Chapter 1: Key Geography Concepts

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group, nor language family, given that these terms describe collections of multiple languages
and a dialect is a trait of only one language. Similarly, a dialect cannot be a cultural complex

because the latter refers to a collection of multiple cultural traits. Terefore, a dialect must represent a cultural trait, a single aspect of an overarching cultural complex.
133. (A) A Mormon church located in a rural area of northwestern Colorado is most likely the result of expansion diffusion, given the proximity of northwestern Colorado to the Mormon religious hearth, located in the neighboring state of Utah.
134. (D) A built landscape that shows evidence of abandonment, disinvestment, and gen-
eral neglect is considered derelict. Derelict landscapes can range from vacant housing com-
plexes in disrepair to abandoned factories to littered and overgrown recreational fields, to
name a few examples.
135. (E) A dogtrot house, which features a covered breezeway situated in between two sep-
arately enclosed cabins, was a popular vernacular house style in the American South before
air-conditioning. Te central breezeway, which channeled air currents through the covered
space, provided a relatively cool, partially enclosed living area during summer months.
136. (C) Landmarks are distinctive points of reference, such as a clock tower or billboard
sign, that help individuals orient themselves in familiar spaces. Nodes, on the other hand,
are points of intersection, such as a bridge or city square, which help individuals navigate
through familiar spaces.
137. (B) A trend or innovation that diffuses to major nodes before diffusing to smaller
nodes, regardless of their distances in relation to the point of origin, is an example of hier-
archical diffusion. Unlike expansion diffusion, which spreads uniformly through space,
hierarchical diffusion spreads nonuniformly through space. In this case, for instance, a
new fashion trend diffuses to other world cities more quickly than it does to less urbanized
areas, even though the latter is closer in distance to the point of origin than the former.
Te answer is not relocation diffusion because a fashion trend does not migrate, but rather
spreads hierarchically while also remaining in place at the point of origin.
138. (C) Vernacular culture regions are informal regions based on popular perceptions
or feelings about an area. Unlike formal culture regions, vernacular cultural regions are
not defined according to the presence of specific cultural traits. Unlike functional culture
regions, which may be objectively measured and defined, vernacular cultural regions char-
acteristically lack proper boundaries and determinate organizational features. Another com-
mon example of a vernacular culture region in the United States is Dixie.
139. (A) An immigrant who selectively adopts only certain customs of the dominant host
society while retaining much of his or her native culture is an example of acculturation.
Unlike assimilation, which implies a process that culminates in the full adoption of the
dominant host society’s customs, acculturation implies a more selective and less complete
process of adjustment in which one’s native culture does not become fully displaced by the
host culture.
140. (B) Pidgin is a highly simplified language created among linguistically diverse groups
in order to facilitate basic communications between these groups. By definition, pidgin is

not the first language of any of its speakers, as its express purpose is to facilitate communica-
tion between speakers whose native tongues are dissimilar. Once a pidgin language develops
into a native language for a certain group of speakers, it becomes a Creole language.
141. (D) Mandarin, the official language of the People’s Republic of China, is the only
language among these choices that does not belong to the Indo-European language family.
Mandarin belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family. Hindi, Bengali, Farsi, and Dutch,
which are primarily spoken in India, Iran, and northern Europe, all belong to the Indo-
European language family, which also includes Romanic and Germanic languages such as
Spanish, French, German, and English.
142. (E) A minaret is a slender, vertical tower common to mosques, or Islamic houses of worship. In addition to possessing symbolic value as a marker of Islam on the landscape, minarets also serve a practical function as an elevated platform from which calls for prayer are broadcast to the surrounding area several times a day.
143. (C) San Jose is the toponym, or place name, that best belongs in a formal culture region defined by shared traits of Spanish language and Catholicism. While Saint Paul qualifies as a Catholic toponym, it is not properly a Spanish toponym.
144. (C) Kashmir, a region that occupies parts of northern India, eastern Pakistan, and
western China, is characterized as a zone of conflict between the Muslim and Hindu ethnic
groups of Pakistan and India, respectively. During the latter half of the 20th century several
wars were fought between Pakistan and India for control of this disputed territory. Chech-
nya, Kurdistan, East Timor, and the West Bank are also zones of ethnic-religious conflict.
However, the first three areas of conflict are primarily between Muslim and Christian ethnic
groups, while the latter is between Muslim and Jewish ethnic groups.
145. (E) A secular landscape is one that does not have explicit associations to any particular
religion. Te only iconic landscape among the choices that is not explicitly secular is Dome
of the Rock, a religious mosque in Jerusalem that represents an important symbol of Islam.
146. (D) A discrete territorial unit whose borders are situated entirely within a larger ter-
ritorial unit is considered an enclave. In this instance, Lesotho is an enclave state situated within the territorial borders of the Republic of South Africa.
147. (B) Christianity is best associated with proselytism, which is a practice that actively
encourages religious conversion. Whereas religious conversion is actively promoted in many
Christian denominations, proselytism is not traditionally practiced in the other religions
148. (A) Sharia law is an Islamic code of conduct that regulates personal conduct and social affairs in a particular territory. It is enforced, to varying degrees, in Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Yemen, and Somalia, to name a few. Turkey, despite a majority Muslim population, has a secular government and does not subscribe to Sharia law.
149. (E) A lingua franca is an established language adopted by speakers in a particular place
or context in order to facilitate communication among a linguistically diverse group. It is

typically a second language shared by a group of speakers whose native tongues are mutually unintelligible. Unlike pidgin, which is a primitive language created for the purpose of com-
munication between linguistically diverse speakers, a lingua franca is an already developed language that is adopted by speakers as a second language.
150. (B) Te successive Islamic and Christian influences evident in the cultural landscape
of the Alhambra illustrate the concept of sequent occupance. Sequent occupance describes
how later stages of cultural modification in a place are influenced by earlier modifications
made by their predecessors in such a way that a distinctive cultural imprint sediments over
151. (C) A spatial system organized around one or more hubs, nodes, or focal points, whose domain of influence exhibits identifiable areas of core and periphery, represents a functional culture region. Communication and transportation networks are prime examples of functional culture regions.
152. (A) A holistic approach to studying the relationship between a human society and its
natural environment is known as cultural ecology. Cultural ecologists endeavor to under-
stand how humans and natural environments relate to one another to produce unified
systems of flows, influences, interactions, and outcomes, much like an ecosystem.
153. (D) A significant imbalance in the ratio of males to females in population cohorts
under the age of 30 in China, a result of the country’s one-child policy, could be cited as
evidence of all the selections except gender longevity gap. Gender longevity gap describes the
statistical difference between the average life expectancies of women and men. Tis could
account for a significant gender imbalance in older age cohorts of a population; however,
it should not significantly affect younger age cohorts. Rather, the underrepresentation of
women in these age cohorts represents a maladaptive reaction to the state’s authoritar-
ian one-child policy shaped by a culture of gender discrimination and practices of female
154. (B) A prohibition that forbids Hindus to slaughter or consume beef is an example of
a religious proscription. Religious proscriptions are specific rules that ban certain practices
among a religion’s followers. It is not uncommon for religions to proscribe the consumption
of certain foods, such as the proscription against consuming pork for Muslims and Jews.
155. (E) Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism are all religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, south of the Himalayas. Zoroastrianism, on the other hand, origi-
nated northwest of the Indian subcontinent, in Persia, or present-day Iran.
156. (A) Two prominent French ethnic islands, or areas of French ethnic concentration, in North America are historically located in Louisiana and Quebec. Both of these regions were colonized by French emigrants beginning in the late 17th century, before the formation of the United States and Canada.
157. (D) Te term white flight describes a residential exodus of primarily white, middle-
and upper-class residents from multiethnic urban areas to ethnically homogeneous sub-
urban and exurban areas during the second half of the 20th century in the United States.

White flight is associated with the growth of suburban and exurban areas, the persistence of de facto racial segregation, residential discriminatory practices, and socioeconomic prac-

tices that shifted wealth and investments outside of urban centers, leading to their blight and decay. However, white flight is not associated with processes of gentrification, which represent reinvestments and redevelopments in urban centers and which generally followed the era of white flight in the United States.
158. (E) Zionism is a Jewish claim to Palestine as their rightful national homeland. It is primarily a widespread political movement, founded in religious doctrine, which advocates the sovereignty of Israel as the territorial state for the Jewish nation.
159. (B) Arabic, which spread westward into northern Africa with the diffusion of Islam,
is part of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Te Afro-Asiatic language family spans most of
northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea.
160. (C) Topophilia, a term coined by humanistic geographer Yi-Fu Tuan in the 1970s, means “love of place.” Te term is used in cultural geography to describe people’s strong attachment to certain places that become parts of their identities, such as one’s hometown. Topophilia describes a positive sense of place.
161. (A) Taoism, which represents a blend of indigenous folk beliefs and exogenous Bud-
dhist beliefs that diffused eastward from India, is best characterized as a syncretic religion.
Syncretic religions are organized systems of spiritual belief that are composed of features
blended from two or more different parent religions. Tis concept of syncretism can be
applied to any cultural phenomenon that exhibits traits or characteristics from two or more
distinct cultural influences.
162. (D) Te habit of evaluating other cultures’ customs, beliefs, and practices according to the limited perspective of one’s own culture describes the concept of ethnocentrism. In human geography, ethnocentrism describes the erroneous belief that the entire world oper-
ates, or should operate, according to the customs and values of one’s own culture. However, in reality, different cultures have different customs, beliefs, and practices, which cannot be properly understood according to only one cultural template.
163. (B) Te Ganges River is a sacred place whose waters possess special religious signifi-
cance for Hindus. Among the choices, the Ganges River, which flows through much of
northern India, is the only selection whose geography corresponds to the Hindu culture
164. (D) Polytheism is not a cultural trait common to Muslim regions of the world where Islamic religious traditions are predominant. Islam is a monotheistic religion, meaning that its followers believe in only one god rather than multiple gods. Fasting, pilgrimage, Sharia law, and daily ritual prayers are all cultural traits common to Islam.
165. (B) Because constructed languages like Esperanto contain elements of existing lan-
guages, they cannot by definition be considered language isolates. All the other statements are true of language isolates.

