Chapter 1--the Sociological Perspective



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Chapter 1--The Sociological Perspective

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. _____ is the view that generalizations are valid only if they rely on evidence that can be observed directly or verified through our senses. 
A. Psychology
B. Scientific method
C. Sociological imagination
D. Empiricism
E. none of these

 

2. Which of the following is (are) a component of the definition of sociology? 


A. society
B. science
C. social interactions
D. human
E. all of the above

 

3. The main goal of sociology is to: 


A. accurately predict the future.
B. rectify social problems.
C. understand the forces that mold individuals and shape their behavior.
D. help government agencies to explain the events that affect us.
E. prepare the individual for becoming a member of society.

 

4. Which of the following is the major focus of the field of psychology? 


A. human society
B. helping people solve problems
C. the operations of government
D. individual behavior and mental processes
E. all of the above

 

5. The main focus or unit of analysis for sociologists is: 


A. groups.
B. strange people.
C. individuals.
D. unusual occurrences.
E. events which other sciences cannot explain.

 

6. _____ have developed techniques for measuring such things as prices, supply and demand, money supplies, rates of inflation and employment. 


A. Journalists
B. Economists
C. Talk show hosts
D. Sociologist
E. Anthropologists

 

7. According to _____, the task of the sociological imagination is to see the relationship between individual experiences and larger social forces. 


A. Harriet Martineau
B. Karl Marx
C. C. Wright Mills
D. Emile Durkheim
E. Auguste Comte

 

8. The sociological imagination asks us to 


A. broaden our perspective beyond individual experiences.
B. narrow our perspective by looking only at particular events.
C. theorize without seeking actual evidence.
D. improve our society.
E. suspend judgment until all of the facts have been gathered.

 

9. The sociological imagination would have us view an individual's mate selection as based on: 


A. the social values we internalize from our family.
B. the social values we internalize from our peers.
C. the social values we internalize from our neighbors.
D. the social values we internalize from television heroes.
E. all of the above.

 

10. Both sociologists and psychologists are interested in alcoholism; however in investigating alcoholism, a _____ would be most interested in the patterns of alcohol consumption among individuals and social groups. 


A. psychologist
B. sociologist
C. both of these
D. neither of these

 

11. Which of the following social sciences is interested in employment, recession, inflation, and price indices? 


A. Political science.
B. Sociology.
C. Social psychology.
D. Economics.
E. History.

 

12. Both sociologists and historians are interested in the past. Using a recent military war as a case for investigation, a sociologist would be most interested in: 


A. particular battles and how they were won or lost.
B. individual military and political leaders and the strategies they developed.
C. whether American involvement in the war was moral or immoral.
D. the impact of the war on political attitudes and events in the United States.
E. how various smaller battles affected the outcome of the larger war.

 

13. What is the main difference between sociology and social work? 


A. Sociology uses theory and social work does not.
B. Social work overlaps with psychology while sociology does not.
C. Social workers help people with problems while sociologists try to understand why problems exist.
D. There really is no difference between sociology and social work.
E. Because their research may be misused, sociologists have higher ethical standards.

 

14. Why did sociology as a discipline emerge? 


A. Rapid social change was occurring.
B. There was a need for a systematic analysis of society.
C. People were affected by the impact of discovering how others lived.
D. a and b above.
E. a, b and c above.

 

15. Who gave sociology its name? 


A. Auguste Comte.
B. Èmile Durkheim.
C. Karl Marx.
D. Henri Saint-Simon.
E. Herbert J. Simpson.

 

16. According to Comte, social statics was the study of 


A. how the institutions in society are interrelated.
B. how social change takes place during periods of revolution.
C. how to rebuilt societies when the moral fabric has declined.
D. how sociology can become a separate academic discipline.
E. how societies pass through stages of development over time.

 

17. According to Comte, the focus of social dynamics is: 


A. how societies develop and change over time.
B. the interrelationships of social institutions and their stability.
C. the idea of a perfect society.
D. how groups can be unpredictable.
E. the relationship between the individual and the social group.

 

18. Who of the following was (were) a pioneer in the development of the science of sociology? 


A. Èmile Durkheim.
B. Harriet Martineau.
C. Max Weber.
D. Karl Marx.
E. all of the above

 

19. This sociologist published Theory and Practice of Society in America which was based on traveling though 19th Century America and conducting an analysis of day--to-day life, customs, and lifestyles. 


