Chapter 08: Political Geography Multiple Choice

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Chapter 08: Political Geography

Multiple Choice

  1. The promotion of the acquisition of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets during Europe’s rebirth was called

  1. What ultimately proved to be the undoing of monarchical absolutism and its system of patronage during Europe’s rebirth?

  1. Which is not characteristic of unitary state governments?

  1. Nigeria is a state with a federal system of government. This fact is reflected in the adoption of _________ law in the states of the Muslim North.

  1. The movement of power from the central government regional governments is referred to as

  1. Which country has experienced violent devolution?

  1. In 1997 Scotland took a major devolutionary step with the establishment of

  1. In Italy, the Northern League’s desire for independence was based on the economic difference between the northern Po region and the southern Mezzogiorno. These differences are attributed to

  1. Distance, remoteness and marginal location enhance the potential for devolution. This form of devolution is referred to as

  1. The rise of the modern state idea, where territory defined society rather than society defining territory, swept through Europe in the

  1. When not all people within a state identify with the dominant sense of nationality, movements for separation of nation and territory may arise. For example the ______in ___________.

  1. Yugoslavia was a prime example of a

  1. Which is an example of a stateless-nation?

  1. The European state idea spread throughout the world through

  1. One of the most powerful impacts of colonialism was the construction of global order characterized by great differences in

  1. The highly uneven distribution of economic and political power that developed from colonialism was due to the concentration of wealth brought to

  1. Wallerstein’s views expressed in world systems theory hold that the global integrating force has been

  1. The emergence of a global capitalistic economy began to develop about

  1. __________ is an example of a core country which was never a classical colonial power.

  1. The boundaries of independent African states were drawn at the Berlin Conference and were essentially drawn

  1. The process of adjustment of the number of representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives to reflect shifts in population patterns is known as

  1. A series of concrete pillars _________ the northern boundary of Kuwait with Iraq.

  1. A boundary between countries is a

  1. The present number of countries and territories in the world is around

  1. In The Territorial Imperative, Robert Ardery argued that humans are concerned with

  1. Robert Sack’s view of human territorial behavior implies an expression of control over space and time. This control is closely related to the concept of

  1. The Peace of Westphalia is the seminal moment in the emergence of the European state. This marked the end of

  1. The boundary between the United States and Canada west of the Great Lakes is an example of a(n)

  1. Which is an example of an allocational boundary dispute?

  1. Geometric boundaries, totally unrelated to any aspects of the cultural or physical landscape, were made considerable use of by the colonial powers in

  1. The first political geographer who studied the state in detail was Friedrich Ratzel who postulated that the state resembles a biological organism. His organic theory identified ______________ as a state’s essential life

  1. Ratzel’s organic theory was converted into a subfield of political geography called geopolitics which was subsequently translated into practical national policies by some of his students. What country used geopolitics as a philosophy of expansion?

  1. One move by the old League of Nations that would have a critical impact in the second half of the twentieth century involved

  1. Participation in the United Nations serves the useful purpose of committing states to

  1. The United Nations is not a world government, but in recent years individual states have asked the United Nations to do a number of different things, the most expensive of which is

  1. The first major experiment in regional supranationalism was undertaken in Europe before World War II and involved the three countries

  1. The Marshall Plan was a post-WW II endeavor by the United States to economically revive

  1. Sir Halford Mackinder developed what would become known as the heartland theory which suggested that interior Eurasia contained a critical “pivot area” that would generate a state capable of challenging for world domination. The key to the area according to Mackinder was

  1. At the global scale, political geographers study the spatial manifestations of political processes expressed in the organization of territories with permanent population, defined territory and a government. These spatial units are called

  1. In 1943 Mackinder wrote about his concerns over the potential of Stalin’s control of the countries of Eastern Europe. His views led to the development of the United States’s containment policy and to the establishment of

  1. Recent geopolitical theory emphasizes the “deconstruction” of spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of leading western politicians and analysis of the way their ideas are used to manipulate public opinion. This field of research is called

  1. Following the disintegration of the former Soviet Union the only surviving superpower was

  1. Technically supranationalism refers to efforts by ______ or more states to forge associations for common advantage and in pursuit of common goals.

  1. The League of Nations was created in 1919 as the first international organization that would include all nations of the world. Its success was dealt a serious blow by the failure of what country to join?

  1. What country do members of the European community worry will dominate the entire group?

  1. As of 2005, which major European Union nation has not entered the Euro Monetary Zone?

  1. The European Union’s future expansion into the Muslim realm by the inclusion of __________ is highly controversial and strongly opposed by Greece.

  1. According to Alexander Murphy, attachment to region and to the European Union is greater than attachment to the state in

  1. Listed among the challenges to the state in the twenty-first century are all the following except

  1. Which of the following is either believed to have or to be actively developing nuclear weapons?

  1. In Europe prior to the mid-1600s, sovereignty was expressed over people rather than over a territory.

  1. Once a body of people is incorporated within a political boundary they are a nation.

  1. Belgium is an example of a nation-state where nation and state coincide within boundaries.

  1. According to Hartshorne, centrifugal forces work to build a nation-state.

  1. As a federal state Nigeria vests judicial power in the various states. This is illustrated by the prevalence of Sharia law in Nigeria’s Muslim north.

  1. The Rio Grande River is a geometric boundary separating the United States and Mexico.

  1. Devolution is affecting many countries in the world today.

  1. Gerrymandering refers to electoral redistricting in order to gain a political advantage.

  1. Disputes over water (e.g. among Syria, Turkey, and Iraq over the Euphrates) are examples of allocational boundary disputes.

  1. The League of Nations intervened to aid Ethiopia when attacked by Italy in the mid-1930s.

  1. Mackinder’s heartland theory of geopolitics maintained that world domination would be exercised through sea power.

  1. NAFTA is a North American supranational association for mutual economic benefit.

  1. Critical geopolitics emphasizes the analysis of diplomatic and power relations between various state groupings.

  1. Huntington’s thesis in The Clash of Civilization is similar to Wallerstein’s view that international relations are reducible to economic rather than cultural factors.

1. Discuss the European state model in terms of territory, sovereignty, homogeneity and control. Choose a state and discuss the formation and extension of control from the capital core to peripheral regions and the types of devolutionary forces within the state.

2. Discuss the boundaries of the coterminous United States in terms of boundary type and in terms of potential for various types of boundary disputes.
3. Discuss the factors needed to create a nation-state. Are there any perfect nation-states? What factors can threaten a nation-states stability?
4. Discuss core-periphery processes on a global scale. Give an example of countries or regions you believe to exemplify each of the three divisions of the world-economy (i.e., core, periphery, semi-periphery).
5. Discuss supranationalism in general terms. How has the European Union developed as a supranational entity? What do you think the future development of the European Union will be like?
6. Why is subSaharan Africa likely to face more serious problems creating cohesive independent states that would be politically stable and lack serious internal ethnic frictions?

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