166. (A) A reconstructed language from which a number of related modern languages

all derive is known as a protolanguage. A protolanguage can be thought of as a common
ancestral tongue for a particular language branch, or subfamily. In the case of the Romance
language subfamily, Latin is the common ancestral language, or protolanguage.
167. (D) Te English language properly belongs to the Germanic language branch of the Indo-European language family. While certain words in the modern English language derive from non-Germanic language branches, the overall structure of the language belongs to the Germanic language branch.
168. (C) In Islam the religious practice of “sacred struggle” is known as jihad. Although jihad has recently acquired negative connotations to Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism in the West, it is generally regarded among Muslims as a broader term to signify any act of religious struggle, whether violent or peaceful.
169. (E) Te concept of nirvana is most closely associated with Buddhism, among the
choices offered. Te concept, however, is not exclusive to the Buddhist religion. It is also
an important concept to several other Indian religions, including Hinduism and Jainism.
Generally, nirvana signifies a peaceful state of mind and body that is free of suffering or
170. (A) In Chad one is most likely to encounter speakers whose native tongue belongs to the Saharan language family. Tis language family, which roughly corresponds to the Sahara desert region of north-central Africa, represents a group of languages that are mainly spoken in Chad but also in neighboring Niger, Nigeria, and Cameroon.
171. (C) Te Mayan language corresponds to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Of the
selections provided, Mayan is the only Amerindian language proper to the territory now
known as Mexico.
172. (D) Te concept that refers to a group of people who all speak the same language is known as a speech community. Te terms language family and language group, on the other hand, refer to collections of languages rather than speakers.
173. (C) Ireland was the site of violent religious conflicts between Catholic and Protestant
Christian groups throughout much of the 20th century. Specifically, this violent conflict
took place primarily in Northern Ireland, a contentious region in which Catholics and
Protestants live in proximity to one another and have long battled for political control of
this disputed territory.
174. (E) Te term that characterizes a social decline in religious adherence is secularism. Generally, secularism is thought to be correlated to a host of social transformations that take place as a particular society industrializes. Among many industrialized European nations, for instance, a marked decline in religious adherence has been observed relative to prein-
dustrial levels of religious affiliation.
175. (C) Te Upper Midwest region of the United States has the strongest historical con-
nections to Lutheran Christian traditions. Traditionally, New England has strong ties to

Catholicism, the South has strong ties to Baptist traditions, and the Rocky Mountains have

strong ties to the Church of the Latter-Day Saints, or the Mormon church. Te Pacific
Northwest is generally regarded as a culture region with no distinct religious affiliation.
176. (B) Te term caste refers to a particular system of social stratification that is informed
by Hindu religious beliefs. As such, the caste system of social stratification is a prominent
trait of traditional folk culture in India. Te caste system assigns each individual to a specific
social position that affords a prescribed set of rights, duties, and obligations for that person.
177. (A) Shinto, a set of rituals and customs that are practiced in order to connect with ancient spirits, is a religious tradition that belongs to the nation of Japan. Shinto is a reli-
gious tradition that is indigenous to Japan yet also greatly influenced by Buddhist beliefs, which later diffused into Japan. As such, Shinto may be regarded as a religion with both traditional and syncretic attributes.
178. (D) Te Balkan Peninsula describes a conflict region between various ethnic groups, including Serbs, Albanians, and Bosnians. Te Balkan Peninsula is located in southeastern Europe and is comprised of countries such as Greece, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Historically a region of ethnic heterogeneity and conflict, it is often referred to vernacularly as the “powder keg.”
179. (E) Te largest branch of Islam, to which as many as 80 percent of all Muslims belong,
is called Sunni Islam. Te Sunni branch of Islam is predominant across northern Africa,
the Arabian Peninsula, and much of southwestern Asia. Meanwhile, the smaller branch of
Islam, Shia Islam, is predominant in Iran, but also in parts of Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan,
and Pakistan. Tis religious divide between Sunnis and Shias is often the source of ethnic
conflict in the Middle East.
180. (B) A broad term that can describe either an industrial or postindustrial era of civiliza-
tion or a contemporary outlook characterized by a sense of progress and faith in scientific reason and technology is modernity. Common across different applications of modernity is an underlying belief that material and intellectual progress in the modern era will lead to better societies and better ways of living.
181. (D) A theme park best illustrates a landscape of consumption. Landscapes of consump-
tion refer to built spaces that are specifically designed to promote and facilitate economic consumption. Common examples include theme parks, shopping malls, restaurants, and tourist attractions. While these landscapes are not absent of practices of production, they are primarily oriented around practices of consumption.
182. (E) Bluegrass gospel songs are not an artifact of folk culture in North America,
because songs are not properly material objects, or artifacts. Instead, things like songs and
stories are nonmaterial ideas that express the values, histories, and beliefs of a particular
culture. In this sense, folk songs and stories are mentifacts rather than artifacts.
183. (D) Given this information, the Canadian province of Quebec is most likely to fea-
ture the Norman cottage because Quebec is a North American region to which a great

number of French immigrants settled. Indeed, the Norman cottage is prevalent throughout Quebec as a product of relocation diffusion.
184. (C) Te Nebraskan city of Lincoln best belongs in a vernacular culture region called
the Corn Belt. Nebraska is located in a temperate grassland region classified as prairie, which
covers much of the Great Plains region of the United States. Tis region is often referred to
as the Corn Belt or Grain Belt because of the large quantities of agricultural grains produced
185. (A) Te toponyms Leninskoye and Stalinsk are found in Russia. These place names refer to Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, respectively. Lenin and Stalin were two leaders of the former Soviet Union, which included Russia.
186. (C) Multiculturalism describes a cultural attitude that is most similar to cosmopoli-
tanism. In essence, both concepts share a fundamental attitude of tolerance and acceptance
toward cultures that are different from one’s own. However, they are different in that
multiculturalism is more about celebrating and preserving cultural differences, while cos-
mopolitanism is more about recognizing common ethical bonds that transcend cultural
187. (B) Te concept that best emphasizes how landscapes are mediated by perceptual biases, social values, and cultural beliefs is representation. Like the word suggests, repre-
sentation deals with how objects, such as the land, become “re-presented” through images, stories, and other forms of human expression, and how they acquire new social and cultural meanings through these processes.
188. (D) In the context of Papua New Guinea’s geography of language, mountains and islands represent barriers to diffusion. Barriers to diffusion are social characteristics and/ or geographical features that prevent the spread of cultural innovations and preserve the unique cultural attributes of local places.
189. (E) Te place or area where a cultural practice originates is known as a hearth. A
hearth can be thought of as a home or cradle for new ideas, beliefs, and innovations. For
instance, the place where a particular religion originates is called a religious hearth.
190. (C) Te two largest language families in the world, in terms of absolute numbers
of speakers, are Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European. Together these two language families
account for the four most spoken languages in the world: English, Chinese Mandarin,
Hindi, and Spanish.
191. (B) An urban ethnic enclave that is held together by external forces of discrimination
and marginalization, as well as by internal forces of community identity and ethnic solidar-
ity, is known as a ghetto. Te term originally referred to neighborhoods in which Jewish
residents were forced to live in many European cities prior to and during World War II.
192. (B) Cultural imperialism refers to one culture’s dominance over another culture,
often as a result of forceful control. Te conquest of the Americas, during which time native

inhabitants were made to adopt European cultural habits and customs, including style of dress, may be cited as an example of cultural imperialism.
193. (A) Te five standard elements of mental mapping are paths, edges, districts, nodes,
and landmarks. Paths refer to the linear conduits along which people move within a particu-
lar space. Paths typically represent routes for getting from place to place. Examples of paths
include streets, trails, and sidewalks. Alternatively, edges refer to the linear boundaries that
define the limits of a particular space. Examples of edges include fences, walls, and other
types of physical barriers. Next, districts refer to thematic areas within a particular space
that have a definable character or identity. Examples could include such areas as entertain-
ment districts or recreational districts. Nodes, on the other hand, refer to important places
of gathering, in which people interact or congregate. These include restaurants, busy street
intersections, and city squares. Finally, landmarks refer to physical points of reference that
help individuals orient themselves in a particular space. Examples of landmarks include
clock towers, unusual buildings, or more subjective places where a particularly memorable
event took place.
(B) Each of the five standard elements of cognitive mapping are evident in Sandra’s mental
representation of her community. Edges are thematically represented by the jagged, or
sawtooth, lines that occur along the perimeter of the map. These edges occur along the busy
highway, the dense forest, and the old cow pasture that is off limits. Paths are represented
by the solid lines that link different places together within Sandra’s cognitive map. These
paths include Main Street as well as the smaller streets and trails that are evident in her map.
Landmarks are represented by triangles, which Sandra uses to represent important points
of reference in her community. These landmarks include the flagpole, the big pine tree, the
place where she was stung by a bee, the castle-style house, and the middle and high schools
that are visible from Sandra’s own school. Sandra represents nodes with solid black circles,
to indicate the places where she interacts with others on a regular basis. These include the
playground, the duck pond, the bus stop, the elementary school, as well as the houses where
she and her friends live. Finally Sandra represents districts with an enclosed dashed line.
Tere are two districts in Sandra’s map, one that is likely a park district and the other that
is likely a school district.
(C) Cognitive maps significantly differ from more objective cartographic representations of
space in several ways. First, cognitive maps are more likely to be selectively biased, meaning
that they arbitrarily highlight the presence of certain features while completely omitting the
presence of other features. For instance, in Sandra’s map only the houses that are personally
significant to Sandra are represented while all others are omitted. Second, cognitive maps
are more likely to be not to scale, meaning that the relative sizes of certain features, as well
as the relative distances between different features, are not consistent with their actual sizes
and distances in the real world.
194. (A) Te three primary kinds of cultural regions studied in human geography are for-
mal, functional, and vernacular culture regions. Formal cultural regions are geographical
areas defined by the relatively homogeneous presence of one or more distinct cultural traits.
An area in which the majority of inhabitants share the same language, dialect, religious
beliefs, ethnic identity, and/or political affiliations would constitute a formal culture region.