A. Harriet Martineau
B. Auguste Comte.
C. Herbert Spencer.
D. W.E.B.DuBois.
E. Robert Merton

 

20. Suicides by people who kill themselves out of a sense of duty to the group or self-sacrifice would be termed _____ suicides by Durkheim. 


A. egoistic.
B. altruistic.
C. anomic.
D. atomic.

 

21. During periods of rapid social change, the suicide rate often increases.  Durkheim would term such suicides: 


A. particularistic.
B. anomic.
C. egoistic.
D. altruistic.
E. fatalistic.

 

22. You just learned that a person you knew in high school committed suicide.  You were surprised until you later learned that the person had developed into something of a "loner" and had cut off ties with her church, family, and closest friends. Complicating matters, your friend had been unemployed for many months.  Following Durkheim, you would be most likely to classify her suicide as: 


A. altruistic.
B. fatalistic.
C. anomic.
D. egoistic.
E. particularistic.

 

23. Of the following theorists, who believed that the entire history of human societies could be seen as a history of struggles between those who own and control the means of production and those who do the work? 


A. Èmile Durkheim.
B. Karl Marx.
C. Herbert Spencer.
D. Max Weber.
E. Harriet Martineau.

 

24. Karl Marx equated power with 


A. elitism purchased by excessive wealth.
B. physical attractiveness and strength.
C. possession of values that are important to a group.
D. achievement of a high level of education.
E. ownership of the means of production.

 

25. Which of the following sociological perspectives views society as a system of highly interrelated structures or parts that operate together harmoniously? 


A. conflict.
B. interactionism.
C. societalism.
D. functionalism.
E. none of the above.

 

26. Marx predicted that eventually 


A. workers and owners would work things out through better labor laws.
B. workers would organize and take control of the economy.
C. owners would redistribute wealth more equitably to workers.
D. the most powerful would prevail and control everyone else.
E. owner-sponsored unions could develop and intervene on behalf of the worker.

 

27. Which of the following is a finding from Durkheim's study of suicide? 


A. Protestants have higher suicide rates than Catholics.
B. Single people have higher suicide rates than married people.
C. People without children have higher suicide rates than people with children.
D. a, b, & c above.
E. none of the above.

 

28. Members of the cult in Jonestown committed suicide by drinking Kool-Aid laced with cyanide at the request of their leader Jim Jones. This type of suicide would be characterized by Durkheim as 


A. altruistic.
B. anomic.
C. egoistic.
D. integrated.
E. unintegrated.

 

29. Durkheim was interested in suicide primarily because he wanted 


A. to solve a major social problem in the France of his day.
B. to show that what was thought to be a personal act was patterned by social forces.
C. to show that psychological conditions, for example depression, were more important than economic conditions in suicide rates.
D. all of the above.

 

30. Who was the first African-American to receive a PhD from Harvard? 


A. Harriet Martineau.
B. W.E.B. Du Bois.
C. W.I. Thomas.
D. Robert K. Merton.
E. Herbert Spencer.

 

31. Sociologically, the positive connection between hours of study and students test scores demonstrates _____ preparing before taking examinations. 


A. a finding about test taking ability, not the
B. random event unconnected to the
C. an example of the need for intervention for students who are unengaged in
D. a latent function of
E. a manifest function of

 

32. Where hillsides have been cleared to provide lumber for housing boom, rain often causes mud-slides.  Sociologists would regard mudslides as 


A. the negative effects of global warming which has increased rainfall nationally.
B. a cost which has to be born, by some members of society for the betterment of others.
C. a bad method of securing lumber.
D. a major outcome of a clash of values over which policies are best for America.
E. a latent outcome of that method of cutting trees on hillsides where rain is a possibility.

