Chapter 1 Outline
As a whole, this chapter was meant to depict the differences in the creation of cultures in the Americas and the changes that took place in these cultures after the Europeans arrived. Beginning with the formation and shaping of the continents, and then leading into the Ice Age, the authors described the theories of how people came to the Americas. The most common belief is that they crossed a land bridge connecting Siberia to Alaska, which does not exist currently, and came into North America. They then spread across the Americas after the glaciers of the Ice Age melted. After beginning to cultivate corn, the cultures of Latin and South America began developing and societies such the Incas of the western coast of South America and the Aztecs of Mexico could now be found. The native peoples of North America were less developed, for they preferred to live nomadically rather than agriculturally. The majority of the natives were polytheistic, at least before the European appearance.
Upon the Spaniards’ arrival, the American Indians were found as a fairly civilized people who possessed ridiculously large amounts of gold and goods. And so, in the name of their country and in the name of religion, the Spanish conquered the Incas of South America and the Aztecs of Mexico. The natives were conquered with relative ease, for the guns and diseases of the Europeans were far greater than the Native Americans could withstand. Soon, more Spanish conquistadores arrived, exploring the newly conquered lands and converting the natives to Christianity. It was the Roman Catholic mission that was to become the main establishment in the colonies, and in the name of the Church, many of these “missionaries” adopted the practice of slavery as well as other brutalities. The Spanish conquistadores forever changed the fate of the Americas the moment Christopher Columbus landed on the shores of the West Indies. But this fate was not all together good, for while the Spanish brought over new animals, new culture, new laws, new religion, and new language onto a large amount of native civilizations, they also had a hand in bringing slavery to the Americas, they brought over diseases that condemned the biologically susceptible natives, and they severed the contact the natives had with their original cultures.
Chapter 1 Vocab
Aztecs The Aztecs were a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
Pueblo Indians The Pueblo Indians lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.
Joint Stock Companies These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.
Spanish Armada "Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
Conquistadores Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for it's riches during the 1500's. In doing so they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually they intermarried these tribes.
Renaissance After the Middle Ages there was a rebirth of culture in Europe where art and science were developed. It was during this time of enrichment that America was discovered.
Canadian Shield Geological shape of North America; 10 million years ago it held the northeast corner of North America in place and eventually was the first part of North America to come above sea level.
Christopher Columbus An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish monarchy to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503.
Hernan Cortes He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Treaty of Tordesillas In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.
“By the time Europeans arrived in America in 1492, perhaps 54 million people inhabited the two American continents. Over the centuries they split into countless tribes, evolved more than 2,000 languages, and developed many diverse religions, cultures, and ways of life.” (Pg. 6)
“Unlike the Europeans, who would soon arrive with the presumption that humans had dominion over the earth and with the technologies to alter the very face of the land, the Native Americans had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively.” (Pg. 10)
“Europe provided the markets, the capital, and the technology; Africa furnished the labor; and the New World offered its raw materials, especially its precious metals and its soil for the cultivation of sugar cane. For Europeans as well as for Africans and Native Americans, the world after 1492 would never be the same, for better or worse.” (Pg. 14)
“During the Indians’ millennia of isolation in the Americas, most of the Old World’s killer maladies had disappeared from among them. But generations of freedom from those illnesses had also wiped out protective antibodies. Devoid of natural resistance to Old World sicknesses, Indians died in droves.” (Pg. 15)
“It [the encomienda system] allowed the government to “commend,” or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them. In all but name, it was slavery.” (Pg. 17)
“Moctezuma treated Cortes hospitably at first, but soon the Spaniards’ hunger for gold and power exhausted their welcome. ‘They thirsted mightily for gold; they stuffed themselves with it; they starved for it; they lusted for it like pigs,’ said one Aztec.” (Pg. 20)
“The Spanish invaders did indeed kill, enslave, and infect countless natives, but they also erected a colossal empire, sprawling from California and Florida to Tierra del Fuego. They grafted their culture laws, religions, and language onto a wide array of native societies, laying the foundations for a score of Spanish-speaking nations.” (Pg. 23)
Chapter 2 Outline
Chapter two of The American Pageant focuses on the first colonies in America. The first English settlement established was Jamestown in 1606. After arriving, the settlers of Jamestown struggled mightily to survive. They were not used to having to capture their own food and produce everything that they needed. The settlers had decided to return home when Lord de la Warr arrived. He was sent by the English government to be the new leader of Jamestown. Under the strong leadership of de la Warr, the settlement was able to survive and eventually prosper. The settlement was greatly helped by John Rolfe, who perfected his method for growing tobacco. This led to a rush of tobacco growing across Virginia. Around the time that the settlement had begun to prosper was when problems with the local Indians arose. After several decades of losing land to the settlers, the Powhatan Indians attacked Jamestown in 1622. The attack left 347 settlers dead and caused the Virginia Company to declare war upon any hostile Indians. A second Anglo-Powhatan War erupted in 1644 as once again the Indians attempted to drive the settlers out. The Indians were defeated in 1646 and banned from their ancestral lands.
