Chapter 04: Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes



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Chapter 04: Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes
Multiple Choice
1. Hutterites differ from the Amish in that they

a) reject modern technology.

b) accept modern technology.

c) are Anabaptist.

d) live in Pennsylvania.
2. The only Old Order Anabaptist group who live communally rather than in family farmsteads are the

a) Hutterites

b) Brethren.

c) Mennonites.

d) Amish.
3. Reflecting its origins and cultural tradition, Hutterite leaders speak

a) American English.

b) rarely and never to outsiders.

c) Archaic German.

d) the Amish dialect of French.
4. Over 425 Hutterite communities exist in each of the following states and provinces except:

a) North Dakota.

b) Alberta.

c) Montana.

d) Saskatchewan

e) Arkansas


5. ________________ culture is conceived as small, incorporating a homogeneous population, typically rural and cohesive in cultural traits.

a) Material

b) Popular

c) Folk


d) Local
6. The ________ of a group of people includes the things they construct.

a) non-material culture

b) folk culture

c) material culture

d) pop culture
7. Which is an example of a non-material aspect of culture?

a) church building

b) religious decoration

c) burning of incense

d) an altar
8. A group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a community and who share experience, customs, and traits are referred to as a

a) local culture.

b) popular culture.

c) folk.

d) material cultural group.
9. In terms of popular culture, cities like Paris, New York, and Milan are referred to as

a) capitals.

b) local cultures.

c) world cities.

d) hearths.
10. The fact that trends in popular culture (e.g. fashion) proceed from large global centers (Milan, Paris, New York) through a series of progressively smaller cities is an example of

a) diffusion.

b) migration.

c) hierarchical diffusion.

d) relative location.
11. The changes in local culture brought about by the onslaught of popular culture tend to disrupt __________.

a) population

b) economics

c) transport connections

d) customs
12. Government efforts to discourage native practice and languages in the United States and Canada were attempts to _____________ native groups.

a) segregate

b) protect

c) eradicate

d) assimilate
13. Efforts to conserve local cultures often focus on the local ____________.

a) landmarks

b) boundaries

c) mobility

d) customs

14. Buying a Native American styled dream catcher at a Wal-Mart store in Ohio is an example of

a) cultural appropriation.

b) local custom.

c) assimilation.

d) cultural persistence.


Ans: A

Link to: 4.2

Difficulty: Medium

Type: Applied/Critical Thinking

15. Anabaptist groups have tried to restrict contact with the outside world by

a) migrating to rural areas.

b) joining the National Council of Churches.

c) adopting distinctive modes of dress.

d) political protest.
16. “Little Sweden” in Lindsborg, Kansas is a good example:

a) tribalism.

b) globalization.

c) neolocalism.

d) placelessness.
17. Rural local cultures are often dependent on a single economic activity. Customs, beliefs, and artifacts are often intimately bound up with the economic activities. For example, the customs of the Plains Indians in early nineteenth-century North America focused on

a) corn agriculture.

b) cattle and sheep herding.

c) fishing.

d) bison hunting.
18. The Makah of Washington State reinstituted _______________ as a means of solidifying their culture and reconnecting with their past.

a) whaling

b) shamanism

c) courses in Makah history at the local college

d) study of the Makah language
19. In 2000, there were over 60 Hutterite Colonies in __________

a) Montana and Minnesota.

b) Alberta and Manitoba.

c) British Columbia and North Dakota.

d) British Columbia and Washington.

20. According to the text, the Makah whalers used a 50-caliber rifle to kill the gray whale they hunted because

a) it was a traditional custom.

b) it was required by the International Whaling Commission.

c) they had lost knowledge of ancestral harpoon technique.

d) it was more economically efficient.


21. The building of a sense of community identity around the idea of “Swedish-ness” in Lindsborg, Kansas is an example of

a) assimilation.

b) cultural appropriation.

c) globalization.

d) neolocalism.
22. Urban local cultures as in Brooklyn, New York and North End Boston, Massachusetts are seen as positive examples of _____________, places of cultural persistence.

a) ghettoes

b) ethnic neighborhoods

c) assimilation

d) global villages

23. Recently, Puerto Ricans living in Spanish Harlem in New York feel themselves challenged by the influx of Mexican immigrants to the neighborhood. This would be an example of the threat of _____________ to an ethnic neighborhood.

a) popular culture

b) other ethnic groups

c) assimilation

d) Gentrification


24. One of the challenges to urban ethnic neighborhoods mentioned in the text is

a) immigration of members of the popular culture.

b) federal tax laws.

c) a breakdown in the sense of separateness.

d) assimilation.
25. Cultural appropriation for purposes of profit (e.g., naming a beer for a Lakota chief) is referred to as an example of

a) cultural imperialism.

b) commodification.

c) ethnic insensitivity.

d) product branding.

26. The commodification process of a local custom or artifact often leads to the development of an image of “authenticity” which amounts to an example of

a) cultural relativism.

b) cultural parasitism.

c) cultural stereotyping.

d) local autonomy.


