Chapter 01 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology True / False Questions



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Chapter 01 - Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 01

Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

 

 




True / False Questions
 

1. Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation. 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: General
 

2. We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: General
 

3. Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens. 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: General
 

4. Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke. 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.2 The Origins of Biomedical Science
Topic: General
 

5. All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity. 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.2 The Origins of Biomedical Science
Topic: General
 

6. The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy. 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

7. An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory. 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

8. Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past. 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

9. The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology. 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

10. Organs are made of tissues. 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

11. A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle). 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

12. Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things. 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

13. Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body's physiological variables gets out of balance. 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

14. Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tend to produce rapid change in the body 


FALSE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

15. Anatomists over the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents. 


TRUE

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 

 


Multiple Choice Questions
 

16. Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________ 


A. palpation; auscultation.
B. auscultation; percussion.
C. percussion; auscultation.
D. palpation; percussion.
E. percussion; palpation.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: General
 

17. ___________________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body, and is thus regarded as "the father of modern anatomy." 


A. Vesalius
B. Maimonides
C. Harvey
D. Aristotle
E. van Leeuwenhoek

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.2 The Origins of Biomedical Science
Topic: General
 

18. ________________ wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era. 


A. Hippocrates
B. Aristotle
C. Galen
D. Vesalius
E. Avicenna

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.2 The Origins of Biomedical Science
Topic: General
 

19. Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus? 


A. auscultation
B. PET scan
C. MRI
D. sonography
E. radiography

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: General
 

20. The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that ___ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes. 


A. Hippocrates
B. Plato
C. Schwann
D. Aristotle
E. Avicenna

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.2 The Origins of Biomedical Science
Topic: General
 

21. The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called 


A. experimental design.
B. deductive method.
C. inductive method.
D. hypothesis.
E. statistical testing.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

22. Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid-resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example of 


A. hypothetical reasoning.
B. hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
C. the inductive method.
D. experimental design.
E. statistical analysis.

 


Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

23. An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called 


A. scientific method.
B. theory.
C. law.
D. hypothesis.
E. fact.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

24. The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensure 


A. an adequate sample size.
B. objective and reliable results.
C. experimental bias.
D. psychosomatic effects.
E. treatment groups.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

25. ______________ is a process that submits a scientist's ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published. 


A. Adjudication
B. Statistical testing
C. Falsification
D. Peer review
E. Hypothetico-deductive testing

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

26. Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge? 


A. a fact
B. a law of nature
C. a hypothesis
D. an equation
E. a theory

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

27. The study of structure and function of cells is called 


A. cytology.
B. gross anatomy.
C. exploratory physiology.
D. comparative physiology.
E. radiology.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: General
 

28. ________________ established a code of ethics for physicians. He is considered the "father of medicine". 


A. Aristotle
B. Hippocrates
C. Galen
D. Vesalius
E. Hooke

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.2 The Origins of Biomedical Science
Topic: General
 

29. A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n) 


A. controlled pill.
B. placebo.
C. treatment pill.
D. variable.
E. effective dose.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

30. Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the 


A. peer group.
B. test group.
C. treatment group.
D. control group.
E. double-blind group.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.3 Scientific Method
Topic: General
 

31. A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called 


A. mutation.
B. natural selection.
C. selection pressure.
D. evolution.
E. adaptation.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

32. The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of 


A. a model.
B. evolution.
C. selection pressure.
D. survivorship.
E. success.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

33. The principal theory of how evolution works is called 


A. natural pressure.
B. selective pressure.
C. darwinian pressure
D. natural adaptation.
E. natural selection.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

34. Which of the following was an adaptation evolved in connection with human upright walking? 


A. hair
B. thumbs fully opposable
C. stereoscopic vision
D. color vision
E. spinal and pelvic anatomy

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

35. Stereoscopic vision provides 


A. opposable perception.
B. color perception.
C. depth perception.
D. bipedalism.
E. walking upright.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

36. Humans are born before their nervous system have matured, which is traceable to 


A. their inability to regulate body temperature.
B. skeletal adaptations to bipedalism.
C. the arboreal habits of early primates.
D. the conditions of modern civilization.
E. the diet of early species of Homo.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

37. Our own species is called 


A. Homo erectus.
B. Homo sapiens.
C. Homo habilis.
D. early Homo.
E. Australopithecus.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

38. Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees. 


