Chapter 01 Life Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology

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Chapter 01 - Life Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology

Chapter 01

Life Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology


Multiple Choice Questions

1. The role of principles in zoology is best described as 

a. All researchers should maintain high principles of conduct in research
b. All zoology rests solely upon expansion of principles of chemistry and physics
c. All principles are derived by study of a wide range of diverse animals and then finding central unifying principles
d. Past principles are constantly discarded as completely new principles replace them
E. None of the choices are a correct statement of principles underlying zoology


2. The property of living organisms that involves a unique and complex molecular organization is called 

a. Growth
b. Adaptability
c. Metabolism
d. Irritability
E. Chemical uniqueness


3. A characteristic of science is that 

a. It is not explained by natural laws
B. Its hypotheses are testable
c. Its conclusions are final
d. It is not falsifiable
e. It seeks to define the vitalistic forces of life


4. A cell dies and its complex organic molecules degrade into a mass of simple molecules no more organized than the non-living matter outside the cell. This feature of life, which is now lost, is 

a. Growth and reproduction
b. Adaptability
c. Metabolism
d. Irritability
E. Complexity and hierarchical organization


5. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of living organisms? 

a. Unique and complex molecular organization
b. Response to stimuli in environment
c. Reproduction
d. Metabolism
E. All of the choices are characteristics of living organisms


6. Which hierarchy of organization is seen in multicellular organisms such as animals, going from smallest to largest? 

a. Cell, organ, tissue, organism
b. Cell, organ, system, tissue
C. Cell, tissue, system, organism
d. Organism, system, organ, tissue
e. Tissue, system, cell, organ


7. The structure of a brick does not predict the design of a skyscraper. Study of muscle tissues does not allow you to predict the design of a bird or snake. Such examples demonstrate 

a. The essential properties of life
b. The hierarchy of organization from atom to biosphere
c. Deterministic philosophy or how all phenomena are predictable effects of causes
d. Emergent properties easily predicted by examining their parts
E. Emergent properties that cannot be predicted by examining their parts


8. Which of the following characteristics is NOT required for the life of an individual organism to continue? 

a. To maintain chemical uniqueness and organization
b. To respond to stimuli
C. To evolve
d. To reproduce
e. To possess a genetic program to control cell processes


9. Which statement is FALSE about living things? 

a. Living things are made up of cells
b. Living things obey the laws of chemistry and physics
c. Living things show organization and other common characteristics of life
d. Emergent properties arise from interactions among the components of a system
E. Living things are composed only of organic elements, whereas nonliving things are made up of inorganic elements


10. "Self-replicating molecular assemblage" is a classic definition of life. However, clay particles in clay soil contain aluminum and iron compounds that determine the pattern of particles in adjacent layers over time and are therefore a self-replicating molecular assemblage. 

a. Therefore clay soil is living
b. It is not living because it cannot think
c. It is not living because there was no molecular change involved
d. It is not living since no carbon is involved; otherwise, such replication would be living
E. It is not living because it is a simple repetitive process without the ability to evolve or respond to the environment


11. All of the chemical energy transformations that occur within a cell constitute 

a. Evolution
B. Metabolism
c. Adaptation
d. Homeostasis
e. Photosynthesis

 12. We assume living cells continuously use energy and respire. "Cryptobiosis" is a state of almost total loss of water seen in some roundworms, rotifers, and tardigrades and was previously considered a near cessation of metabolism. Recently, a British Museum botanist accidentally spilled fluid on 120+year-old herbarium mount of a lichen. Fearing damage to the specimen, he immediately inspected it under the microscope and found tardigrades "waking up." This observation 

a. Supports the claim that the tardigrades were probably dead but respiring at a very slow rate
b. Makes it possible that we can bring most dead animals back to life
c. Contradicts the cell theory
D. Indicates metabolism did nearly stop but that organization and water made it sufficient to maintain the possibility for "life."
e. Suggests a "vital force" defines when life is present


13. Reproduction of organisms involves the apparently contradictory phenomena of 

a. Cellular and noncellular structures
b. Catabolism and anabolism
c. Adaptation and devolution
D. Variation and similarity through a genetic program
e. Life and death


14. The main function of a genetic program is to 

a. Maintain metabolism
b. Respond to the environmental stimuli
c. Propel adaptation
D. Provide fidelity of inheritance and an avenue for genetic variation
e. Regulate development