For example, the area along the United States-Mexico border, in which the cultural traits of
Spanish language and Catholic religion are common, is often referred to as a Hispanic for-
mal culture region. Alternatively, functional cultural regions are areas defined by functional
integrity, or the ability of the area to operate as a unified social, economic, or political unit.
Examples of functional cultural regions include such territorial entities as states, counties, or
cities, which have determinate boundaries inside of which certain rights, privileges, services,
duties, and laws are provided. Finally, vernacular cultural regions are relatively subjective
areas loosely defined according to certain popular attitudes, beliefs, or stereotypes about the
cultural, historical, or physical identity of a general area. Examples of vernacular culture
regions in the United States include New England in the Northeast, Dixie in the South,
and Appalachia, a popular culture region that roughly corresponds to the southern part of
the Appalachian Mountain chain.
(B) No single approach to classifying cultural regions is perfect, and each offers certain
advantages and drawbacks. One advantage of the formal cultural region approach is that it
allows geographers to measure the geographical domain or extent of specific cultural traits
or cultural complexes. However, one drawback is that the boundaries, or extent, of a par-
ticular cultural trait or complex are rarely ever able to be absolutely determined. Rather,
these boundaries may be seen to gradually fade away as one moves farther away from the
core of a particular formal region. Alternatively, with respect to the functional culture
region approach, one of the main advantages is that the limits or boundaries of this region
can be defined according to where the functional unit’s jurisdiction ends. However, one of
the drawbacks of the functional approach is that it yields little information about cultural
patterns within this purely functional system. Finally, with regard to vernacular cultural
regions, one advantage is that this approach recognizes popular regional identities that
already exist among culture groups. By focusing on vernacular culture regions, geographers
may understand how sense of place informs inhabitants’ sense of identity. However, one
major disadvantage to the vernacular approach is that there is no objective way to mea-
sure the extent of a particular vernacular region. Instead, this type of region is subjectively
defined, meaning that its perceived boundaries and location are likely to vary somewhat
from person to person.
Chapter 4: The Political Organization of Space

195. (B) Te physical distance between members of the same ethnic group tends to become social distance, which then causes the fragmentation of the ethnic group.
196. (A) Transnational migrants and immigrants use frequent communication, through digital devices and material culture, including letters and objects, to maintain a “human network” in multiple homelands.
197. (A) If one or both of the countries have tariffs on certain goods, there is likely to be less trade between them. Te presence of the tariffs tends to affect the ease of trade more than a long distance.
198. (B) Te act of frequently migrating between two countries demonstrates that an individual has an investment in both nations.

199. (B) When two countries have a practice of allowing their citizens to immigrate

between and work freely in both countries, individuals are most likely to have fluid, or ever-
changing, national identities. Te lack of formality needed to cross the countries’ borders
allows citizens of both countries to have a great deal of interaction with one another.
200. (D) A federal state is the most likely state to possess multiple systems of checks and
balances so that federal and localized governments do not threaten each other’s powers and
201. (E) Te United Kingdom’s power is concentrated in the British Parliament. Te UK’s centralization of legislative activity makes it a unitary state.
202. (A) A confederation, or union, between states is most likely to arise in a federal state. A federal state contains multiple states with limited powers, one of which is the opportunity to strike up an alliance.
203. (A) Te development of a self-governing region has the most potential to disrupt and supplant the power of a unitary state, which has a single national governing body.
204. (D) A confederation of states that is moving toward becoming one state is most likely to attempt to govern itself through a series of agreements, signed by all parties. These agree-
ments would be most similar to a series of treaties.
205. (B) Most of the world’s unitary states are located on the continents of Africa and
Asia. Unitary states include Niger, Senegal, Uganda, Zambia, Indonesia, Singapore, and
Sri Lanka.
206. (C) A buffer state is thought to allow the balance of power between two major neigh-
boring states to continue to exist.
207. (D) Today, nations mainly use economic activities to seize control of waters and coastal lands that are in dispute. Tey use their frequent presence in the region to justify exercising jurisdiction over the territory.
208. (A) Territoriality, which involves the separation of human populations by boundaries, influences the development of different cultures.
209. (C) People divide a continent into regional trade blocs to promote economic unity between member states. Te point of creating a regional trade bloc is to exclude nonmem-
ber states from preferential arrangements, thereby conferring economic advantages, and encouraging political alliances, among member states.
210. (D) A state can engage in inclusionary territoriality by extending the benefit of citi-
zenship to all members of a particular ethnic group, as Israel does with Jews.
211. (B) Physical boundaries of states are those that create an actual barrier and can be felt and seen, such as lakes, walls, mountains, and seas.

212. (E) Geometric boundaries are defined as political boundaries that take the form of a straight line or arc.

213. (B) Empires often posted small groups of guards or soldiers at defensive forts along borders to enforce rules of entry and exit, as well as maintain the border itself.
214. (D) Legislators and the leaders of political parties typically use the results of a census
to determine the new population and ethnic makeup of regions. Tey then use this informa-
tion to draw lines for districts that represent communities of interest in a fair and balanced
215. (A) An allocational boundary dispute occurs when two powers disagree on the divi-
sion or ownership of a resource, usually a natural resource that is present in both of their
216. (A) A separation fence typically exists to show where two countries have agreed their
national borders should be situated as part of the terms of a cease-fire agreement. A separa-
tion fence is usually a militarized border, and crossing it without the correct documentation
is seen as a hostile act.
217. (A) Te collapse of large political federations revealed that countries should have com-
mon economic goals to solidify connections between their governments. These goals should overcome their resistance to work together because of ethnic conflicts.
218. (D) When a nation undergoes political turmoil, its population tends to disperse into neighboring countries. Tis leads to the potential for more ethnic diversity in countries that surround the nation that is experiencing political problems.
219. (B) Te act of locating environmental hazards close to regions or neighborhoods that
are mainly populated by minorities, accomplished via political representation, has been
termed environmental racism. Tis practice disadvantages certain groups because of their
race and ethnic origin.
220. (E) A country that contains distinct environmental zones that encourage different
ways of life is more likely to be home to a population that sees itself as socially and politically
221. (C) Economic competition encourages political competition. A state that wants to reach the same markets and utilize the same resources as another state is most likely to develop political concerns about the actions of its competitor.
222. (C) A nation-state is typically understood to be a country in which the population is
ethnically uniform, which allows for a shared language, cultural heritage, and religion.
223. (B) Te Peace of Westphalia, signed in 1648, was a set of European peace treaties that
ended different conflicts between Spain and the Dutch Republic. These treaties did not lead

to peace in western Europe but allowed the heads of nations to meet and agree that each country held sovereign powers.
224. (D) A political leader might use popular media to push for the idea of a united, rela-
tively homogeneous, and shared national culture. Te traditional concept of a nation-state
involves the population of the country having cultural solidarity and remaining resistant to
change from outside.
225. (A) A nation-state is partially defined by its sovereignty. Te state government’s most
important responsibilities include defending the state from invasion and outside rule. Te
state government must also prevent different populations within its borders from fragment-
ing the state.
226. (C) A nation-state that experiences a large influx of immigrants is the most at risk to suffer a crisis of identity, which could fragment it politically and socially.
227. (E) Nation-states tend to view the land of their country as nontransferable. Te leader of a nation-state would not be likely to agree with an intergovernmental action that man-
dated that his or her country exchange territory with another country.
228. (C) Te practice of gerrymandering involves redistricting a legislative territory to provide one party with an unequal advantage during the electoral process.
229. (C) Te Arab League’s acts to coordinate free trade among member states reduce each nation’s sovereign authority over its economic affairs.
230. (B) An empire’s political fragmentation is most likely to lead to instability in frontier regions. Tis is what occurred as the Roman Empire declined, especially in the areas that today compose France and Germany.
231. (D) Devolution involves the distribution of powers formerly held by the central gov-
ernment to regional or state governments. Devolution may be temporary or can be a per-
manent arrangement, but the central government continues to hold most of the authority.
232. (A) Domestic and international acts of terror have the same effect: to threaten a population using violence. A terrorist act is one intended to cause panic and harm.
233. (A) Electoral geography can most effectively be studied in democratic countries, in which voters can freely cast their votes for the candidate of their choice.
234. (D) Members of the Allied forces acted jointly to limit Germany’s sovereign powers to prosecute Nazi war criminals. Tey did not feel Germany would pursue this action and punish offenders effectively.
235. (B) NATO is a military alliance, originally organized by member states to defend one another against Russia and Germany.