 

33. Marx's view of societies is considered the basis for which of the following perspectives in sociology? 


A. functionalist.
B. conflict.
C. symbolic interactionist.
D. ethnomethodological.
E. reactionary.

 

34. DuBois argued for the acceptance of African Americans into: 


A. law schools.
B. medical schools.
C. the clergy.
D. the military.
E. all areas of society.

 

35. A sociological theory concerned with the issues of who benefits from particular social arrangements and how the powerful maintain their positions is known as 


A. conflict theory.
B. coercion theory.
C. functionalism.
D. symbolic interactionism.
E. concentric zone theory.

 

36. Which of the following is not true about the sociologist, W.E.B. Du Bois? 


A. Because of institutionalized racism, he was never able to obtain a college degree.
B. He advocated militant resistance to white racism.
C. He believed that doctrines and theories had a powerful effect on social conditions.
D. He felt sociological studies of African Americans would have a positive effect on white public opinion.

 

37. Which of the following characterizes the interactionist perspective? 


A. How individuals develop their sense of self has been a major focus of interactionists.
B. Interactionists are more likely than functionalists to base their work on the theories of Mead, Garfinkel, and Goffman.
C. Ethnomethodology and dramaturgy can be thought of as part of the interactionistperspective.
D. a, b, & c above
E. none of the above

 

38. A symbolic interactionist would be most likely to ask which of the following questions? 


A. What function does the education system serve for the larger society?
B. Why is education a useful service?
C. How is the educational system used to benefit those in power?
D. What messages are communicated to students by the structure in which education takes place?
E. How does the economic system determine the welfare system?

 

39. Which of the following perspectives is concerned, primarily, with the meaning that people place on their own and one another's behavior? 


A. Functionalism
B. Symbolic interactionism
C. Conflict theory
D. Middle-range theory
E. Ethnomethodology

 

40. The main purpose of a paradigm is to 


A. provide a model or conceptual framework for asking questions and guiding research
B. legitimate sociology as a science relative to other forms of knowledge
C. eliminate the need to collect data as the theory can tell one the answer in advance
D. differentiate sociology from other sciences.
E. show the growth of the field of sociology relative to social work, history, psychology, cultural anthropology, and economics.

 

41. Egoistic suicide comes from: 


A. over involvement with others
B. a general uncertainty from norm confusion
C. overall feelings of depressions resulting from economic setbacks
D. low group solidarity and under involvement with others
E. feelings of confusion due to rapid social change in one's life status

 

42. Social Darwinism attributes one’s lack of success to: 


A. the inferiority of the individual
B. barriers created by society
C. barriers created by fear
D. racism
E. sexism

 

43. Principles of Sociology, the first sociology textbook, was written by: 


A. Harriet Martineau
B. Auguste Comte
C. Wright Mills
D. Herbert Spencer
E. W.E.B. DuBois

 

44. C. Wright Mills used the term _____ to refer to the relationship between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shape our actions. 


A. phenomenology
B. sociological imagination
C. social science
D. social dynamics
E. social conflict

 

45. Who was the first sociology professor? 


A. Karl Marx
B. Emile’ Durkheim
C. Harriet Martineau
D. W.E.B. DuBois
E. Herbert Spencer

 

46. What did Robert K. Merton call “social processes that contribute to the on-going operation or maintenance of society?” 


A. Social functions
B. Manifest functions
C. Latent functions
D. Paradigms
E. Perspectives

 

47. Durkheim’s first scientifically conducted sociological study dealt with what topic? 


A. hunger
B. capitalism
C. suicide
D. phenomenology
E. economics

 

48. Herbert Spencer believed that society is similar to a: 


A. small group
B. primitive tribe
C. aggregate
D. human brain
E. living organism

 

49. The intended and recognized consequences of social processes. 


A. Manifest functions
B. Latent functions
C. Misfunctions
D. Dysfunctions
E. Malfunctions

 

50. Untended and not readily recognized consequences of social processes. 


A. Manifest functions
B. Latent functions
C. Misfunctions
D. Dysfunctions
E. Malfunctions

 

51. Who developed the theory of “Social Darwinism?” 


A. Auguste Comte
B. Emile’ Durkheim
C. Herbert Spencer
D. J.D. Rockefeller
E. W.E.B. DuBois

 

52. Who is a noted pioneer in the development of the science of sociology? 


A. Emile’ Durkheim
B. Harriet Martineau
C. Max Weber
D. Herbert Spencer
E. All of the above

 

53. You just learned that a person you knew committed suicide.  You were surprised until you later learned that the person had developed into somewhat of a “loner” and had cut off ties with church, family and close friends.  Complicating matters, your friend had been unemployed for many months.  Following Durkheim, you would be most likely to classify the suicide as: 


A. altruistic
B. fatalistic
C. anomic
D. egoistic
E. mystic

 

54. _____ theorists contend that social change is pushed forward by social conflict. 