15. In the biological hierarchy, systems of social interaction, as observed in bees, are emergent at the ________ level. 

a. Cellular
b. Organismal
C. Population
d. Molecular
e. Gene


16. A molecular pathway in the liver that is responsible for breaking down complex molecules into simple molecules for excretion as wastes is an example of 

a. Anabolism
B. Catabolism
c. Adaptation
d. Irritability
e. Entropy

17. Embryos, larvae, and metamorphosis are related to which property of life? 

A. Development
b. Metabolism
c. Adaptation
d. Evolution
e. Environmental interaction


18. Irritability is related to which general property of life? 

a. Development
b. Metabolism
c. Adaptation
d. Evolution
E. Environmental interaction


19. Which statement(s) about environmental interaction is NOT correct? 

a. Study of organisms and their interactions with the environment is called ecology
b. All organisms respond to stimuli in the environment
C. To study ecology, we must separate living organisms from their environment
d. The evolutionary history of a lineage is connected to the environment where it lived
e. Organisms are intimately connected with their physical environment


20. Which best describes the first law of thermodynamics? 

a. Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but it can change into matter
B. Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but it can change from one energy form to another
c. Energy can be created from matter or used to produce matter
d. Some useful energy is lost as heat whenever an energy transfer occurs
e. Energy transfers are always 100% efficient in changing energy from one form to another


21. The second law of thermodynamics, or entropy law, means that for living organisms 

A. Maintaining cellular organization requires continual energy input
b. There is a tendency in nature to greater molecular organization
c. Energy stored by plants is unavailable for animals
d. Energy is of less concern than matter
e. None of the choices are correct


22. Which is consistent with the laws of physics governing energy? 

a. As a car burns gasoline, 100% of the fuel energy goes into moving the car along the road
b. You eat a "quarter-pounder" hamburger and assemble exactly a quarter pound of additional body weight on your body
C. Eventually sunlight that is absorbed on the earth returns to space as dispersed heat
d. A calorie of sunlight becomes a calorie of plant tissue that you eat to release a calorie of heat in muscle "power."
e. Chemical bonds are an example of converting energy to matter; breaking the bonds converts matter to energy


23. Science cannot yet describe "thinking" in physical terms; we can be certain that it involves metabolism of brain cells. With positron emission tomography (PET) scan or activity NMR it is possible to image the regions of the brain that are most metabolically active during various mental activities. For different mental functions, different regions and nerve cells become active. However, 

A. The cellular energy expended in "thinking" must be less than the chemical bond energy supplied in food to these brain cells
b. "Thought" cannot be linked to cell processes because energy is not related to matter
c. Since thoughts can occur over and over, the requirement for a continual input of energy to prevent entropy does not apply to this cell activity
d. "thinking" is beyond the scope of science to study
e. None of the choices are correct


24. Living organisms represent stored energy in the form of chemical compounds. When they die, what happens to this stored energy? 

a. All chemicals immediately lose their highenergy bonds
b. All molecules immediately degrade into basic elements
c. All energy immediately leaves, and that is one manifestation that the organism is dead
D. The macromolecules in cells lose their organization and break down because there is no longer an input of energy to maintain the organized state
e. All macromolecules remain in place and ready to start up again unless digested by a consumer or decay organism


25. Eventually the sun will swell to become a red giant star, engulf the earth and finally "burn out," with all forms of energy dispersing in a final "heat death." Compared with conditions today, the total entropy of the universe then will 

A. Have increased only slightly
b. Have decreased greatly
c. Have increased greatly
d. Remain the same because energy cannot be created or destroyed
e. None of the choices are correct


26. Which kingdom contains multicellular organisms that ingest their food? 

a. Protista
B. Animalia
c. Plantae
d. Eubacteria
e. Fungi


27. Which kingdom contains organisms that obtain their food by absorption through hyphae and never develop from embryos? 

a. Protista
b. Animalia
c. Plantae
d. Eubacteria
E. Fungi


28. During the creation court case, a judge defined the essential properties of science. Which statement is NOT true about science? 

a. Science is concerned about understanding the natural world
B. Science approaches data in a personal or subjective manner
c. Science gains information by observing and testing the natural world
d. Conclusions of science are subject to change based on new findings
e. Science establishes hypotheses that have the potential to be tested and disproved


29. Much of science is based on an approach known as the __________ method. 

a. Natural
b. Subjective
c. Inductive-deductive
d. Hypothetical
E. Hypothetico-deductive