236. (A) Te European Union is an example of supranationalism because its member

states have transferred some of their powers to a central authority. Te establishment and
continuing stability of a central intergovernmental authority allow member states to make
many decisions as a group.
237. (C) Te migratory movements of survivors of a terrorist attack is a phenomenon that can be effectively mapped with geographic techniques. None of the other phenomena can be visualized effectively.
238. (A) Te physical landscape of an area is the factor that is most likely to influence how
people in the area vote. Te physical landscape determines the local issues that affect people,
as well as their ability to visit polling stations and encounter political candidates.
239. (C) Te United Nations’ goal is to maintain international peace. It will use economic
and military sanctions to limit the sovereign powers of any state that threatens international
240. (B) Australia is a union because its states are united under a common constitution and central federal government.
241. (B) Large countries such as Canada have used devolution to allow populations in resource-rich areas to become more self-sufficient in exchange for a share of the resources. In Canada, the population of the Northwest Territories has gained more power to educate its residents, oversee its airports, and manage its forests.
242. (D) Democratic nations that experience acts of terrorism often enact laws that limit civil liberties in an effort to prevent another attack.
243. (C) Political cleavages vary widely and can be traced to class, language, religion,
culture, attitudes about national constitutions—almost any issue that particularly concerns
244. (B) NGOs, such as Amnesty International, often publicize information about coun-
tries’ alleged human rights violations in attempts to limit those states’ sovereign powers.
245. (A) Before the 1960s, India’s caste system divided the country into a number of socially discrete groups. Te continued existence of the caste system is one of the factors that caused political fragmentation within the subcontinent.
246. (B) Te adjective supranational is indicative of more than one national government being engaged in an effort. Terefore, a supranational resolution is one that is signed by a group of different nations.
247. (E) Colonists who use religion to control indigenous groups often do so with the aim of requiring the indigenous groups to perform forced labor. Typically, they require indigenous groups to engage in agricultural or mining projects.

248. (D) Spain could not maintain its control over its New World colonies. Many colonies successfully staged revolutions to gain their independence in the 19th century.

249. (C) Between the 15th and 19th centuries, European nations used chartered trading companies to engage in imperialism in India.
250. (C) Settlers from the colonizing country are most likely to allow information and revenue to flow back from the colony to the colonizing country.
251. (A) In the United States and Canada, national governments followed the doctrine of imperialism by allowing their citizens to expand the territories of these countries, while mandating that indigenous groups be relocated or remain on reservations.
252. (E) British imperialism has been the most influential type of imperialism in the past two centuries. Many other Western nations have mimicked Great Britain’s efforts to form a worldwide commercial and ideological empire.
253. (C) In democracies, citizens have civil liberties. A country that is transitioning from a dictatorship to a democracy must grant its citizens protection from powerful leaders who threaten civil liberties.
254. (A) Te end of the Civil War brought with it a grant of voting rights to African
Americans. Tis act caused participatory democracy in the United States to increase.
255. (C) Elections must be free and open to the majority of the country’s citizens to estab-
lish a democracy. If national elections are closed to certain segments of the population or
are forced, the elections are less likely to establish a democratic form of government.
256. (B) Advocates of military intervention often state that Germany and Japan were able to establish themselves as democracies partly because of policing and sanctions by the international community.
257. (D) Te establishment of a legislative body is an extremely common step in the
process of democratization. Te legislative body often serves to anchor the nation in the
democratic process, providing an avenue for voters to discourage leaders who attempt to
become dictators.
258. (C) Since the USSR dissolved and became a number of separate countries, the major-
ity of smaller nations that the USSR had aided strengthened their sovereign powers. If they had chosen not to do so, other countries would likely have dominated them.
259. (A) An agreement between two countries to grant dual citizenship to members of a certain ethnic group would be most likely to unify the ethnic group. A real-life example of this can be seen in the case of the Indian Tamils. In the 1960s, the Indian and Sri Lankan governments agreed to give Indian Tamils citizenship to Sri Lanka. Tere are multiple diverse communities of Tamils in India and Sri Lanka. Yet the bonds between most of them have strengthened since Sri Lanka and India formed this agreement.

260. (B) Devolution is a dispersal of the central government’s powers. Basque groups in Spain could directly force a devolution of the Spanish government by gaining political control over certain regions of the country.
261. (E) Te lack of political unity among nations in the Middle East makes it difficult for
them to address supranational concerns, which are issues beyond the authority of a single
government. An example of a supranational concern is the interest to preserve sites of cul-
tural heritage.
262. (D) When two or more nations with political differences form a federation, they must
unify. Te other answer choices involve processes that are not necessary to create a successful
263. (C) Nations that want a resource that another nation possesses would be most likely to try to limit the powers of the nation with the resource.
264. (B) Te end of the Cold War allowed electoral geographers to study political cleavages where they had not been able to before: Poland and the Czech Republic. These nations were formerly Communist states that had been heavily influenced by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
265. (A) Louisiana now has six seats instead of seven because one area of the state, the
area encompassing the city of New Orleans and its surrounding environs, was severely
affected by Hurricane Katrina. Te city of New Orleans was flooded and lost much of its
population. Individuals relocated to other parts of the state as well as to other states. In
addition, Louisiana did not experience much population growth between 2000 and 2010.
Te change in the number of districts affects the entire state. Louisiana will not have as
much voting power, and therefore political clout, in the U.S. House of Representatives as
it did in the past.
(B) Te district was also extended because it contains a large number of Democratic voters.
Republican candidates would not want to face a loss to a Democrat in this region. One
result of including more territory in the second district is that African Americans’ and
Democrats’ votes will be diluted. If the area of and surrounding Baton Rouge was part
of another district, a Democratic candidate would have more of a chance to win a seat
in another district. Another result of including more territory in the second district was
pacifying both African Americans and Democrats who might have contested the redistrict-
ing plan. Te extension of the district allowed African Americans to be more certain that
they would retain dominancy in this district. Tere was some concern, because the area is
underpopulated. It lost a huge number of people after Hurricane Katrina, far more than
many other districts. Te Voting Rights Act of 1965 requires Louisiana to pass a redistrict-
ing plan that affords African Americans an equal right to be represented in Congress. A
third result of the extension of the second district is the increase in partisanship between
the Republican and Democratic congressmen from Louisiana. Since the extension led to the
two sides eventually agreeing on the redistricting plan, the plan established some common
ground between the parties.

(C) Te U.S. Congress upholds and amends the statutes that make up the provisions of

the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These portions of the U.S. Code make it illegal to apply voter
registration requirements unequally. Te U.S. Congress upholds and amends the other
statutes (beyond the ones mentioned in the question) that make up the Voting Rights Act
of 1965, which banned literacy tests for voters. These tests tended to have the effect of dis-
enfranchising African American voters. Te U.S. Supreme Court confronts any challenges
to the 14th Amendment, which made African Americans citizens and provides all citizens
the same protections under state and federal laws. Te U.S. Supreme Court confronts any
challenge to the 15th Amendment, which protects the voting rights of African American
men. Te U.S. Supreme Court confronts any challenge to the 19th Amendment, which
provides women (including African Americans) with the right to vote.
266. (A) In order to protect itself from terrorism, the countries of the United Kingdom
could have formed a task force, with representatives from each country, to target terrorist
cells across the UK. Te countries could have sought financial and educational help from
countries outside the UK to fund and train in counterterrorist activities. Te countries
could have worked cooperatively to screen travelers and limit travel between and out of the
countries. Te countries could have engaged in negotiations and discussions with nationalist
groups to solve the problems that led to agitation and violence. Te countries could have
worked to more closely monitor and later block financial transactions between suspects
and possible donors. Te countries could have formed a partnership with the Republic of
Ireland to oppose the terrorist activities.
(B) Northern Ireland is located on the same island as the Republic of Ireland. Over the
Irish Sea, and directly across from the island, lie Scotland, England, and Wales. It is only a
short distance to cities that have high populations that terrorists might want to target. To
facilitate the organization of terrorist activities, English is the dominant language in most
of these countries. Te countries are also somewhat culturally similar to Northern Ireland.
Te Republic of Ireland and the members of the United Kingdom afford individuals a
high amount of personal freedom. Individuals and families are spread across the countries.
Te countries share common banking institutions, making it easy for individuals to move
money between people. Te unification of the four countries of the UK can serve to make
other countries’ political representatives into antagonists of Northern Ireland’s terrorist
groups. England blocks the island of Ireland from most of the European mainland. Yet from
London, it is only a short distance to France, Spain, and Germany. These three countries
contain major cities with high populations that are cultural centers for Western Europe.
These major cities are also economic engines for Western Europe. Tey are home to finan-
cial activities that affect areas to which they maintain governmental ties, such as the Carib-
bean. Two of the countries, France and Spain, are home to other terrorist groups, which
support Basque and Catalonian independence. Supporters of these groups might assist and
defend terrorists from Northern Ireland.
(C) Te allotment of additional powers to Northern Ireland has helped it to become more
politically stable. Te removal of British forces and security and the development of North-
ern Ireland forces and security have led to the creation of a task force that is more familiar
with and less antagonistic toward Northern Ireland’s citizens. Tis has led to less frustration
and anger against England by groups in Northern Ireland. Te terms of the Belfast Agree-
ment require England to recognize and respect efforts by Northern Ireland to separate from

the United Kingdom and move toward uniting with the Republic of Ireland. Te recogni-
tion has allowed citizens of Northern Ireland to see political representation and democratic
government as a road to independence. As Northern Ireland’s government has become
more powerful and respected, it has become more effective at reducing terrorist activity.
Chapter 5: Agriculture and Rural Land Use

267. (B) Te Second Agricultural Revolution occurred from around 1750 to 1900, at the same time as the Industrial Revolution.
268. (A) Te Tird Agricultural Revolution is sometimes referred to as the Green
269. (B) Locations farthest from large bodies of water, such as oceans, are more likely to experience extreme climates.
270. (D) Dogs, pigs, and chickens were first domesticated in Southeast Asia.
271. (E) Of the answer choices listed, pastoral nomadism is the only form of agriculture that is not an example of commercial agriculture.
272. (C) Crop rotation is the planting of different crops in the same field from year to year to replenish the nutrients in the soil used up by the previous crops.
273. (B) Wet rice is grown in rice sawahs planted in the sides of hills that are terraced so that water runs over the plants and does not get stagnant.
274. (D) Squash and beans were first domesticated in Mexico, the first major area of seed
275. (E) Most ethanol produced in South America is made from sugarcane. In the United States, ethanol is made from corn.
276. (A) Market-gardening activities occur in the first zone of von Tünen’s model of agricultural land use.
277. (D) Because of disorganization and lack of communication along production lines, the collectivization of agricultural production initially resulted in food shortages.
278. (E) All of the answer choices except wheat represent traditional plantation crops, typically grown in tropical locations.
279. (B) Cash-cropping is the practice of growing crops for profit, usually on a large scale. Tis is a form of extensive agriculture.
280. (C) Organic farming, growing crops without the use of pesticides, has grown in popularity since the ill effects of pesticides were discovered.