A. Functionalist
B. Conflict
C. Interactionist
D. Darwinist
E. None of these

 

55. Which sociological perspective is focused on how individuals make sense of or interpret their social world? 


A. Interactionist
B. Conflict
C. Functionalist
D. Societalist
E. All of these

 

56. The Functionalist perspective and _____ can be thought of as opposite sides of the same coin. 


A. Social Darwinism
B. Social Interactionist
C. Conflict Theory
D. Social Work
E. Criminology

 

57. In order to understand other people, we must stop looking at the world from a perspective based solely on our own individual experiences. 


True    False

 

58. The sociological imagination involves looking at all types of human behavior and discerning unseen connections among them. 


True    False

 

59. When common sense is correct or "makes sense," it is usually after-the-fact. 


True    False

 

60. Because of their experiences with a wide variety of human behaviors, talk show hosts generally are good sociologists. 


True    False

 

61. The social sciences differ from the physical sciences because, while social sciences can provide valuable insights, they are not able to apply the scientific method to the study of social concerns. 


True    False

 

62. A paradigm is a body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws. 


True    False

 

63. Harriet Martineau conducted an early sociological study of behaviors in everyday life. 


True    False

 

64. Psychology and sociology share the common element of having the individual as the primary focus of the analysis. 


True    False

 

65. The social science most similar to sociology is cultural anthropology. 


True    False

 

66. Auguste Comte was more concerned with defining sociology's subject matter than with showing how it would improve the lives of people in society. 


True    False

 

67. Harriet Martineau's translation of Auguste Comte's Positive Philosophy introduced the field of sociology to England. 


True    False

 

68. Herbert Spencer was well known for saying that society resembles a living organism in its structure and operation. 


True    False

 

69. “Class conflict” refers to the tension between those who work hard and those who do not work to their fullest potential. 


True    False

 

70. Sociology became recognized in the United States in the beginning of the twentieth century. 


True    False

 

71. The early growth of American Sociology took place at Harvard University. 


True    False

 

72. Sociological theory gives meaning to sociological practice. 


True    False

 

73. Practice uninformed by theory is ineffective. 


True    False

 

74. Sociology developed in Europe during a time of peace and social tranquility. 


True    False

 

75. The Industrial Revolution had an impact on the development of sociology. 


True    False

 

76. During the early years of sociology in the United States, most of the field's development took place at the Harvard University under the direction of W.E.B. DuBois. 


True    False

 

77. The main focus of early American sociology was urban problems. 


True    False

 

78. Egoistic suicide is less likely among college students because of the attachments a campus provides. 


True    False

 

79. W.E.B. DuBois argued that it was entirely up to African Americans to alter their status in American society. 


True    False

 

80. Women made virtually no substantial contributions to the field prior to the twentieth century. 


True    False

 

81. A major criticism directed at the functionalist perspective is that it tends to be conservative in its view. 


True    False

 

82. Sociologists seldom use the scientific method in their research. 


True    False

 

83. The functionalist perspective focuses on how individuals make sense of the social world in which they find themselves. 


True    False

 

84. Auguste Comte, in addition to being one of the founders of sociology, was an early advocate for the importance of the rights of women. 


True    False

 

85. Empiricism is the view that generalizations are only valid if they involve economic forecasts. 


True    False

 

86. Discuss the major findings which emerged from Durkheim's classic study of suicide. 




 



 



 



 

 

87. Outline and discuss the Functionalist perspective and Conflict Theory.  Compare and contrast these two views. 




 



 



 



 

 

88. Provide an overview of the Interactionist perspective.  How does this view compare with the functionalist perspective and conflict theory in terms of scope of analysis, point of view, and focus of analysis? 




 



 



 



 

 

89. What is meant by the sociological imagination? Upon what does the sociological imagination focus?  What is the likelihood that sociology could or would be put to use? 




 



 



 



 

 

90. Choose a contemporary social problem. How would a proponent of the functionalist perspective view the problem you selected?  How would a proponent of conflict theory view the problem you selected?  How would a proponent of the interactionist perspective view the problem you selected? 