Settling America continued as Lord Baltimore founded Maryland in 1634. He not only wanted to reap the financial benefits of having a colony, but wanted to create a refuge for Catholics like himself. More settlers arrived in Carolina in 1670. They brought with them slaves and the Barbados Slave Code. Caroline officially adopted the code in 1696 and Carolina would serve as a staging area for slavery that would eventually take hold of North America. The colonists in Carolina needed cheap labor and decided to make an alliance with the Savannah Indians. The Savannah Indians would capture members of rival tribes and give them to the colonists as slaves. When the Savannah Indians decided to end the alliance in 1707 and leave, the colonists massacred the majority of the tribe. To replace the Indian slaves, the colonists in Carolina purchased slaves from West Africa. These slaves were excellent rice-growers and had a lot of experience. The Tuscarora Indians angered by the loss of their land, attacked North Carolina settlements in 1711. Aided by colonists from South Carolina, the Tuscaroras were badly defeated. Most were sold into slavery while the rest were left alone. The colony of Georgia was formally founded in 1733. Named after King George II, it was intended to serve as a buffer to protect the valuable Carolinas.
Virginia Company: Founded to find gold and a more direct route to India, financed the journey to America and helped build Jamestown.
Iroquois Confederacy: Powerful group of tribes made up of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
Slave Codes: Provided rules of slavery, denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
Lord De la Warr: Englishman who came to America in 1610. Helped Jamestown survive and fought Indians.
Royal Charter: Document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship.
Page 29: “Once ashore in Virginia, the settlers died by the dozens from disease, malnutrition, and starvation. Ironically, the woods rustled with game and the rivers flopped with fish, but the greenhorn settlers, many of them self-styled ‘gentlemen’ unaccustomed to fending for themselves, wasted valuable time grubbing for nonexistent gold when they should have been gathering provisions.”
Page 30: “But the Indians, pressed by the land-hungry whites and ravaged by European diseases, struck back in 1622. A series of Indian attacks left 347 settlers dead, including John Rolfe. In response the Virginia Company issued new orders calling for ‘a perpetual war without peace or truce,’ one that would prevent the Indians ‘from being any longer a people.’ Periodic punitive raids systematically reduced the native population and drove the survivors ever farther westward.”
Page 32: “John Rolfe, the husband of Pocahontas, became father of the tobacco industry and an economic savior of the Virginia colony. By 1612 he had perfected methods of raising and curing the pungent weed, eliminating much of the bitter tang. Soon the European demand for tobacco was nearly insatiable. A tobacco rush swept over Virginia, as crops were planted in the streets of Jamestown and even between the numerous graves. So exclusively did the colonists concentrate on planting the yellow leaf that at first they had to import some of their foodstuffs. Colonists who had once hungered for food now hungered for land, ever more land on which to plant ever more tobacco. Relentlessly, they pressed the frontier of settlement up the river valleys to the west, abrasively edging against the Indians.”
Page 34: “Lord Baltimore, a canny soul, permitted unusual freedom of worship at the outset. He hoped that he would thus purchase toleration for his own fellow worshipers. But the heavy tide of Protestants threatened to submerge the Catholics and place severe restrictions on them, as in England. Faced with disaster, the Catholics of Maryland threw their support behind the famed Act of Toleration, which was passed in 1649 by the local representative assembly.”
Page 37: “In 1707 the Savannah Indians decided to end their alliance with the Carolinians and to migrate to the backcountry of Maryland and Pennsylvania, where a new colony founded by Quakers under William Penn promised better relations between whites and Indians. But the Carolinians determined to “thin” the Savannahs before they could depart. A series of bloody raids all but annihilated the Indian tribes of coastal Carolina by 1710.”
Main Idea: The main idea of Chapter two is that whenever settlers and Indians lived close to each other, they could not get along. At the very first settlement of Jamestown, the settler and Indians could not coexist. This also occurred in the Carolinas, where after a short period of harmony, the settlers slaughtered the Indians. The failure to coexist was due to the settlers’ tendency of continuously taking land which drove the Indians to violence.
