Chapter 1 Key Terms Hunting and gathering- Means of obtaining subsistence by human species prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization.
Neolithic- The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals.
Culture- The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought.
Band- A level of social organization normally consisting of 20 to 30 people; nomadic hunters and gatherers; labor divided on a gender basis.
Matrilocal- The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought.
Catal Huyuck- Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; was larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification.
Bronze Age- From about 4000 B.C.E., when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East; to about 1500 B.C.E., when iron began to replace it.
Civilization- Societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non-farming elites, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups.
Nomad- Cattle and sheep-herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as “barbarian” by civilized society.
Homo Sapiens- The human species that emerged as most successful at the end of the Paleolithic period.