 



 



 



 

 
Chapter 1--The Sociological Perspective Key


 

1. _____ is the view that generalizations are valid only if they rely on evidence that can be observed directly or verified through our senses. 
A. Psychology
B. Scientific method
C. Sociological imagination
D. Empiricism
E. none of these

 

2. Which of the following is (are) a component of the definition of sociology? 


A. society
B. science
C. social interactions
D. human
E. all of the above

 

3. The main goal of sociology is to: 


A. accurately predict the future.
B. rectify social problems.
C. understand the forces that mold individuals and shape their behavior.
D. help government agencies to explain the events that affect us.
E. prepare the individual for becoming a member of society.

 

4. Which of the following is the major focus of the field of psychology? 


A. human society
B. helping people solve problems
C. the operations of government
D. individual behavior and mental processes
E. all of the above

 

5. The main focus or unit of analysis for sociologists is: 


A. groups.
B. strange people.
C. individuals.
D. unusual occurrences.
E. events which other sciences cannot explain.

 

6. _____ have developed techniques for measuring such things as prices, supply and demand, money supplies, rates of inflation and employment. 


A. Journalists
B. Economists
C. Talk show hosts
D. Sociologist
E. Anthropologists

 

7. According to _____, the task of the sociological imagination is to see the relationship between individual experiences and larger social forces. 


A. Harriet Martineau
B. Karl Marx
C. C. Wright Mills
D. Emile Durkheim
E. Auguste Comte

 

8. The sociological imagination asks us to 


A. broaden our perspective beyond individual experiences.
B. narrow our perspective by looking only at particular events.
C. theorize without seeking actual evidence.
D. improve our society.
E. suspend judgment until all of the facts have been gathered.

 

9. The sociological imagination would have us view an individual's mate selection as based on: 


A. the social values we internalize from our family.
B. the social values we internalize from our peers.
C. the social values we internalize from our neighbors.
D. the social values we internalize from television heroes.
E. all of the above.

 

10. Both sociologists and psychologists are interested in alcoholism; however in investigating alcoholism, a _____ would be most interested in the patterns of alcohol consumption among individuals and social groups. 


A. psychologist
B. sociologist
C. both of these
D. neither of these

 

11. Which of the following social sciences is interested in employment, recession, inflation, and price indices? 


A. Political science.
B. Sociology.
C. Social psychology.
D. Economics.
E. History.

 

12. Both sociologists and historians are interested in the past. Using a recent military war as a case for investigation, a sociologist would be most interested in: 


A. particular battles and how they were won or lost.
B. individual military and political leaders and the strategies they developed.
C. whether American involvement in the war was moral or immoral.
D. the impact of the war on political attitudes and events in the United States.
E. how various smaller battles affected the outcome of the larger war.

 

13. What is the main difference between sociology and social work? 


A. Sociology uses theory and social work does not.
B. Social work overlaps with psychology while sociology does not.
C. Social workers help people with problems while sociologists try to understand why problems exist.
D. There really is no difference between sociology and social work.
E. Because their research may be misused, sociologists have higher ethical standards.

 

14. Why did sociology as a discipline emerge? 


A. Rapid social change was occurring.
B. There was a need for a systematic analysis of society.
C. People were affected by the impact of discovering how others lived.
D. a and b above.
E. a, b and c above.

 

15. Who gave sociology its name? 


A. Auguste Comte.
B. Èmile Durkheim.
C. Karl Marx.
D. Henri Saint-Simon.
E. Herbert J. Simpson.

 

16. According to Comte, social statics was the study of 


A. how the institutions in society are interrelated.
B. how social change takes place during periods of revolution.
C. how to rebuilt societies when the moral fabric has declined.
D. how sociology can become a separate academic discipline.
E. how societies pass through stages of development over time.

 

17. According to Comte, the focus of social dynamics is: 


A. how societies develop and change over time.
B. the interrelationships of social institutions and their stability.
C. the idea of a perfect society.
D. how groups can be unpredictable.
E. the relationship between the individual and the social group.

 

18. Who of the following was (were) a pioneer in the development of the science of sociology? 


A. Èmile Durkheim.
B. Harriet Martineau.
C. Max Weber.
D. Karl Marx.
E. all of the above

 

19. This sociologist published Theory and Practice of Society in America which was based on traveling though 19th Century America and conducting an analysis of day--to-day life, customs, and lifestyles. 