Review Outline Chapter 3 – Settling the Northern Colonies
The Puritan religion was formed by a group of people who wanted to “purify” King Henry VIII’s Anglican Church in the 1530’s, and Puritan Separatists (extremists now known as the “pilgrims”) were kicked out of England and forced to migrate to the New World. The Separatists arrived in New England, signed the Mayflower Compact, which later became an influence on the Constitution, and lost 60% of their population to the first winter. Another colony was formed in Massachusetts by another group of Puritans with a royal charter, and John Winthrop was elected governor. The Bay Colony extended suffrage to all adult male Puritans. Rules in the Bay Colony were very puritanical as the Puritans were a God-fearing people with a very unpleasant concept of Hell. These rules were generally obeyed, but religious dissenters like Quakers, Anne Hutchinson, and Roger Williams were persecuted. These people fled to the colony of Rhode Island, which acquired a royal charter in 1644.
The English Colonies spread out quickly as colonies like Connecticut, New Haven, Maine, and New Hampshire were founded. Unfortunately, this expansion brought them into direct conflict with Native Americans, resulting in wars such as the Pequot War, which ended in a Puritan annihilation of the natives, and King Philip’s War, a desperate attack by neighboring tribes that was also a failure. While old England was wrapped up in Civil Wars, the colonies banded together to form the heavily-Puritan New England Confederation in 1643. When King Charles II was restored to the throne, he revoked the charter of insolent Massachusetts and granted charters to Connecticut and Rhode Island. Further British attempts to control the colonies came in the form of the Dominion of New England, headed by Sir Edmund Andros, who instated heavy taxes, enforced the Navigation Laws, and restricted local democratic meeting. The Dominion was toppled by the Glorious Revolution in England, which raised William and Mary to the throne.
The Dutch West India Company bought Manhattan Island and set up the colony of New Netherland there. New England was hostile to its new neighbors, New Sweden and New Netherland, and the Dutch were kicked out of New Netherland, renamed New York, by the British army. Meanwhile, the Quaker William Penn set up Pennsylvania, the first of the Middle Colonies. Pennsylvania was tolerant of religious diversity and kind to the Native Americans, it was against slavery and it had relaxed naturalization laws. The Middle Colonies, which later included New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, were very fertile and had a high output of grain. As Americans became more prosperous, they began to realize that they were not merely surviving, but truly thriving.
Mayflower Compact – A contract signed by the white male Separatists aboard the Mayflower agreeing that they would set up a democratic government.
Navigation Laws – A set of English Laws restricting colonial trade with countries other than England. These laws were defied through smuggling and were often the focus of colonial dissatisfaction with British rule.
New England Confederation – Made up of the Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, Connecticut Colony, and New Haven Colony. Purpose was to defend New England against its enemies in the absence of British Troops (which were fighting Civil Wars in England).
King Phillip’s War – A massive attack of neighboring tribes against New England led by Metacom. Although the Native Americans lost the war, they destroyed over fifty Puritan settlements and halted westward expansion for decades.
Charles II – An English King restored to the throne after the English Civil War. He revoked Massachusetts’s charter and gave charters to Connecticut and Rhode Island.
“The Pilgrims’ first winter of 1620-1621 took a grisly toll. Only 44 out of the 102 survived. At one time only 7 were well enough to lay the dead in their frosty graves. Yet when the Mayflower sailed back to England in the spring, not a single one of the courageous band of Separatists left. As one of them wrote, ‘it is not with us as with other men, whom small things can discourage.’” (45)
“When Charles II was restored to the English Throne in 1660, the royalists and their Church of England allies were once more firmly in the saddle. Puritan hopes of eventually purifying the old English church withered. Worse, Charles II was determined to take an active, aggressive hand in the management of the colonies… As a slap at Massachusetts, Charles II gave rival Connecticut in 1662 a sea-to-sea charter grant, which legalized the squatter settlements. The very next year, the outcasts in Rhode Island received a new charter, which gave kingly sanction to the most religiously tolerant government yet devised in America. A final and crushing blow fell on the stiff necked Bay Colony in 1684, when its precious charter was revoked by the London authorities.” (53)
“Residues remained of Charles II’s effort to assert tighter administrative control over his empire. More English officials – judges, clerks, customs officials – now staffed courts and strolled the wharves of English America. Many were incompetent, corrupt hacks who knew little and cared less about American affairs. Appointed by influential patrons in far-off England, they blocked, by their very presence, the rise of local leaders to positions of political power. Aggrieved Americans viewed them with mounting contempt as the eighteenth century wore on.” (55)
The Days of the Dutch on the Hudson were numbered, for the English regarded them as intruders. In 1664, after the imperially ambitious Charles II had granted the area to his brother, the Duke of York, a strong English squadron appeared off the decrepit defenses of New Amsterdam. A fuming Peter Stuyvesant, short of all munitions except courage, was forced to surrender without firing a shot. New Amsterdam was thereupon renamed New York, in honor of the Duke of York… With the removal of this foreign wedge, the English banner now waved triumphantly over a solid stretch of territory from Maine to the Carolinas.” (57-58)
“By the time Franklin arrived in the City of Brotherly Love, the American Colonies were themselves ‘coming to life’. Population was growing robustly. Transportation and communication were improving. The British, for the most part, continued their hands off policies, leaving the colonists to fashion their own governments, run their own churches, and develop networks of intercolonial trade. As people and products crisscrossed the colonies with increasing frequency and in increasing volume, Americans began to realize that – far removed from Mother England – they were not merely surviving, but truly thriving.