281. (E) Of the answer choices listed, rice is the only crop that is not grown on truck farms.
282. (A) Te development of subsistence farming, the practice of growing all of the crops
needed to sustain a community in one location, allowed people to settle permanently.
283. (D) Genetic engineering in the 1960s marked the beginning of the Tird Agricultural
284. (B) Coffee was domesticated in present-day Ethiopia about 1,200 years ago.
285. (C) Te township and range system of land use divided land into square-mile tracts.
286. (A) China has a government-controlled economy, and the government dictates the types and quantities of crops grown by farmers.

287. (E) Winter wheat is planted in the fall and harvested in the spring.
288. (B) A reaper is a farm tool that harvests grains standing in the field.

289. (C) Biomass is an alternative, renewable energy source derived from decomposing
plant matter.
290. (E) A potential reserve is a fossil fuel source that is suspected to exist in a particular geographic location but has not been discovered yet.
291. (B) Topicide is the complete destruction of a landscape to create a new landscape, usually for development.
292. (A) Farming on long lots involves using long fields that extend back from waterways
such as rivers. Farmers along the water source use the waterways to transport their goods.
293. (E) Mediterranean agriculture requires a moderate climate with cool and wet winters. Apples are the only crops of those listed that do not grow in this climate.
294. (B) Te substitution principle is the choice to replace a product that is harmful to the environment with one that is more environmentally friendly.
295. (A) Creative destruction occurs when the original landscape is altered, usually through the removal of vegetation, to raise crops or livestock.
296. (B) Te process of clearing land by hand using manual tools, such as hoes and shovels, is called labor-intensive farming.
297. (C) Mineral fuels are also known as fossil fuels. Natural gas, oil, and coal are examples of mineral fuels.

298. (A) Te preservationist land use model involves protecting the environment through encouraging people to not alter the natural landscape, which preservationists view as more important than economic activity.
299. (B) A suitcase farm is a farm that relies primarily on migrant workers who do not live
on the property for labor. Typically, the owners also do not live or work on the farm.
300. (C) Te tragedy of the commons, developed by William Forest Lloyd and Garret Hardin, asserts that people will do what is in their own best interest even if it is detrimental to the common good.
301. (B) Pastoral nomadism is a type of herding that involves moving herds each season to locations that are most suitable for the animals.
302. (A) Tis is the only answer choice that describes a use of land in which the humans altering the landscape attempt to preserve the natural habitat.

303. (D) Shifting cultivation agriculture occupies most farmland throughout the world. 304. (A) Plantation agriculture is practiced primarily in developing countries.

305. (D) Montana is the only state listed that is not located in the Corn Belt in the mid-
western United States.
306. (B) Cereal grains are the most widely grown crops in the world.
307. (D) Kibbutzim, which means “gathering” or “clustering” in Hebrew, is a system of
voluntary collective farming in Israel. Collective or communal farming is based on group
land ownership, pooled labor, and shared income. Vietnam, Hungary, Cuba, and the Soviet
Union all instituted forced collective farming as part of their Communist governments.
308. (C) A feedlot is where animals are sent to fatten up prior to slaughter. Tey are fed high-grain diets to increase fat.
309. (B) Intertillage refers to planting between the rows of crops. A common practice in the tropics is to plant taller, stronger crops in between rows of lower, fragile crops to protect the fragile crops from downpours.
310. (B) A staple food is a primary food source that comprises the majority of the diet.
Groups of people depend on staple foods for the majority of their nourishment. In Central
America beans, corn (maize), potatoes, and squash are all traditional staple foods that people
depend on for their dietary needs. Wheat is much more popular in the diets of people in
North America and Eurasia.
311. (E) An agrarian society relies on the cultivation of land (farming). Both municipal
and metropolitan refer to developed cities. Hunter-gatherer societies mainly forage for wild

food instead of growing domesticated plants. A naturalist is someone who studies nature, the environment, and related earth sciences.
312. (C) Te debt-for-nature swap is a program for developing countries that reduces their foreign debt and promotes local conservation funding. It is most common in the tropics, with its high percentages of plant and animal diversity.
313. (A) Mediterranean agriculture extends beyond the Mediterranean basin and also includes California, central Chile, South Africa, and southwest Australia because of their similar climates. These regions are known for their fruit crops as well as other specialized plants that can tolerate moderate rainfall in the winter season.
314. (D) Domesticated plants and animals are genetically adapted from their wild prede-
cessors for human diets and other needs. Feral means “wild”; cultivated means “to grow”; primitive refers to early development; and indigenous means “native.”
315. (B) Industrial agriculture refers to the use of machinery in modern farming. Te
goal of industrial agriculture is to increase food availability. Tere are serious environmen-
tal and social consequences such as water pollution and lack of jobs in rural farm-based
316. (D) Slash-and-burn, a technique often used in tropical regions to clear forest land for farming, is an example of subsistence farming. Subsistence farmers produce enough food to support their families but not enough for export.
317. (E) A crop grown for profit is known as a cash crop. Historically in the United States, cotton and tobacco were cash crops that brought in revenue through export.
318. (D) Market gardening produces a variety of crops on a small scale during the local
growing season. Monoculture is the practice of growing one crop at a large scale for cash.
319. (D) Desertification is the process of fertile land turning into desert as a result of poor
environmental and social management. Overgrazing, off-road vehicle use, and overcultiva-
tion all contribute to soil loss. Poor irrigation can also cause problems, such as salinization,
which degrades the soil. Policies that favor sedentary farming over nomadic herding also
increase desertification, as sedentary farmers cannot easily move and adjust to climatic and
resource availabilities.
320. (B) Mining for copper and other natural resources from the ground are examples of the extractive industry. Forestry, fishing, agriculture, and animal husbandry are not part of the extractive industry.
321. (C) Carl Sauer, a geographer from University of California, Berkeley, argued that natural landscapes had been indirectly altered by human activity. He also wrote on plant and animal domestication and determined that plant domestication first originated in hilly areas with sedentary people.

322. (A) A suitcase farm is a commercial farm where no one lives and that is farmed by
migratory workers. It is common in the United States with commercial grain agriculture.
323. (E) Te agricultural location model, identified by Johann Heinrich von Tünen,
explains where specific agriculture activities should be located to maximize profit. Dairying
and vegetable farms should be closest to the central market due to the short travel distance
that prevents crops from spoiling. Timber and firewood should be the next closest to the
market, as they are needed to build homes and for fuel. Additionally, wood is difficult to
transport, so production near the city is beneficial. Grain crops should be grown beyond
the timber and firewood area, since the grain will not spoil during transportation. Finally,
ranching should occur at the outermost level, closest to the wilderness, since animals can
transport themselves to the market. Von Tünen argued that farmers who do not utilize the
location model will go bankrupt from lack of profits.
324. (B) Most of the land in the U.S. Midwest was divided using the township and range system, which further divides land into square-mile tracts called sections. Tis system is used from Ohio west to California with the exception of Texas.
325. (D) Aquaculture is the farming and cultivation of fish and shellfish such as oys-
ters. Polyculture is farming multiple crops, while monoculture is reliance on a single crop. Hydroponics is the practice of cultivating plants in a nutrient-rich water, and aeroponics cultivates plants where roots are in the open air. Waterlogging refers to soil that is saturated by groundwater and cannot support agriculture.
326. (C) A farm crisis is the result of mass crop production that supplies more food than in demand. Tis overproduction leads to lower prices of crops, resulting in less profit for farmers. Small family farms are less able to cope with the loss of profit than large commercial farms; therefore, the number of small farms has decreased.
327. (A) Crop rotation is the practice of planting different types of crops in a field each
season. Tis practice helps replenish nutrients in the soil. Companion cropping and succes-
sion cropping are types of double cropping, where two crops are planted in the same field
in one growing season. No-till planting does not till the land after a harvest to reduce soil
328. (B) Sustainable yield refers to natural capital and is the amount of a natural material, animal, or plant that can be extracted without depleting the natural capital.
329. (D) Luxury crops are items that are not necessary for survival and typically are sold at higher prices. Wool is the only answer choice that does not fit this description.
330. (D) Te growing season is the period during the year that a plant can grow. In gen-
eral, growing seasons near the equator are longer than near the poles because the equator
receives more sunlight. Growing seasons also can be influenced by climate patterns and
wind or ocean currents.
331. (B) Te Green Revolution uses genetically modified seeds that produce higher yields
of food. Te seeds have to be purchased each year, as they cannot reproduce themselves.