A. Harriet Martineau
B. Auguste Comte.
C. Herbert Spencer.
D. W.E.B.DuBois.
E. Robert Merton

 

20. Suicides by people who kill themselves out of a sense of duty to the group or self-sacrifice would be termed _____ suicides by Durkheim. 


A. egoistic.
B. altruistic.
C. anomic.
D. atomic.

 

21. During periods of rapid social change, the suicide rate often increases.  Durkheim would term such suicides: 


A. particularistic.
B. anomic.
C. egoistic.
D. altruistic.
E. fatalistic.

 

22. You just learned that a person you knew in high school committed suicide.  You were surprised until you later learned that the person had developed into something of a "loner" and had cut off ties with her church, family, and closest friends. Complicating matters, your friend had been unemployed for many months.  Following Durkheim, you would be most likely to classify her suicide as: 


A. altruistic.
B. fatalistic.
C. anomic.
D. egoistic.
E. particularistic.

 

23. Of the following theorists, who believed that the entire history of human societies could be seen as a history of struggles between those who own and control the means of production and those who do the work? 


A. Èmile Durkheim.
B. Karl Marx.
C. Herbert Spencer.
D. Max Weber.
E. Harriet Martineau.

 

24. Karl Marx equated power with 


A. elitism purchased by excessive wealth.
B. physical attractiveness and strength.
C. possession of values that are important to a group.
D. achievement of a high level of education.
E. ownership of the means of production.

 

25. Which of the following sociological perspectives views society as a system of highly interrelated structures or parts that operate together harmoniously? 


A. conflict.
B. interactionism.
C. societalism.
D. functionalism.
E. none of the above.

 

26. Marx predicted that eventually 


A. workers and owners would work things out through better labor laws.
B. workers would organize and take control of the economy.
C. owners would redistribute wealth more equitably to workers.
D. the most powerful would prevail and control everyone else.
E. owner-sponsored unions could develop and intervene on behalf of the worker.

 

27. Which of the following is a finding from Durkheim's study of suicide? 


A. Protestants have higher suicide rates than Catholics.
B. Single people have higher suicide rates than married people.
C. People without children have higher suicide rates than people with children.
D. a, b, & c above.
E. none of the above.

 

28. Members of the cult in Jonestown committed suicide by drinking Kool-Aid laced with cyanide at the request of their leader Jim Jones. This type of suicide would be characterized by Durkheim as 


A. altruistic.
B. anomic.
C. egoistic.
D. integrated.
E. unintegrated.

 

29. Durkheim was interested in suicide primarily because he wanted 


A. to solve a major social problem in the France of his day.
B. to show that what was thought to be a personal act was patterned by social forces.
C. to show that psychological conditions, for example depression, were more important than economic conditions in suicide rates.
D. all of the above.

 

30. Who was the first African-American to receive a PhD from Harvard? 


A. Harriet Martineau.
B. W.E.B. Du Bois.
C. W.I. Thomas.
D. Robert K. Merton.
E. Herbert Spencer.

 

31. Sociologically, the positive connection between hours of study and students test scores demonstrates _____ preparing before taking examinations. 


A. a finding about test taking ability, not the
B. random event unconnected to the
C. an example of the need for intervention for students who are unengaged in
D. a latent function of
E. a manifest function of

 

32. Where hillsides have been cleared to provide lumber for housing boom, rain often causes mud-slides.  Sociologists would regard mudslides as 


A. the negative effects of global warming which has increased rainfall nationally.
B. a cost which has to be born, by some members of society for the betterment of others.
C. a bad method of securing lumber.
D. a major outcome of a clash of values over which policies are best for America.
E. a latent outcome of that method of cutting trees on hillsides where rain is a possibility.

 

33. Marx's view of societies is considered the basis for which of the following perspectives in sociology? 


A. functionalist.
B. conflict.
C. symbolic interactionist.
D. ethnomethodological.
E. reactionary.

 

34. DuBois argued for the acceptance of African Americans into: 


A. law schools.
B. medical schools.
C. the clergy.
D. the military.
E. all areas of society.

 

35. A sociological theory concerned with the issues of who benefits from particular social arrangements and how the powerful maintain their positions is known as 


A. conflict theory.
B. coercion theory.
C. functionalism.
D. symbolic interactionism.
E. concentric zone theory.

 

36. Which of the following is not true about the sociologist, W.E.B. Du Bois? 


A. Because of institutionalized racism, he was never able to obtain a college degree.
B. He advocated militant resistance to white racism.
C. He believed that doctrines and theories had a powerful effect on social conditions.
D. He felt sociological studies of African Americans would have a positive effect on white public opinion.

