand and Isabella

Accomplishment

Taille – strong, regular source of income

Ended wars with nobles (War of the Roses) by abolishing private armies

United Spain through strict policy of conformity to Catholicism and expelled all Jews & Muslims



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