Also, large quantities of pesticides and fertilizers must be used to ensure seed success. Te
expense of seeds, pesticides, and fertilizers does not allow poor farmers to profit from farm-
ing, and social inequalities still prevail in many of the developing countries where geneti-
cally engineered cropping has been implemented since the 1970s. Additionally, several
Western countries, including some members of the European Union, have banned the
import of genetically modified food, citing that long-term health effects are unknown.
332. (C) Agribusiness is any practice related to food production, from the farm to the market to the consumer.
333. (A) Te enclosure movement changed farming in England during the 18th century by consolidating the many small farms into fewer large farms.
334. (C) Carl Sauer mapped the agriculture origins (or hearths) of domestic plants and animals. He identified central and northwest South America, western Africa, and Southeast Asia as the primary hearths of domestication.
335. (E) Te Fertile Crescent is one of the regions where sedentary farming first started. Sedentary farming led to the development of cities and cultures.
336. (B) Chronologically, pastoralism, which arose in the Neolithic period, most closely followed hunting and gathering.
337. (D) One of the benefits of crop rotation is that the need for artificial fertilizers is reduced by the planting of complementary crops.
338. (A) Feedlots, in which large numbers of animals are raised in a small area, are an example of intensive cultivation.
339. (C) Te lack of synthetic pesticides on organic farms produces more diverse ecosys-
tems than can be found on conventional farms, which is an environmental benefit.
340. (E) All of the other statements are true of the von Tünen model, but according to
Von Tünen, forests were optimally located in the second ring of his land use model.
341. (C) Of all the choices, C best characterizes the complex legacy of the Green
342. (A) Te British Agricultural Revolution displaced a number of agricultural workers as a result of enclosure and mechanization, which led to a ready labor force for the growing factory system during the Industrial Revolution.
343. (D) Intensive cultivation at the subsistence level is practiced in many areas of the world, particularly in Asia.
344. (A) Tere is ample evidence that fruit trees were grown alongside cereal crops from the Neolithic era, just as agriculture was beginning.

345. (B) Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock for grazing, usually from summer pastures at higher elevation to winter pastures at lower elevation.
346. (A) Te First Agricultural Revolution is known as the Neolithic Revolution and rep-
resents the transition from hunting and gathering to the farming of domesticated plants. Te domestication of plants and animals allowed permanent settlements to form in place of nomadic groups. Sedentary societies led to more complex economies and allowed the development of arts, sciences, and culture.
(B) Te Second Agricultural Revolution occurred between 1750 and 1900 in the developed
world. New machinery, such as Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, helped farmers work more land
with the same amount of labor. Food production increased as a result. New crop rotations
were implemented to produce better yields, and new plant hybrids were developed based
on breeding experiments. As transportation improved, crops and other goods were more
easily transported to markets before spoiling. As a result of the increase in machinery on
the farms, more people left the farms to work in urban areas that needed factory workers.
(C) Te Tird Agricultural Revolution represents modern commercial agriculture starting
around the 1960s. Primary, secondary, and tertiary farming activities blended during the
Tird Revolution. Mechanization also increased, as well as the development of biotechnolo-
gies to increase crop yields. Te Green Revolution, an example of new biotechnology, devel-
oped high-yielding seeds that require synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. New biotechnology
has resulted in increased food yields but also impacted traditional social and economic
systems as well as the environment.
347. (A) Some factors leading to desertification are overuse of water, thereby reducing
water tables and draining aquifers; salinization of soils; erosion of topsoil through floods or
natural disasters; tree blight, such as oak wilt disease; changing river systems due to human
consumption of water; overuse of cropland, leaving it sterile and susceptible to insect infes-
tation; and drought conditions brought on by changing global weather patterns, such as
El Niño.
(B) Salinization begins when salts and chemicals from fertilizers and factory wastes build up in the soil, gradually causing it to become sterile and leading to desertification.
(C) Soil conservation can preserve and actually renew the viability of cropland. Tis in
turn can support the animals who feed on the crops, leading to increased production of
food sources, not only for humans but for all the creatures in the food web. When soils are
healthy and not overused, they can sustain crops that could not grow in poorer soils, thereby
leading to sustainable agriculture.
348. (A) Genetically engineered crops can benefit humans by increasing production of such staples as corn, soybeans, and orange juice and by decreasing the amount of produce lost to bacteria and insects.
(B) Possible drawbacks to genetic modification of food crops are (1) unforeseen effects on
wildlife who feed on the crops, (2) possible alienation of pollinator insects like bees and
butterflies (bee colony collapse may be due in part to ignorance of the effects of modifying

genetic codes), and (3) destruction of said food crops because the balance of nature is out

of sync, and nature cannot rebound against human manipulations on the genetic level.
(C) Te future of biotechnology in relation to food crops is uncertain. While genetic engi-
neering is widely in place already, a backlash has begun to take hold in the consciences of
many people. Farmers can benefit from robust crops for a few years, then begin to see pro-
duction fall off because of ecological changes caused by the manipulations they espoused.
Genetically modified plants may be resistant to some blights, only to be struck down by
new predators let in by the vacuum created. Tere is no doubt that humans will continue
to manipulate gene coding. However, organic farming is gaining in popularity as a result
of increased awareness among consumers of the uncertain effects of genetic modification.
Chapter 6: Industrialization and Economic Development

349. (E) All of the regions listed except northern Africa were engaged in heavy industry following the Industrial Revolution.
350. (E) Mining is a resource-based economic activity. All of the other answer choices include service-based economic activities.
351. (A) Most, but not all, export-processing zones are located in underdeveloped regions of developing nations. Mexico’s system of maquiladoras on the United States-Mexico bor-
der is an example of export-processing zones.
352. (B) When companies engaged in heavy industry began to move operations to loca-
tions with lower production costs, Great Britain experienced deindustrialization.
353. (A) Rostow’s stages of development assume that all countries will eventually pass through each of the five stages of economic development in a linear manner.
354. (C) South Africa is the only country listed that is not included in the periphery.
355. (A) Te Rust Belt is an industrial area that runs through the northeastern United States, dipping down into the Mid-Atlantic states and part of the Midwest. Buffalo, Detroit, and Cleveland are located in the Rust Belt.
356. (D) Maquiladoras are towns in Mexico where U.S. companies have factories, taking
advantage of lower production costs. These towns are located close to the United States-
Mexico border.
357. (A) Te demographic transition model represents the transition of a country from
high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as the country moves through
stages of economic development. China’s one-child policy has greatly slowed the birth
rate, so China is far ahead of other newly industrialized countries in terms of demographic
358. (B) Tourism brings cash into a country when individuals from foreign countries come in and spend money on goods and services within the country.

359. (C) Fifth-world countries are characterized by a lack of a formal government. Somalia is an example of a fifth-world country.
360. (A) Offshore financial centers, such as those located in the Bahamas and Switzerland, are designed to promote business interactions and offer lower taxes and tariffs. Tis is attrac-
tive to companies and individuals who deal in large sums of money.
361. (D) Gentrification is the process of wealthy people moving into formerly poor neigh-
borhoods, renovating the areas, and making them more modern.
362. (D) Second-world countries are characterized by a hard-line Communist govern-
ment. Of the countries listed, Cuba is the only second-world country.
363. (A) In 1997, a banking collapse in South Korea triggered an economic crisis across Asia. Tis led to deindustrialization in countries like South Korea and Japan.
364. (B) NAFTA stands for North American Free Trade Agreement. Tis agreement eased restrictions on trade between Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
365. (A) Immanuel Wallerstein theorized that the modern network of countries engaged
in trade and competition emerged when European nations began exploring the rest of the
366. (C) Goods are classified as durable or nondurable based on the amount of time a product can be used. Durable goods are those that can be used for three years; the use of nondurable goods is limited to under a year.
367. (E) OPEC stands for Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. It is the only acronym listed that does not signify a trade agreement.
368. (B) Quaternary economic activities are primarily concerned with information sharing and development. Research and development is the only quaternary activity listed.
369. (A) Te Human Development Index (HDI) is used by the United Nations to measure human welfare in a country. Te HDI is calculated using a formula that takes into account social indicators as well as economic production.
370. (B) Alternative energy sources, such as hydropower and solar energy, are generally more expensive to produce than fossil fuels.
371. (E) Service and high-tech industry jobs do not generally result in a shorter work week.
Each of the other benefits listed are enjoyed by many in service and high-tech industries.
372. (C) Deglomeration is the movement of economic activity away from an area of pre-
vious concentration. Tis occurs when the market becomes overloaded with businesses providing the same services or goods.

373. (A) Te Gini coefficient is a measure of the inequality of distribution of income or

wealth in a country, measuring the gap between the wealthiest and poorest populations.
374. (C) A bulk-reducing industry is one in which the final product has less volume than
its inputs. Steel production is the only bulk-reducing industry listed in the answer choices.
375. (A) Italy and Kuwait both have a high GNP and low gender equity. These countries
have low gender equity because of social barriers to higher income and wealth for women.
376. (D) China is the only country listed in the answer choices that is not an Old Asian
377. (A) Following World War II, the United States and Great Britain invested in the Old
Asian Tiger countries, such as Japan and South Korea, to stop the spread of communism in
378. (B) Te Silesia Uplands in Poland are known for the diverse collection of minerals
found there.
379. (A) Natural gas is the only nonrenewable energy source listed in the answer choices.
380. (E) Foreign development aid given to developing countries by first-world countries
usually comes in the form of cash and is not expected to be paid back by the receiving
381. (C) Sierra Leone is a formerly third-world country that has experienced an economic crisis due to civil war and is now classified as a fourth-world country.
382. (D) As industry moves out of first-world countries, industrial countries such as the United States and Great Britain have seen a decline in industry.
383. (D) One of the principles of Fordism was to eliminate the need for skilled labor in
manufacturing and increase the unskilled labor force. Ford wanted to pay unskilled laborers
higher wages to ensure that they could purchase the automobiles they were producing.
384. (E) Workers cannot be forced to join a union as a condition of employment in a right-to-work state.
385. (B) A cottage industry is one in which the manufacturing of goods takes place in the
386. (A) Te Mid-Atlantic region of the United States is known as a megalopolis, or a large metropolitan area that extends through a chain of connecting cities.
387. (B) Te former Soviet Union lost most of its agricultural activity and coal deposits to Ukraine when the Soviet Union was dissolved.