 

37. Which of the following characterizes the interactionist perspective? 


A. How individuals develop their sense of self has been a major focus of interactionists.
B. Interactionists are more likely than functionalists to base their work on the theories of Mead, Garfinkel, and Goffman.
C. Ethnomethodology and dramaturgy can be thought of as part of the interactionistperspective.
D. a, b, & c above
E. none of the above

 

38. A symbolic interactionist would be most likely to ask which of the following questions? 


A. What function does the education system serve for the larger society?
B. Why is education a useful service?
C. How is the educational system used to benefit those in power?
D. What messages are communicated to students by the structure in which education takes place?
E. How does the economic system determine the welfare system?

 

39. Which of the following perspectives is concerned, primarily, with the meaning that people place on their own and one another's behavior? 


A. Functionalism
B. Symbolic interactionism
C. Conflict theory
D. Middle-range theory
E. Ethnomethodology

 

40. The main purpose of a paradigm is to 


A. provide a model or conceptual framework for asking questions and guiding research
B. legitimate sociology as a science relative to other forms of knowledge
C. eliminate the need to collect data as the theory can tell one the answer in advance
D. differentiate sociology from other sciences.
E. show the growth of the field of sociology relative to social work, history, psychology, cultural anthropology, and economics.

 

41. Egoistic suicide comes from: 


A. over involvement with others
B. a general uncertainty from norm confusion
C. overall feelings of depressions resulting from economic setbacks
D. low group solidarity and under involvement with others
E. feelings of confusion due to rapid social change in one's life status

 

42. Social Darwinism attributes one’s lack of success to: 


A. the inferiority of the individual
B. barriers created by society
C. barriers created by fear
D. racism
E. sexism

 

43. Principles of Sociology, the first sociology textbook, was written by: 


A. Harriet Martineau
B. Auguste Comte
C. Wright Mills
D. Herbert Spencer
E. W.E.B. DuBois

 

44. C. Wright Mills used the term _____ to refer to the relationship between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shape our actions. 


A. phenomenology
B. sociological imagination
C. social science
D. social dynamics
E. social conflict

 

45. Who was the first sociology professor? 


A. Karl Marx
B. Emile’ Durkheim
C. Harriet Martineau
D. W.E.B. DuBois
E. Herbert Spencer

 

46. What did Robert K. Merton call “social processes that contribute to the on-going operation or maintenance of society?” 


A. Social functions
B. Manifest functions
C. Latent functions
D. Paradigms
E. Perspectives

 

47. Durkheim’s first scientifically conducted sociological study dealt with what topic? 


A. hunger
B. capitalism
C. suicide
D. phenomenology
E. economics

 

48. Herbert Spencer believed that society is similar to a: 


A. small group
B. primitive tribe
C. aggregate
D. human brain
E. living organism

 

49. The intended and recognized consequences of social processes. 


A. Manifest functions
B. Latent functions
C. Misfunctions
D. Dysfunctions
E. Malfunctions

 

50. Untended and not readily recognized consequences of social processes. 


A. Manifest functions
B. Latent functions
C. Misfunctions
D. Dysfunctions
E. Malfunctions

 

51. Who developed the theory of “Social Darwinism?” 


A. Auguste Comte
B. Emile’ Durkheim
C. Herbert Spencer
D. J.D. Rockefeller
E. W.E.B. DuBois

 

52. Who is a noted pioneer in the development of the science of sociology? 


A. Emile’ Durkheim
B. Harriet Martineau
C. Max Weber
D. Herbert Spencer
E. All of the above

 

53. You just learned that a person you knew committed suicide.  You were surprised until you later learned that the person had developed into somewhat of a “loner” and had cut off ties with church, family and close friends.  Complicating matters, your friend had been unemployed for many months.  Following Durkheim, you would be most likely to classify the suicide as: 


A. altruistic
B. fatalistic
C. anomic
D. egoistic
E. mystic

 

54. _____ theorists contend that social change is pushed forward by social conflict. 