A. prehensile
B. bipedal
C. cursorial
D. troglodytic
E. arboreal

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.4 Human Origins and Adaptations
Topic: General
 

39. An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell. 


A. organ system, organs
B. organ system, organelles
C. organ, organelles
D. organ, molecules
E. organelle, molecules

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

40. This option lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. 


A. organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system
B. organ system, organ, cell, tissue, organelle
C. organ system, organelle, tissue, cell, organ
D. organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle
E. organ, organ system, tissue, cell, organelle

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

41. This option lists examples of body's structures from the simplest to the most complex 


A. mitochondrion, connective tissue, protein, stomach, adipocyte (fat cell)
B. protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach
C. mitochondrion, connective tissue, stomach, protein, adipocyte (fat cell)
D. protein, adipocyte (fat cell), stomach, connective tissue, mitochondrion
E. protein, stomach, connective tissue, adipocyte (fat cell), mitochondrion

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

42. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function. 


A. macromolecule
B. organ system
C. organelle
D. organism
E. tissue

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

43. Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology. 


A. comparative
B. evolutionary
C. holistic
D. inductive
E. reductionist

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

44. _______________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying interactions of its parts. 


A. naturalism.
B. reductionism.
C. vitalism.
D. holism.
E. rationalism.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

45. _____________ is the view that not everything about an organism can be understood or predicted from the knowledge of its components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. 


A. Naturalism
B. Reductionism
C. Holism
D. Materialism
E. Science

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

46. The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four is an example of ____________ variation among organisms. 


A. cellular
B. holistic
C. physiological
D. anatomical
E. reductionist

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

47. _________________ are the simplest body's structures considered alive. 


A. organ systems
B. organs
C. cells
D. organelles
E. molecules

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

48. All of the following are human organ systems except 


A. skeletal.
B. endocrine.
C. epidermal.
D. reproductive.
E. lymphatic.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

49. All of the following are organs except 


A. teeth.
B. skin.
C. nails.
D. liver.
E. digestive system.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.5 Human Structure
Topic: General
 

50. Metabolism is the sum of 


A. inhalation and exhalation.
B. growth and differentiation.
C. anabolism and catabolism.
D. positive and negative feedback.
E. responsiveness and movement.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

51. We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called 


A. homeostasis.
B. metastasis.
C. responsiveness.
D. adaptation.
E. evolution.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

52. When you exercise you generate excess heat and your body temperature rises. Blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and you lose heat. This exemplifies 


A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. dynamic equilibrium.
D. integration control.
E. set point adjustment.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

53. When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example of 


A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. dynamic equilibrium.
D. integration control.
E. set point adjustment.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

54. Which of the following is most likely to cause disease? 


A. positive feedback
B. negative feedback
C. homeostasis
D. equilibrium
E. irritability

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

55. Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates release of the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates body cells to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. This reduces blood glucose concentration. This is an example of 


A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. dynamic equilibrium.
D. integration control.
E. set point adjustment.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

56. The ____________ is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), under no environmental stress, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day; whereas the ________ is the same except for a weight of 58 kg (128 lb) and an intake of 2,000 kcal/day. 


A. normal man, normal woman
B. normal male, normal female
C. average man, average woman
D. average male, average woman
E. reference man, reference woman

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

57. The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________________ 


A. development, differentiation.
B. growth, development.
C. growth, differentiation.
D. differentiation, growth.
E. differentiation, development.

 


Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

58. Three common components of a feedback loop are 


A. a stimulus, an integrating (control) center, and an organ system.
B. a stimulus, a receptor, and an integrating (control) center.
C. a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an effector.
D. a receptor, an organ, and an organ system.
E. a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an organ system.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

59. Negative feedback loops are 


A. homeostatic.
B. not homeostatic.
C. associated with "vicious circles".
D. self-amplifying cycles.
E. harmful.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.6 Human Function
Topic: General
 

60. The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________. 


A. front, back.
B. right, left.
C. inside, outside.
D. clear, dark.
E. below, above.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 

61. The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of 


A. a Latin root used in medical terminology.
B. the use of prefixes to name an anatomical structure.
C. the use of suffixes to name an anatomical structure.
D. an eponym.
E. an acronym.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 

62. Hypercalcemia means 


A. elevated calcium levels in blood.
B. lowered calcium levels in bone.
C. elevated sodium levels in blood.
D. elevated calcium levels in bone.
E. lowered calcium levels in the blood.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 

63. The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________ whereas the plural of appendix is ___________. 


A. axillae; appendices.
B. axillides; appendages.
C. axillies; appendi.
D. axilli; appendices.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 

64. The plural of villus (hair) is ____________ whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________ 


A. villuses, diagnosises.
B. villi, diagnoses.
C. villus, diagnosis.
D. villi, diagnosis.
E. villuses, diagnosis.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 

65. The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms 


A. is called Terminologia Anatomica (TA).
B. is called Nomina Anatomica (NA).
C. is formed from thousands of English word roots.
D. is formed from thousands of Italian word roots.
E. is formed from thousands of French word roots.

 


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Section: 1.7 The Language of Medicine
Topic: General
 


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