30. What is a hypothesis? 

A. A tentative statement, based on information or data, that explains a large number of observations and guides experimentation
b. A report of the findings of scientific experiments
c. A general statement made to infer a specific conclusion, often in an "if . . . then" format
d. Using isolated facts to reach a general idea that may explain a phenomenon
e. None of the choices are correct


31. Which statement about a hypothesis is NOT correct? 

a. Experiments or observations are conducted to test a hypothesis
b. A hypothesis cannot be proven true
C. A hypothesis cannot be proven false
d. Data that support a hypothesis do not actually prove it
e. If data from experiments does not support a hypothesis, the hypothesis must be rejected or revised


32. Which of the following terms best describes a conceptual scheme in science that is strongly supported, has not yet been found incorrect, and is based on the results of many observations? 

a. A scientific paradigm
b. Speculation
c. Descriptive research
D. A scientific theory
e. Experimental results


33. Powerful theories that guide a broad range of research are 

a. Scientific models
b. Scientific revolutions
c. Descriptive research
d. Scientific principles
E. Paradigms


34. When the paradigms of science are shifted or replaced, we consider this a 

a. Scientific discovery
B. Scientific revolution
c. Evolutionary shift
d. Change in scientific principles
e. Theoretical breakthrough


35. ______________ sciences attempt to understand proximate or immediate causes. 

a. Evolutionary
b. Biological
c. Descriptive
d. Theoretical
E. Experimental


36. What is the goal of using the experimental method to investigate proximate causes in biology? 

a. To disprove biological principles or theories
B. To test our understanding of a biological system
c. To better mankind by inventing something unique
d. To win the Nobel Prize
e. To prove or disprove the existence of God


37. To have a frame of reference against which to compare experimental findings, a scientist must 

A. Study two groups: a control group and an experimental group
b. Eliminate all expectations that might cause a biased interpretation of the results
c. Have another scientist look at the results
d. Do nothing; a "frame of reference" is not necessary
e. None of the choices are correct


38. Which statement is NOT correct about experimental design? 

a. All conditions are held the same except for the condition being tested for in the experimental group
b. It is best to use identical subjects (except for the treatment in the experimental group) in order to reduce the uncontrolled factors
c. Where subjects are from nature, a large number should be used and subjects in each group should be selected at random
D. The condition being tested in an experiment is the "control."
e. Statistical comparisons are made between groups to determine if any difference is beyond random chance


39. Which best describes a control group in an experiment? 

a. A group with the condition that is being tested
b. A non-random sample taken through all experimental steps
c. A variable that is being deliberately varied in the experiment
D. A group that lacks the disturbance experienced by the experimental group
e. The disturbance that the experimenter "controls" and makes different in each test group


40. A researcher conducts experiments where a galvanometer (lie detector) is hooked up to detect a plant's "responses." He reports that when a spider was released near the plant, the spider's decision to escape was sensed by the plant, "causing a reaction in the leaf." But when other researchers repeated the experiment, they could not get any galvanometer responses. The original researcher then asserts that humans can put plants into a "faint." 

a. This is a justified conclusion from a research design that appears to follow the scientific method
b. The only problem with this general research plan is that it lacks a control
C. Results must be somewhat repeatable and any results that only work for one researcher do not qualify as science
d. The design is scientific; it just lacks a hypothesis
e. Since this researcher has actual numerical counts, this must be accepted as valid science


41. Some ecologists study complex interactions of animals and plants in forests. Such field research produces slightly different results for different researchers. In contrast, ecology experiments performed indoors with one organism in a terrarium usually produce results that are repeatable. What is the most likely explanation? 

a. The scientific method is only useful in laboratory settings
b. It is not possible to establish a control group outside of a laboratory
C. It is easier to hold all but one variable constant in a laboratory
d. Field research is only descriptive, and descriptive research is not strictly "science."
e. Fieldwork is evolutionary; laboratory work is experimental


42. A person goes around banging a drum each day. You ask him why. He replies, "To drive off the tigers!" You reply "But there aren't any tigers around here." He replies, "See, it works!" From a science viewpoint, this conclusion 

a. Is science because it is based on real observations
b. Is science because it is predictive of what will happen tomorrow morning
c. Is scientifically valid because there is probably a connection between loud noise and absence of tigers
D. Is not valid unless there is the potential for tigers to be here, or a test is run with tigers
e. Cannot be scientifically treated because it involves human behavior


43. Case I: In the April 1984 Technology Review published by MIT, a news story reports a Russian scientist had secured the egg cells from a frozen mammoth in Siberia that had been extinct for over 10,000 years. The eggs had been fertilized with Asian elephant sperm and the zygote had been implanted in an elephant surrogate mother, giving birth to two hybrid calves that are described in detail.

