Chapter 10 section 1 Note Taking Study Guide p. 112 Birth of the German Empire

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Note Taking Study Guide p. 112

Birth of the German Empire

Napoleon raids German lands.

Napoleon conquers and partially unifies German states.

As states gain freedom from French rule, people demand a unified Germany.

Prussia creates an economic union called the Zollverein.

Bismarck becomes chancellor, or highest official of a monarchy.

Bismarck strengthens the Prussian army.

Bismarck leads Prussia into three wars to increase Prussian prestige and power, and to pave way for German unity.

Prussia forms an alliance with Austria in 1864, and together the countries seize the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein in Denmark.

In 1866, Bismarck invents excuse to attack Austria and start the Austro-Prussian War.

After Prussian victory, Prussia annexes several north German states.

Bismarck provokes Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to create a unified German empire.

Otto von Bismarck unites German states under Prussian rule.

William I takes title of Kaiser and the Second Reich begins.

Bismarck drafts constitution, creating a two-house legislature—the Bundesrat and the Reichstag.

Summaryp. 113

Reading Check realistic politics based on the needs of the state

Vocabulary Strategy Edit means "to make additions, deletions, or other changes to a piece of writing."

Reading Skill Prussian victory in the AustroPrussian War; growing rivalry between France and Prussia; Bismarck's editing of the telegram and implied insult to the French ambassador Review Questions 1. Napoleon created the Rhine Confederation; the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation; Prussia created the Zollverein. 2. With each war, Prussia gained more territory and power until it was the major German state under which all others wanted to unite.


Study Guide 114

Germany Strengthens


  • Abundant natural resources

  • Disciplined and educated workforce

  • Society that prided itself on its sense of responsibility

  • Rapidly growing population

  • Social Welfare programs that supported workers


  • Industrial development

  • Scientific research and development

  • Economic development

  • Workers who realized conditions could improve without revolution

Summary p. 115

Reading Check :iron and coal

Vocabulary Strategy Synthetic means "prepared or made artificially."

Reading Skill (1) Germany unifies in 1871.

  1. Government reorganizes the banking system.

  2. William II becomes Kaiser. (4) Bismarck is asked to resign.

Review Questions 1. The government issued a single form of currency and reorganized the banking system. 2. He thought Catholics would be more loyal to the Church than to Germany.

Study Guide p. 116

The Unification of Italy

1831 Mazzini founds Young Italy.

1849 Mazzini helps set up a revolutionary republic in Rome.

1852 Victor Emmanuel names Count Camillo Cavour prime minister.

1855 Sardinia joins Britain and France in Crimean War.

1859 Cavour defeats Austria and annexes Lombardy. Nationalist groups overthrow Austrian-backed rulers in northern Italian states. 1860 Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" capture Sicily and Naples. He turns over both regions to Victor Emmanuel.

1861 Victor Emmanuel II is crowned king of Italy. Cavour dies.

1866 Venetia is added to Italy.

1870 France is forced to withdraw its troops from Rome. Italy is united.

Summaryp. 117

Reading Check to end Austrian power in Italy Vocabulary Strategy Constitute means "to set up; establish."

Reading Skill Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" won control of both Sicily and Naples; Garibaldi turned over the two regions to Victor Emmanuel. Review Questions 1. geography, common language, and history 2. The north was richer and had more cities. The south was rural and poor.


Study Guide p. 118

Events in Austrian History

1840 By this time, factories had sprung up in Austrian cities, along with worker discontent and stirrings of socialism.

1848 Nationalist revolts break out, but are crushed by the Hapsburg government.

1859 Austria is defeated by France and Sardinia. 1866 Austria is defeated by Prussia.

1867 The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary is created.
Summary p. 119

Reading Check the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary

Vocabulary Strategy Fraternal means "brotherly." Reading Skill Possible answers: Nationalists were dissatisfied with Francis Joseph's constitution and limited reforms; pressure by Hungarian nationalists after the defeat by Prussia in 1866; creation of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Review Questions 1. problems associated with industrial life, such as worker discontent, and nationalist demands; 2. Nationalist unrest left the empire weakened, and European powers divided up Ottoman lands; competing interests led to a series of crises and wars in the Balkans.


Note Taking Study Guide (On-Level, p. 120; Adapted, p. 120)

Russia: Revolution and Results

1801 Alexander I inherits throne.

1815 Russia is largest and most populous nation in Europe.

1825 Army officers lead the Decembrist Revolt. 1855 Alexander II inherits the throne during the Crimean War.

1861 Alexander II emancipates the serfs.
1881 Terrorists assassinate Alexander II.

1890 Government focuses on economic development.

1904 Russia enters war with Japan.

1905 Peaceful protest turns into "Bloody Sunday." Discontent explodes. Nicholas II announces reforms in the October Manifesto.

1906 First Duma meets, but tsar dissolves it when leaders criticize government.

Summary (p. 121)

Reading Check local, elected assemblies Vocabulary Strategy Radical means "a person who favors great changes or reforms."

Reading Skill He agreed to some very important reforms, then backed away from reforms and took repressive measures.

Review Questions 1. Russia's defeat revealed the country's backwardness and inefficient bureaucracy. 2. The tsar's troops fired on peaceful protestors and killed and wounded hundreds of people. This event is known as "Bloody Sunday."

Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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