27. Branson, Missouri capitalizes on local culture by presenting it as _____________ for tourist consumption.

a) popular

b) timeless

c) cosmopolitan

d) “authentic”
28. The “lost city” located in Sun City, South Africa is a good example of:

a) an authentic landscape.

b) the commodification of nature.

c) an ethnic enclave.

d) modernization.
29. In 1830 there were over 290 local breweries in Ireland. The number declined to less than 10 in 1980. Today, Irish beer and prefabricated Irish pubs are marketed to the world by the global brewing corporation:

a) Coors.

b) Guinness.

c) Anheuser-Busch.

d) Heineken.
30. The Irish Pub Co. has designed pubs in all of the following countries except:

a) Dubai.

b) Argentina.

c) Brazil.

d) Singapore.
31. Geographer David Harvey refers to the increasing speed by which innovations in popular culture diffuse as

a) distance decay.

b) time-space compression.

c) space-adjusting techniques.

d) cultural diffusion.
32. The growth in the size of the audience of Phish in its college band days was the result of

a) national television exposure.

b) contagious diffusion.

c) hierarchical diffusion.

d) promotion by beer companies.

33. MC Solaar is to France as Jovanotti is to ________

a) Mexico.

b) India.

c) England.

d) Italy.


34. Globalized popular culture can be picked up and reproduced by people in the context of their local culture. This is referred to as:

a) MTV-effect.

b) reterritorialization.

c) global homogenization.

d) cultural appropriation.
35. Jovanotti “reterritorialized” hip hop to reflect the local cultural context of

a) Oregon.

b) Italy.

c) Sweden.

d) Washington, DC.
36. Local “extreme sports,” such as skateboarding, rapidly spread by being featured in

a) NFL halftime shows.

b) public high schools.

c) video games.

d) cereal commercials.
37. The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It is

a) the U.S.

b) Zimbabwe.

c) France.

d) S. Korea.
38. The visible imprint of human activity on the landscape is known as:

a) the hand of man.

b) urban renewal.

c) the cultural landscape.

d) sprawl.
39. The only country in Africa with a building over 700 feet tall is:

a) Morocco.

b) Egypt.

c) Johannesburg.

d) South Africa.

40. Japan is a hearth of global popular culture that influences North America with

a) foods.

b) animated films.

c) sports.

d) fashion.


41. The Dave Matthews Band established a ________ in Charlottesville, Virginia and gained popularity through ________ among college towns.

a) record label, contagious diffusion

b) hearth, hierarchal diffusion

c) beachhead, word of mouth

d) hearth, distance decay
42. According to E. Relph, the term which best captures the quality of the American landscape which is associated with the spread of popular culture is

a) popular landscape.

b) cultural landscape.

c) blight.

d) placelessness.
43. Which is not an aspect of cultural landscape convergence?

a) globalized architectural forms

b) globalization of particular businesses and products

c) borrowing of idealized landscape images

d) development of regional architectural styles
44. Fred Kniffen’s map of folk-housing regions does not show the eastward diffusion of a housing style that can be found almost everywhere today. It is the

a) New England “salt box.”

b) ranch-style houses.

c) California bungalow.

d) double-wide trailer home.
45. A group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share customs and traits are referred to as a local culture.

46. Local cultures are distinctive in that they are stable over time.

47. Popular cultures can change rapidly in periods as short as days or even hours.

48. The spread of clothing styles from Paris or New York to regional mall stores and finally to shops near your local college, is an example of hierarchical diffusion

49. Notting Hill Festival (London) was appropriated by West Indian migrants to express their cultural distinctiveness. This is an example of assimilation.

50. Commodification of local culture often leads to stereotypical images of that culture.


51. Branson, Missouri, a place where local Ozark culture is consumed, is more authentic than the local culture of surrounding communities.


52. Visiting an “Irish” pub in San Diego, California in search of an authentic experience of a local culture would be to mistake myth for reality.


53. The early popularity of the college band Phish spread by word of mouth in their native Vermont. This is an example of contagious diffusion.


54. Hip hop music can be found in places such as Indonesia, Italy, and France, in localized versions. This is referred to as reterritorialization.


55. The rise of NASCAR from a regional Southern sport to its national prominence on television and advertising has not affected its status as a local cultural phenomena.


56. Housing in American suburbs shows little regional variation and tends to sacrifice tradition for practicality and convenience.


Essay


57. Define local culture and popular culture. In what ways do local and popular culture interact? Think of local culture and popular as “ends of a continuum” and attempt to identify aspects of your locality which exemplify points along the continuum.

58. Think of your favorite local bands. In what ways do the music, attitudes, styles, and lyrical references of the band reflect local culture? In what ways does the band attempt to reterritorialize popular culture in the local context?


59. What is an ethnic neighborhood? Choose an example of an ethnic neighborhood and describe the traditions, customs and traits that set the ethnic group and its neighborhood apart from the popular culture. What are some of the internal and external threats to the local culture of the ethnic neighborhood you have chosen?


60. Think of the cultural landscape of the city or town where you live. Give examples of each of the three dimensions of cultural landscape convergence (1. “globalized architectural forms and planning ideas; 2. widespread businesses (McDonald’s) and products; 3. wholesale borrowing of idealized landscape images) operative in the landscape of your community. What attempts are being made to preserve local cultural landscape features against the encroachment of “placelessness”?




61. What technological advances have led to time-space compression and the associated rapidity of diffusion of change in the global system? Give examples of some of the benefits and of the liabilities of time-space compression.


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