Bismarck provokes Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to create a unified German empire.
Otto von Bismarck unites German states under Prussian rule.
William I takes title of Kaiser and the Second Reich begins.
Bismarck drafts constitution, creating a two-house legislature—the Bundesrat and the Reichstag.
Reading Check realistic politics based on the needs of the state
Vocabulary Strategy Edit means "to make additions, deletions, or other changes to a piece of writing."
Reading Skill Prussian victory in the AustroPrussian War; growing rivalry between France and Prussia; Bismarck's editing of the telegram and implied insult to the French ambassador Review Questions 1.Napoleon created the Rhine Confederation; the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation; Prussia created the Zollverein. 2. With each war, Prussia gained more territory and power until it was the major German state under which all others wanted to unite.
Workers who realized conditions could improve without revolution
Summary p. 115
Reading Check :iron and coal
Vocabulary Strategy Synthetic means "prepared or made artificially."
Reading Skill (1) Germany unifies in 1871.
Government reorganizes the banking system.
William II becomes Kaiser. (4) Bismarck is asked to resign.
Review Questions 1. The government issued a single form of currency and reorganized the banking system. 2. He thought Catholics would be more loyal to the Church than to Germany.
Study Guide p. 116
The Unification of Italy
1831 Mazzini founds Young Italy.
1849 Mazzini helps set up a revolutionary republic in Rome.
1852 Victor Emmanuel names Count Camillo Cavour prime minister.
1855 Sardinia joins Britain and France in Crimean War.
1859 Cavour defeats Austria and annexes Lombardy. Nationalist groups overthrow Austrian-backed rulers in northern Italian states. 1860 Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" capture Sicily and Naples. He turns over both regions to Victor Emmanuel.
1861 Victor Emmanuel II is crowned king of Italy. Cavour dies.
1866 Venetia is added to Italy.
1870 France is forced to withdraw its troops from Rome. Italy is united.
Reading Skill Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" won control of both Sicily and Naples; Garibaldi turned over the two regions to Victor Emmanuel. Review Questions 1. geography, common language, and history 2. The north was richer and had more cities. The south was rural and poor.
1848 Nationalist revolts break out, but are crushed by the Hapsburg government.
1859 Austria is defeated by France and Sardinia. 1866 Austria is defeated by Prussia.
1867 The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary is created.
Summary p. 119
Reading Check the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Vocabulary Strategy Fraternal means "brotherly." Reading Skill Possible answers: Nationalists were dissatisfied with Francis Joseph's constitution and limited reforms; pressure by Hungarian nationalists after the defeat by Prussia in 1866; creation of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Review Questions 1. problems associated with industrial life, such as worker discontent, and nationalist demands; 2. Nationalist unrest left the empire weakened, and European powers divided up Ottoman lands; competing interests led to a series of crises and wars in the Balkans.
CHAPTER 10 SECTION 5
Note Taking Study Guide (On-Level, p. 120; Adapted, p. 120)
1815 Russia is largest and most populous nation in Europe.
1825 Army officers lead the Decembrist Revolt. 1855 Alexander II inherits the throne during the Crimean War.
1861 Alexander II emancipates the serfs.
1881 Terrorists assassinate Alexander II.
1890 Government focuses on economic development.
1904 Russia enters war with Japan.
1905 Peaceful protest turns into "Bloody Sunday." Discontent explodes. Nicholas II announces reforms in the October Manifesto.
1906 First Duma meets, but tsar dissolves it when leaders criticize government.
Summary (p. 121)
Reading Check local, elected assemblies Vocabulary Strategy Radical means "a person who favors great changes or reforms."
Reading Skill He agreed to some very important reforms, then backed away from reforms and took repressive measures.
Review Questions 1. Russia's defeat revealed the country's backwardness and inefficient bureaucracy. 2. The tsar's troops fired on peaceful protestors and killed and wounded hundreds of people. This event is known as "Bloody Sunday."
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