A. Functionalist
B. Conflict
C. Interactionist
D. Darwinist
E. None of these

 

55. Which sociological perspective is focused on how individuals make sense of or interpret their social world? 


A. Interactionist
B. Conflict
C. Functionalist
D. Societalist
E. All of these

 

56. The Functionalist perspective and _____ can be thought of as opposite sides of the same coin. 


A. Social Darwinism
B. Social Interactionist
C. Conflict Theory
D. Social Work
E. Criminology

 

57. In order to understand other people, we must stop looking at the world from a perspective based solely on our own individual experiences. 


TRUE

 

58. The sociological imagination involves looking at all types of human behavior and discerning unseen connections among them. 


TRUE

 

59. When common sense is correct or "makes sense," it is usually after-the-fact. 


TRUE

 

60. Because of their experiences with a wide variety of human behaviors, talk show hosts generally are good sociologists. 


FALSE

 

61. The social sciences differ from the physical sciences because, while social sciences can provide valuable insights, they are not able to apply the scientific method to the study of social concerns. 


FALSE

 

62. A paradigm is a body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws. 


FALSE

 

63. Harriet Martineau conducted an early sociological study of behaviors in everyday life. 


TRUE

 

64. Psychology and sociology share the common element of having the individual as the primary focus of the analysis. 


FALSE

 

65. The social science most similar to sociology is cultural anthropology. 


TRUE

 

66. Auguste Comte was more concerned with defining sociology's subject matter than with showing how it would improve the lives of people in society. 


FALSE

 

67. Harriet Martineau's translation of Auguste Comte's Positive Philosophy introduced the field of sociology to England. 


TRUE

 

68. Herbert Spencer was well known for saying that society resembles a living organism in its structure and operation. 


TRUE

 

69. “Class conflict” refers to the tension between those who work hard and those who do not work to their fullest potential. 


FALSE

 

70. Sociology became recognized in the United States in the beginning of the twentieth century. 


TRUE

 

71. The early growth of American Sociology took place at Harvard University. 


FALSE

 

72. Sociological theory gives meaning to sociological practice. 


TRUE

 

73. Practice uninformed by theory is ineffective. 


TRUE

 

74. Sociology developed in Europe during a time of peace and social tranquility. 


FALSE

 

75. The Industrial Revolution had an impact on the development of sociology. 


TRUE

 

76. During the early years of sociology in the United States, most of the field's development took place at the Harvard University under the direction of W.E.B. DuBois. 


FALSE

 

77. The main focus of early American sociology was urban problems. 


TRUE

 

78. Egoistic suicide is less likely among college students because of the attachments a campus provides. 


TRUE

 

79. W.E.B. DuBois argued that it was entirely up to African Americans to alter their status in American society. 


FALSE

 

80. Women made virtually no substantial contributions to the field prior to the twentieth century. 


FALSE

 

81. A major criticism directed at the functionalist perspective is that it tends to be conservative in its view. 


TRUE

 

82. Sociologists seldom use the scientific method in their research. 


FALSE

 

83. The functionalist perspective focuses on how individuals make sense of the social world in which they find themselves. 


TRUE

 

84. Auguste Comte, in addition to being one of the founders of sociology, was an early advocate for the importance of the rights of women. 


FALSE

 

85. Empiricism is the view that generalizations are only valid if they involve economic forecasts. 


FALSE

 

86. Discuss the major findings which emerged from Durkheim's classic study of suicide. 



Not Provided

 

87. Outline and discuss the Functionalist perspective and Conflict Theory.  Compare and contrast these two views. 



Not Provided

 

88. Provide an overview of the Interactionist perspective.  How does this view compare with the functionalist perspective and conflict theory in terms of scope of analysis, point of view, and focus of analysis? 



Not Provided

 

89. What is meant by the sociological imagination? Upon what does the sociological imagination focus?  What is the likelihood that sociology could or would be put to use? 



Not Provided

 

90. Choose a contemporary social problem. How would a proponent of the functionalist perspective view the problem you selected?  How would a proponent of conflict theory view the problem you selected?  How would a proponent of the interactionist perspective view the problem you selected? 



Not Provided

 


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