1. (D) A ratio of the number of items within a defined unit of area measures density. For example, human population density is typically measured according to the number of inhabitants per square mile or square kilometer of land. Because it is a ratio of quantity per unit of area, density always expresses a relative value.
2. (C) Te site of Manhattan is best described as an island bordered by the Hudson and
East Rivers. Site refers to a place’s absolute location, often described in terms of its physical
geography. Situation, on the other hand, refers to a place’s location relative to external social
relations, systems, or networks. All other available choices describe Manhattan’s situation
relative to other places.
3. (B) Spatial coordinates of latitude and longitude express absolute location. Absolute location identifies a place according to a standardized system of mathematical coordinates. Relative location, on the other hand, identifies a place in relation to some other place. For example, the absolute location of Chicago is 41° north and 87° west, while its location rela-
tive to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, would be 90 miles south on Interstate 94.
4. (A) Distribution refers to the spatial arrangement of items or features within a given area. For instance, a map indicating the location of each national park in the United States would demonstrate how these parks are spatially distributed throughout the country. Spa-
tial arrangements of certain items or features can be described in terms of even or uneven distributions across space. In the case that many items are located close to one another, it is possible to say that these items are clustered together.
5. (E) A method for representing the three-dimensional surface of the earth on a two-
dimensional map is known as projection. Tere are many different methods of map projec-
tion, including cylindrical, conical, and azimuthal projections. However, no single method of projection perfectly represents the three-dimensional surface of the earth.
6. (C) A subjective image of an area informed by individual perceptions and experiences in that area is known as a mental map. Unlike other kinds of maps, which are typically mate-
rial representations shared by multiple users, mental maps are highly personal images about a place composed of subjective perceptions, memories, biases, and feelings.
7. (B) Te notion that the physical environment offers certain constraints and opportuni-
ties that influence cultural practices without entirely determining them is known as pos-
sibilism. Tis idea stands contrary to the antiquated theory of environmental determinism,
which posited that the physical environment absolutely determines how cultural practices
develop in a given place. Possibilism, on the other hand, suggests that the physical environ-
ment offers certain possibilities that influence how a culture develops without absolutely
determining this course of development.
8. (A) Culture is an abstract concept in human geography that broadly refers to human
practices, beliefs, and behaviors that are specific to a place or region and that are created,
shared, and/or altered over time. Cultures vary from place to place, converge and diverge
over time, diffuse across space, and express human adaptations and innovations. Impor-
tantly, however, the transmission of culture is not biologically inherited. Rather, it is socially
learned, or acquired.
9. (C) Globalization best illustrates the concept of cultural convergence because both ideas directly express processes in which diverse cultures become more similar and interrelated over time. Indeed, contemporary processes of globalization may be thought of as a modern-
day instance of cultural convergence, in which the global diffusion of shared technologies and organizational structures is making different cultures more alike.
10. (D) Te idea that material innovations, such as new technologies, diffuse more rap-
idly than newly exposed cultures can respond to them best illustrates the idea of cultural
lag. Cultural lag describes this temporal delay between the arrival of a new innovation to
a place and the ability of the local culture to adequately respond and adapt to this change.
Te arrival of a new technology to a place often poses significant cultural challenges, rang-
ing from a lack of formal knowledge to potential ethical or religious conflicts that the new
technology could create.
11. (C) Te principle of distance decay describes a negative correlation between dis-
tance and degree of relation. Distance decay states that as the distance between two places increases, the intensity of relations between these places will decrease. For instance, distance decay theory assumes that a pair of towns 5 miles apart will have more in common than a pair of towns 500 miles apart. Terefore, the association between distance and degree of relation in distance decay theory is a negative correlation.
12. (E) Te particular conditions that compel individuals or groups to migrate from one
place to another are commonly referred to as push and pull factors. Push factors refer to the
specific reasons that motivate an individual or group to leave a particular place. Pull factors,
on the other hand, refer to the conditions in a new place that attract migrants to relocate to
this place in particular.
13. (B) Economic and/or political associations that are comprised of multiple, autonomous
member states that cooperate to achieve a common purpose are known as supranational
organizations. Supranational means that the organization takes place at a level higher than
the nation-state without threatening the autonomy, or independence, of each member
nation-state. Some common examples of supranational organizations include the European
Union (EU), the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), and the North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
14. (D) New Orleans is the city that describes a site along the Mississippi River and a situ-
ation as a primary port for offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico. While St.
Louis and Minneapolis are cities sited along the Mississippi River, their situations are not
as primary ports for offshore petroleum production, given their distance from the Gulf of
Mexico. Alternatively, while Mobile and Houston are situated as ports for offshore petro-
leum production in the Gulf of Mexico, they are not sites along the Mississippi River.
15. (A) Te ability to travel and communicate over greater distances in shorter amounts
of time, due to technological innovations such as the airplane, automobile, telephone, and
Internet, represents the idea of time-space compression. Time-space compression describes
how new communication and transportation technologies, such as the examples above,
radically alter the way humans experience time and space. Typically this experience is one
in which time seems to accelerate and distance becomes a less formidable barrier.