388. (C) One of the world’s largest industrial parks is located in Shanghai, China.
389. (C) In Socialist economies the government controls the prices of basic goods and services, including energy and transportation, to prevent prices from being too high, thereby ensuring that everyone can afford to pay for these essential services.
390. (B) Dependency theory asserts some countries do nothing to address high poverty
rates in order to keep an elite ruling class in power, which controls all of the country’s eco-
nomic resources.
391. (A) According to the core-periphery model, areas in a downward transition have high unemployment rates.
392. (B) According to Richard Nolan’s stages of growth model, technology begins to spread during the contagion stage.
393. (E) Te Sunbelt, located in the U.S. South and parts of the Southwest, is in upward transition according to the core-periphery model.
394. (B) Money left after all necessary bills have been paid is called expendable income.
395. (A) Te technology gap refers to the gap in access to and knowledge about technol-
ogy. Poorer populations have less access to technology, and younger people tend to know more about how to use technology than older people, for example.
396. (C) Under the core-periphery model, the northern part of Alaska that contains crude oil is classified as a resource frontier.
397. (C) Special economic zones (SEZs) offer incentives for foreign businesses. In China, many foreign companies have established headquarters in these SEZs.
398. (A) Te idea that an abundance of both fossil fuels and alternative energy is available throughout the world and that these resources can be shared is the fundamental principle of the optimistic viewpoint of economic development.
399. (D) Standard of living is a measure of the wealth and personal enjoyment that a person experiences.
400. (D) In many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, life expectancy reaches only 50 years. Tis is the lowest of the regions listed.
401. (C) A basic industry is one in which most of the goods or services produced are exported out of the geographical region. Computer equipment manufacturing is the basic industry in the Silicon Valley in California.
402. (E) Boston, located in the Mid-Atlantic region, is the only city listed not found in the Eastern Great Lakes region.

403. (B) Te Physical Quality of Life Index is a measurement calculated using literacy rate, life expectancy, and infant mortality.

404. (C) Te gross domestic product is a measure of the total goods and services produced by a country. Te gross domestic product per capita is this measurement divided by the country’s total population.
405. (C) Of the modes of transportation listed, ships are the most energy efficient.
406. (C) Shopping malls are an example of agglomeration, the concentration of firms offering similar goods and services.
407. (A) Brain drain occurs when young people leave their home country to obtain an
education superior to the one they could obtain in their home country and do not return.
408. (A) At the end of World War II, Japan signed a treaty stating that it would not build its military. Tis allowed the Japanese government to invest in industrial development, and Japan soon became a world leader in industry.
409. (D) E-commerce transactions are expected to increase their rapid growth over the
next decade as more and more people gain access to high-speed Internet and smartphone
410. (A) A free-trade zone, or export processing zone, is an area where trade laws of a country such as tariffs, bureaucratic requirements, and quotas are eliminated in hopes of stimulating foreign trade and industry.
411. (E) Te Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and spread at varying speeds throughout the rest of the world, mostly in the 19th century.
412. (A) In a bulk-reducing industry, the bulk of the finished product is less than that of
the products that went into its manufacture. Gasoline is the only example from this list that
fits that description.
413. (C) Of these choices, the only one that speaks to the utility of GDP as a measure of standard of living is its consistency as a worldwide measure of economic activity.
414. (D) One of the most serious criticisms of the HDI is that it does not consider ecologi-
cal and environmental factors.
415. (E) Tey are far more likely to live in overcrowded, squalid, and unsanitary condi-
tions. Often the poor in rural areas fare better because there is less overcrowding and com-
petition for resources in rural areas.
416. (A) Te countries of Europe used their advantages to dominate the semiperipheral and peripheral countries and lands of the time.

417. (B) Industries with material orientation rely on raw materials for their existence and thus are most advantageously located near those materials. Many of these industries involve the extraction of resources.
418. (E) Least cost theory does not take consumer demand into account.
419. (E) Globalization has affected different countries and areas of the world in different ways and has not spread across the globe at a uniform rate.
420. (D) One of the biggest criticisms of ecotourism is the displacement of indigenous peoples to enhance the ecotourism experience. Te Masai in East Africa are a prime example of an indigenous culture displaced for the purposes of ecotourism.
421. (A) Te mechanization of agriculture during the Agricultural Revolution helped pro-
vide surplus workers for British factories during this period.
422. (B) While all of the other choices are true, not all areas of the globe have equal access to the benefits of technology.
423. (B) Anthropocentrism is the belief that human beings are the most important and dominant presence on Earth.
424. (B) Cottage industries, which were common before the Industrial Revolution, are those in which the home is the center of production.
425. (C) NAFTA does not give maquiladoras tax-exempt status in Mexico.
426. (B) A bulk-gaining industry produces products that are heavier after assembly.
427. (A) Europeans withheld advances in shipping, communications, and technology from nonmember countries so that they could retain domination of those societies.
(B) Countries like Spain, Greece, and Mexico are experiencing rapid growth in industries
that languished before global communication because they can compete globally, not just
(C) Semiperipheral countries got to be the aggressors and pass on the exploitation practiced
on them by core countries, withholding from peripherals even their limited access to the
core. Tis perpetuated a system of degradation and exploitation that continues to this day
in much of the world.
428. (A) Cottage industries can compete with multinationals by building up a local patron-
age based on the idea that buying locally produced items will bring back manufacturing to communities devastated by the export of jobs overseas.
(B) Home-based businesses benefit their communities by taking commuters off the high-
ways, reducing their carbon footprint by producing less waste than large companies, and

creating a reduction in the need for large office spaces in favor of more green zones, like parks and forests.
(C) When a cottage industry outgrows its original parameters, it can be very difficult to
employ conservation techniques. Burt’s Bees has managed to do so by keeping its original
headquarters and basing its expansion in areas that favor green practices. Another example
of such companies are specialty beverage companies, like Texas Sweet Teas, which find
that being green and growing their companies are a matter of making careful choices about
manufacturing principles, local ingredients, clean factories, water reclamation, low carbon
footprints, and local distribution networks. Tey can be successful in competitive markets
without sacrificing their small-company ideals.
Chapter 7: Cities and Urban Land Use

429. (B) For many decades, and today in certain areas, urban areas excluded women

because they provided women with fewer opportunities to work and take control of
430. (B) City planners are working to make cities healthier by designing neighborhoods and streets that allow urban residents to get exercise on a regular basis.
431. (D) Cities are often divided into distinct political districts by understanding the city’s natural physical boundaries, such as rivers, as borders.
432. (B) Hoyt’s sector model theorized that low-income populations are most likely to
live next to transportation corridors, such as rail lines. In a futuristic version of his model,
low-income populations would be most likely to live next to high-speed rail lines.
433. (A) Te gravity model assumes that cities have a greater power to attract people when they are located close to one another.
434. (C) Residents of edge cities and suburban areas have long relied on automobiles and public transportation to get to jobs in large cities.
435. (E) A greenbelt policy is meant to encourage a city to remake its core into a livable
436. (E) Te political powers of a city council are most often found in the constitution of the state in which the city is located.
437. (D) In the United States, an increase in the amount of money in an urban ghetto
typically results in the ghetto becoming more ethnically diverse, less segregated, and less
438. (A) Te number of senior citizens in cities, most belonging to the baby boom genera-
tion, is expected to more than double in the next quarter century.

439. (B) Landless residents usually work to improve their situations by meeting in political demonstrations and later forming grassroots organizations.