The Plymouth Colony and its sister colonies were founded to allow Puritans the freedom to worship without persecution from the Anglican Church. Religious dissent in these intolerant colonies led to the foundation of other colonies like Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. The New England colonies were hard pressed for survival and banded together in the New England Confederation, the first step toward continental unity. The Middle Colonies of New York and Pennsylvania established themselves as much more tolerant than the New England Colonies, and had fertile valleys in which they could grow a lot of grain. The English Colonies in the New World were very successful by the 18th Century.
Ch. 4 Outline
Settlement in the Chesapeake Bay -- located in modern day Virginia -- was harsh at first. There was terrible diseases that the English settlers were not immune to such as malaria and typhoid. In addition, male immigrants outnumbered females 6 to 1 which resulted in very slow family growth. However, the Chesapeake Bay was a very fertile region with flat lands and rivers which were perfect for tobacco growth. As southern farms grew, they needed more a larger source of labor. This resulted in an immigration of indentured servants who gained freedom after a few years of service. The "head-right system" allowed for masters to receive 50 acres of land if they pay for the voyage of their servants. As a result of unhappy planters that were pushed to the outskirts of the colony in search of land and threatened with Indian attacks, an uprising known as Bacon's Rebellion occurred. Led by Nathaniel Bacon, these small planters rebelled against Virginia's Governor Berkley -- especially because of his friendly Indian policy -- causing chaos in the colony. The South -- particularly Virginia -- began importing African slaves in larger numbers by the 1680s; mostly as result of better wages in England. A greater importation of slaves resulted in a growing slave culture that contributed to American culture. This can be seen in the development of Gullah -- a mixture of English and several African languages -- and jazz. In the 1700's the social structure of the South widened as a result of slave importation creating a wealthy planter class.
In New England, conditions were much better for the settlers. On average, New Englanders lived 10 years longer than those in England. In addition, settlers usually immigrated with their families which resulted in greater population growth. However, the New England soil was filled with stones and many of the rivers were short and fast; this caused New Englanders to look for work as traders, fisherman and shipbuilders. Slavery was introduced early in New England settlement, but it never flourished as a result of a society not centered around agriculture like in the South. The New England society was based around their Puritan beliefs which was reflected by western settlements created by New Englanders. As a result of colonial expansion and the pass of time, the Puritan religion began to dampen down. In order to enter the Church, individuals had to profess conversion -- the claim that they witnessed God's grace and they deserved admittance into the Church. As a result of a decrease in membership the Half-Way Covenant was created; this arrangement allowed for unconverted individuals to receive baptism, but not full membership.
Chapter 5 Outline
This chapter primarily features the economic opportunity, arts, and religion of the colonies. The main occupation of the time was farming, though fishing and merchantry were also common in the North. The most respected members of society were clerics, physicians, and jurists, while the lowest members were African slaves and indentured servants. During this time, the First Great Awakening occurred, notable for being the first mass movement in American history. There were many different sects of Protestant Christianity in colonial America, notably the Anglican, Congregational, Calvinist, and Methodist churches. Arts also flourished in colonial America, mainly in the forms of literature and painting. Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine were great writers of the time while John Trumbull, Charles Wilson Peale, Benjamin West, and John Singleton Copley were notable painters.
From all of the opportunity of the American colonies came immigrants, mostly Scots-Irish and Germans. These groups fled from religious persecution, economic oppression, and war. The Germans’ Lutheran faith increased religious diversity even more. None were more accepting of these newcomers than the Quakers of Pennsylvania, thus many Germans and Scots-Irish felt welcome in the Middle colonies. With these beginnings of cultural mixing, America started to form its unique multicultural American national identity unlike anything known in Europe.