16. (C) Latitude describes the location of a place in terms of its angular distance north or
south of the equator. Like the rungs of a ladder, lines of latitude wrap horizontally around
the earth and run parallel to the equator. Lines of latitude measure distances north and
south of the equator, whereas lines of longitude measure distances east and west of the
17. (E) During the process of mapmaking, shape, area, distance, and direction are all liable to become distorted. Unfortunately, there is no absolutely perfect way to project the three-
dimensional surface of the earth onto a flat, two-dimensional surface. With every projec-
tion, either shape, area, distance, direction, or a combination of these inevitably becomes distorted. However, the location of geographical features relative to one another should not be affected during the mapmaking process.
18. (A) Te Prime Meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England, is equivalent to
the line of 0° longitude. Tis location of the Prime Meridian is purely an arbitrary social
convention, established among the scientific community in the late 19th century, in order
to create a standardized system for determining the absolute location of things on the earth’s
19. (D) Te geographical region whose center is located along the equator and whose area
extends roughly 23° north and south of the equator is known as the tropical zone. Tis
region, which wraps broadly around the equator, is also commonly referred to as the tropics
or the torrid zone. Te outer limits of this region are delimited by the Tropic of Capricorn
in the Southern Hemisphere and the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere. It is
not correct to call the tropics a rainforest region because rainforests are not exclusive to this
region. Rather, rainforests extend well beyond the limits of the tropics. Rainforests that
occur outside of the tropical zone are referred to as temperate rainforests.
20. (B) Te term scale refers to a ratio between distances portrayed on a map and actual distances on the earth’s surface that correspond to this map. To be useful, every map must include a scale that provides a corresponding ratio between distance on the map and actual distance on the earth’s surface. An example of a map scale could be one inch on a map equals one mile on the actual surface of the earth.
21. (D) Processes of globalization, which result in the growth of global interconnections and interdependencies, are most closely associated with capitalism. Capitalism is a prevalent socioeconomic system that is characterized by private ownership, free enterprise, and profit motives. It is closely associated with globalization because capitalist expansion into new geographies of production and consumption are often cited as drivers behind the growth of global interconnections and interdependencies.
22. (E) A subfield of geography that deals holistically with the environmental and human
attributes of a particular territory is known as regional geography. Regional geographers
endeavor to understand how physical and cultural geographical features interrelate to form
distinct regions, or spatial territories, whose attributes are uniquely different from other
parts of the world. One example of a prominent regional approach would be Latin Ameri-
23. (C) Remote sensing most directly refers to geographical techniques that collect infor-
mation about the earth’s surface from distantiated, or remote, perspectives. Remote sensing
actually refers to a variety of techniques that capture data about the earth’s surface from a
distance. Remote-sensing techniques include satellite imagery and aerial photography, to
cite two examples. While geographic information systems, or GIS, often incorporate data
gathered through remote-sensing techniques, they encompass a broader range of tools and
techniques than remote sensing alone.
24. (C) In cognitive space, perceived boundaries such as frontiers, horizons, borders, and shorelines are known as edges. Edges typically signify the outer limits of a particular place or region that distinguish it as finite and distinctive.
25. (A) In the context of the contemporary United States, a strip mall shopping center best exemplifies an ordinary landscape. Ordinary landscapes include scenes and spaces of daily life that individuals encounter on a regular basis and that often become a taken-for-granted aspect of their experience of the world.
26. (B) Te forced dispersion of Jews from their ethnic homeland, which took place across many centuries, is a prominent example of diaspora. A diaspora describes the dispersion of an ethnic group from its homeland, typically as the result of direct or indirect outside forces that cause members of the group to relocate.
27. (C) Te site of Mexico City is best described as a highland valley and dry lakebed
located on a high plateau in southern central Mexico. While the remaining selections all
accurately characterize Mexico City, they describe its situation rather than its site. Site
refers to a place’s local physical and environmental characteristics, while situation refers to a
place’s location relative to other places as well as its social significance in regional, national,
or international contexts.
28. (D) Distance expressed in terms of the perceived amount of space separating one place
from another best illustrates the concept of cognitive distance. Cognitive distance describes
a highly subjective perception of distance that varies from person to person and from con-
text to context. For instance, being able to pick up the phone to connect to someone living
thousands of miles away tends to reduce the cognitive distance perceived to separate these
29. (A) In cartography, parallels refer to lines of latitude. Lines of latitude, which encircle the earth along an east-west axis, are often referred to as parallels because they are perfectly parallel to one another. Unlike lines of longitude, which converge at the North and South Poles, lines of latitude never converge or intersect with one another.
path in cognitive space. Paths describe spatial passages or conduits that facilitate movement,
rather than inhibiting it such as a thick, impenetrable forest would suggest. An impenetrable
forest is more likely to be perceived as an edge, or boundary, in cognitive space.