440. (D) An urban heat island is a city that is hotter than surrounding suburban or rural areas. In urban heat islands, air quality is comparatively lower and there are greater health risks due to heat waves.
441. (E) Te exodus of middle- and high-income residents from urban areas to the suburbs during the 1970s and 1980s was characterized as a racial movement: “white flight.”
442. (C) Housing cooperatives offer property for rent or ownership that is often owned by the cooperative and controlled equally by all residents.
443. (A) Opponents of automobile dependency believe that drivers of automobiles are always going to demand bigger, more streamlined roads. Tis reduces a city’s ability to plan other types of transportation effectively.
444. (C) Cities must ensure that they contain affordable places to live and work to promote the spread of the arts and creative jobs.
445. (B) Residents of gated communities are understood to have high incomes and privi-
leged lifestyles.
446. (A) Te separation of housing and commercial zones created dead spaces in many American cities.
447. (E) Te central business district, at the center of the city, was seen as the most undesir-
able neighborhood for urban residents.
448. (D) A city fit the multiple-nuclei model if it had no central business district and contained a variety of different industries in different areas.
449. (C) Many European nations built public housing in efficient, yet unattractive modern
apartment blocks to house returning refugees and those who had lost their homes to bomb-
ing and looting.
450. (D) In the past, many cities failed to create easy ways for people to walk and bike throughout the cities.
451. (A) Urban residents cannot be denied any of the opportunities in the answer choices
except the opportunity to enter into financial agreements to solidify home ownership.
452. (E) A rise in the number of high-wage jobs in the suburbs often corresponds with a rise in the number of low-wage jobs in the central city.
453. (B) Many of the megacities of tomorrow are actually multiple cities that are growing
toward one another with the promise that they will become one densely populated urban
454. (C) In many developing nations, rural migrants travel to the country’s large cities to find employment.
455. (B) Central place theory came to be seen as inaccurate as theorists revealed that a city’s place within a network of other cities determined its importance more than the city’s size and its position in relation to less developed areas that surrounded it.
456. (A) Copenhagen, Denmark, is a primate city because it has the highest population of any metropolitan area in the country. It is also the cultural center of the nation.
457. (E) Since the 1980s, decentralization has increased as developers have chosen to build suburbs and edge cities that are not close to central cities.
458. (C) Te city of Jerusalem has at least two central business districts to serve at least two
different ethnic and religious populations, these being its Jewish and Arab populations.
459. (D) Alexandria, Egypt, was a center for learning, as evidenced by its magnificent library and considerable commercial activity.
460. (C) Christaller’s central place theory assumes that perfect competition exists because all consumers are of the same income and shop in the same way.
461. (B) Te rank-size rule governs the distribution of cities in a country or region. It states that a country or region has a city that is the largest, in terms of population, and other cities decrease in population compared to the largest city. Te rank-size rule does not hold if you consider all of the cities in a given country or region.
462. (C) Te commuter zone is the outermost ring of the concentric zone model. In
this zone, residents living in outlying areas commute into the city to work and engage in
463. (A) Cities that wish to reenergize inactive central business districts should take steps to draw people to the district, to encourage them to live and work there.
464. (E) Te job of an individual who works as part of a municipal council is to make sure that the city government is run correctly.
465. (B) Te practice of redlining involved banks and other lending institutions, including
the federal government, outlining minority and low-income neighborhoods in red. These
lending institutions then failed to provide affordable home loans to individuals in those

466. (C) Te sector model, developed in 1939, proposed that a city should expand out-

ward along major lines of transportation, such as railroads. Te railroads would then carry
in residents who worked in the city’s core to their jobs during the day and back out to their
homes at night.
467. (B) When a large city experiences a sudden spike in internal immigration, new resi-
dents of the city are likely to be individuals from rural areas and smaller cities, especially those that surround the large city.
468. (A) Green building is a form of gentrification because it causes the value of the envi-
ronmentally friendly property, as well as other properties in the neighborhood, to increase.
Te increase in value defines the effect of the construction or restoration as gentrification.
469. (D) During the Neolithic Revolution, the majority of cities arose in areas where the population had found methods to generate an agricultural surplus. All of the other actions were not common among the majority of cities.
470. (E) Peasants who had been subjected to a life of economic servitude chose to abandon agricultural work in favor of factory work.
471. (A) In the earliest cities, growth and increasingly complex political organization appear to be linked to established, powerful family networks.
472. (C) Overcrowding in urban areas is a common occurrence when the rate of incoming migrants exceeds the ability of builders and city officials to create available housing.
473. (C) A large number of the earliest cities used their status as religious centers to draw crowds of pilgrims, and their donations, to sacred sites and regular rituals.
474. (B) Te sale of agricultural harvests was one of the few steady sources of income for those who lived in the city or near its borders. Te sale of agricultural harvests came to be seen as a source of income by political leaders as well.
475. (D) Rural-urban migration is primarily linked to economic demands. Agriculture is a seasonal activity that allows rural residents to leave for periods of time when their land must lie fallow or the harvest is over.
476. (C) Air pollution, as well as other forms of pollution, is a health risk to urban resi-
dents. Te other answer choices may be issues that affect modern megacities, but they are
not problems.
477. (E) Te defining feature of a global city is its role in international business.
478. (C) Global cities usually see low-income minority populations frequently move
between neighborhoods in an effort to remain where housing and commercial space are
priced affordably.

164 ❯ Answers
479. (B) When a city draws residents out to suburbs, residential areas within the city tend to become less cohesive and united. Tis causes cities to become more disorganized and leads to decentralization and urban sprawl.
480. (C) Te rank-size rule holds that the nth largest city of a country will be 1/nth the size of the largest city. Many countries contain cities that are not much smaller than the largest city. Te size of the smaller cities violates the premise of the rank-size rule.
481. (D) Central place theory focuses on the mapping of market areas and the patterns through which people consume goods and services. Christaller’s central place theory requires that cities be understood in relation to the markets that they serve. These are illustrated in diagrams as lattices that surround the cities.
482. (D) Edge cities tend to spring up near transportation corridors that allow people to easily commute to nearby cities or travel to faraway cities.
483. (A) Te rank-size rule expresses the size of a city as proportionate to another city through a ratio, or a mathematical equation.
484. (E) Te level of desire or need of consumers to purchase a good determines how far they will travel to purchase it.
485. (C) Te gravity model has been criticized because it appears static and cannot easily be modified to show how flow patterns evolve.
486. (B) Te sizes of the rings in the concentric zone model are based on people’s demand for land that exists within and outside of the central business district.
487. (E) Hoyt’s model for the growth of cities tends to work when applied to British cities,
which grew outward from a central business district along major roads and rail lines.
488. (D) Harris and Ullman came up with the multiple-nuclei model in the 1940s. At
that point in time, many people within cities had begun to use cars to navigate cities more
489. (A) Te simplest form of the gravity model assumes that the interaction between two towns is proportionate to the product of their populations divided by the square of the distance between them.
490. (C) Suburban downtowns are nuclei independent of the central business district and
have the power to draw residents that live throughout the greater metropolitan area.
491. (E) Cities want to motivate employers to create service jobs to replace industrial and manufacturing jobs that have moved to suburban or rural areas.
492. (B) Job sprawl typically involves the migration of jobs into areas within city limits and less than 15 miles from downtown.

493. (A) For demographers to measure migration as changing a population, the migration must be permanent or long lasting.

494. (C) As industrial jobs have left American cities, many working-class neighborhoods have become ghettos.
495. (B) Public housing is typically offered by local, state, and federal government agencies.
496. (E) Housing in edge cities is typically private and designed so that a person feels as if he or she is in a well-tended yet lush semirural landscape.
497. (A) A road network is the most flexible transportation system, as it easily allows people to build and expand on existing routes.
498. (D) Cities develop emergency transit plans that assist urban residents in evacuating areas of the city that have been affected by a natural disaster.
499. (A) Mexico City is in south central Mexico and is not extremely close to its major
coastal ports. It is farther south than many of the country’s more populated cities and
northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula’s most visited tourist areas. Te capital city cannot be
a central node in the national commodity chain for goods that travel elsewhere because of
its awkward central, landlocked location. Mexico City can continue to be somewhat of a
hub because it has a huge population and is a destination point for many goods. It can also
serve as a checkpoint and redistribution center for goods being transported by truck from
the south.
(B) Houston and San Antonio are both business centers in Texas. Houston is home to the headquarters of a number of energy, biomedical, and aeronautics industries. San Antonio is home to many health-care and financial services industries. Houston and San Antonio draw consultants and professionals from Mexico City interested in linking these industries in Mexico and the United States. Houston and San Antonio are also tourist destinations. Tey have high populations. Tey attract labor and visitors from Mexico City. Tis creates growing markets for Mexican products and services.
(C) Mexico City has a high number of educated professionals. It is home to many individu-
als who exhibit talent in business. These individuals are working to expand North American,
Mexican, and Central American corporations and markets. Mexico City’s size and location
between the United States and the countries of Central America make it a natural center
for banking and other industries that act to develop national economies, such as energy and
tourism. Mexico City also has a huge labor pool, which allows it to be a source of labor as
well as a center for training and industrial production. Many states in Mexico are far more
rural and have less urban and industrial infrastructure than Mexico City. Some of Mexico’s
tourist areas are not suitable for either development or conducting and coordinating pro-
duction and trade. Tis makes Mexico City one of the better cities in which to do business
in Mexico. Mexico City further has a historic role as the nation’s center for administration
and business. Many industries and professionals choose not to relocate industrial, trade,
and financial activity from Mexico City. Tey want to maintain a presence in this active,
interconnected area.

500. (A) Single-parent families need housing that is economical and located near public
transportation centers and schools. Single-parent families also need housing that is close to
parks and shopping centers or marketplaces. Aging seniors must have housing that is close
to hospitals and shopping centers so that they can obtain health services and food without
cars. Aging seniors may also need blocks of connected housing broken up by parks and
green spaces. Tis allows them to socialize with people in their age group without using
cars and to remain physically active. Single individuals with service-sector jobs need housing
that is located close to their places of employment and near public transportation centers.
Single individuals must have housing that is economical. Units can be smaller than units
for families.
(B) A city government could institute or raise sales taxes on gas. A city could raise the prices
of city services, such as utilities. A city could also hold events that charge admission to
generate revenue, such as expositions for different industries, or festivals, for which vendors
would be required to pay fees. A city could raise its fines for zoning code violations. A city
could require industries that want to locate to the city to pay a fee to build parking lots in
open space.
(C) Failing to build enough affordable housing in a large metropolitan area acts to stratify
the city. Rich people and poor people tend to congregate in clumps instead of being inter-
spersed. Tis tends to make the city more of a fragmented collection of neighborhoods.
Te city grows away from being a cohesive, united, uniform area. Poorer individuals tend
to move outside the city. Tis makes it difficult to find cheap labor for needed service
industries. Not providing enough affordable housing concentrates pollution in areas where
transportation corridors are most active, and it acts to clog up traffic. Commercial activity,
political activity, and environmental improvement are uncommon in the most disadvan-
taged neighborhoods. If there is no money flowing into a neighborhood, there is a danger
of it becoming a dead zone. A city with many dead zones is uninteresting and dangerous to
travel. It may lose residents and business.

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