31. (C) Spain and Morocco are the only states that possess territory located along the Strait of Gibraltar. Te Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow oceanic waterway that links the Atlantic Ocean, to the west, with the Mediterranean Sea, to the east. It also separates Spain, to the north, from Morocco, to the south.
32. (B) Tematic maps that employ a range of color tones to illustrate how particular values vary across predefined areas, such as counties, provinces, or states, are referred to as choropleth maps. A basic example would be a presidential election map of the United States in which each of the 50 states is colored either red or blue, according to which political party candidate received the majority of votes in each state.
33. (D) Curves on a topographic map that are used to illustrate specific values of elevation above or below sea level are known as contour lines. Topographical contours are typically irregularly shaped lines that connect points of equal elevation. Contour lines also illustrate the relative slope of elevation between various points. For instance, the slope between two points separated by ten contour lines would be greater than the slope between two points separated by only one or two contour lines.
34. (B) Within the context of this data, 200 miles represents a critical distance. A critical distance is a threshold of distance beyond which the requisite travel costs or efforts are too great to make the journey viable or worthwhile for an individual or group.
35. (A) Map projections that preserve and accurately represent the shape of the geographi-
cal areas and features are said to be conformal.
36. (A) A cylindrical map projection would be most appropriate for producing a world
map in which the equatorial zone is least distorted. As the name suggests, cylindrical pro-
jections represent the globe as if it were enclosed within a cylinder, much like the thought
of placing a tennis ball inside an empty soup can, then peeling off the soup can label to
derive a two-dimensional image of the globe inside. In this example, the cylindrical surface
is closest to the globe at its midregion, the earth’s equator, where the globe is the greatest
in circumference. Another way to state this relationship would be to say that the cylindrical
projection is usually tangent to the earth’s equator. Because cylindrical projections are typi-
cally tangent to the earth’s equator, the middle latitudes are typically less distorted than the
higher and lower latitudes in cylindrical projections.
37. (E) Te cardinal points north, east, south, and west correspond to absolute direction. Teir directions are absolute because they are based on physical astrological and geographi-
cal phenomena, such as the movement of the sun and the stars, which do not vary from place to place or culture to culture.
38. (D) Geomorphology, which is the study of landforms and landform processes, is the
field of study that is leastassociated with human geography among the choices provided.
Geomorphology is more closely aligned to physical geography. Human geography, on the other hand, is aligned with a variety of human-centered fields of study, including political science, anthropology, sociology, history, economics, cultural ecology, psychology, linguis-
tics, religious studies, gender studies, urban planning, and demography.
39. (E) Accessibility and connectivity are two interrelated ways to describe spatial interac-
tions between two or more objects distributed throughout space. Accessibility refers to the
relative distance separating things in space, as well as the relative costs or difficulties inherent
to accessing something in space. Connectivity refers to the quality of relations between two
or more objects in space.
40. (C) Relative to lines of latitude near the equator, lines of latitude near the poles are shorter. Tis is the case because the overall circumference of the earth is smaller near the poles than at its center, near the equator.
41. (A) A network is a spatial domain of nodes, or places, that are integrated into a unified and functional system by a common set of linkages, routes, or connections.
(B) A network describes orderly flows of information, goods, or people that circulate
between the various nodes in the system’s domain. In this way it describes regular patterns
of mobility between a set of determinate places. These patterns of movement describe how
flows of information, goods, or people diffuse from place to place along preexisting routes
or linkages that direct these flows in orderly and predictable directions. Also, because a
network is defined as a functional system of nodes and linkages, or places and routes, it
implies that each of these parts are interdependent on one another to keep flows of informa-
tion, goods, or people circulating within the network. If one node or linkage breaks down,
the entire flow of the network is also likely to become disrupted. Similarly, the network
concept implies a system of relations between different places, so each is spatially situated in a unique position relative to the others. For instance, a place or node located closer to
the middle of the network could be said to be more centrally located than a place or node
located on the periphery.
(C) Networks are particularly relevant tools for describing spatial interactions in a global-
ized era because they are capable of representing complex, functional interrelationships
and interdependencies among a growing number of places scattered across the globe. For
instance, whereas all the parts for an automobile might have been manufactured in one fac-
tory 50 years ago, today the various parts of an automobile might be manufactured in doz-
ens of different factories around the world. Given this complexity, a network diagram would
be capable of demonstrating how an automobile’s chain of production flows through many
different factories in a globalized system of automobile manufacturing. Similarly, during a
globalized era in which personal and professional social ties are becoming more distantiated
and less place-based, virtual social networks provide an effective approach for understanding
the spatial complexities of any particular individual’s social linkages.
42. Many geographers theorize that a sense of placelessness is becoming a common way
that people relate to their surroundings in modern, highly developed societies. While this
theory is difficult to verify, there are many rationales to support it. First, with the rise of