Case II: In 1999, newspaper wire services report that a frozen mammoth was being exhumed from the ice with the hope that some DNA fragments from eggs might one day be injected in an elephant egg and some mammoth features might be expressed in the offspring.
What is the most reasonable attitude to assume toward these reports? 
a. The first case is in a science journal and therefore valid; the second is in a newspaper and therefore questionable
b. Both are well beyond the realm of possibility, or outside of current understanding or the present paradigm
c. The Russians in 1984 were well ahead of the 1999 scientists who apparently did not know about their prior work
D. In spite of its journal report, the 1984 scenario makes far too many claims and is very questionable; the 1999 newspaper report reveals the substantial hesitancy expected with new and unproven techniques
e. None of the choices are correct

44. From Missouri to central Ohio to Pennsylvania, many people believe that they have water moccasins ("cottonmouth snakes") in their farm ponds. Many have "seen them" although they are not so foolish as to try to capture one alive. Meanwhile, the wildlife officers and the range maps in the herpetology books say that cottonmouths do not breed this far north. What is the most scientific attitude to assume on this issue? 

a. Observations by both the public and the fish and game officers are subjective so this is not possible to resolve objectively
B. A simple field trip to the pond locations — to capture and confirm the identity of the snakes — would settle the matter
c. Scientific books with range maps are based on field research and, therefore, determine the truth in this case
d. Because living organisms are active, scientific theories in biology always change and the older books are therefore wrong
e. This cannot be scientifically treated because it involves human behavior


45. Which of the following questions addresses an ultimate cause in biology that could be studied using the comparative method? 

a. How does an animal maintain a constant body temperature in different environmental conditions?
B. What are the evolutionary factors that caused some species of birds to acquire complex patterns of seasonal migration between North and South America?
c. What are the environmental factors that signal the birds of a particular species to begin their seasonal migration?
d. What are the receptors for geomagnetism in Monarch butterflies?
e. None of the choices are correct


46. The theory of evolution, along with all other theories in science 

a. Has been proven in a mathematical sense
b. Is mere speculation
C. Is testable, tentative, and potentially falsifiable
d. Is so powerful that no conceivable evidence could possibly refute it
e. None of the choices are correct


47. The theory that all forms of life descended from a common ancestor through a branching of lineages constitutes Darwin's theory of 

a. Perpetual change
B. Common descent
c. Multiplication of species
d. Natural selection
e. None of the choices are correct


48. Which of these is the process by which changes occur in the characteristics of species of organisms over time? 

A. Evolution
b. Metabolism
c. Adaptation
d. Homeostasis
e. Photosynthesis


49. The statement that the large anatomical differences that separate the major groups of animals originated through the accumulation of many small incremental changes over long periods of time illustrates Darwin's theory of 

a. Perpetual change
b. Multiplication of species
C. Gradualism
d. All of the choices are correct


50. The principle of natural selection is founded on which of the following? 

a. Organisms vary, and some variations, at least, are heritable
b. All organisms tend to overproduce their kind
c. There is a struggle for existence among varying organisms in a population
D. All of the choices are correct
e. None of the choices are correct

 51. Which of these is a variation of form, function, or behavior that promotes the likelihood of a species' continued existence? 

a. Evolution
b. Metabolism
C. Adaptation
d. Homeostasis
e. Photosynthesis

52. What was the major obstacle that Darwin's theory of natural selection faced when first proposed in 1859? 

A. It lacked a valid theory of heredity
b. It was unable to explain adaptation
c. It could not explain the origins of new anatomical structures
d. It required unreasonably long periods of time to operate
e. None of the choices are correct


53. Recent congressional amendments to the laws governing animal care in laboratories call for all of the following EXCEPT 

a. Reduction in the number of animals needed for research
b. Refinement of techniques that might cause stress or suffering
c. Replacement of animals with human subjects whenever possible
D. Replacement of animals with computer simulations or cell cultures to predict the effects of drugs on whole organisms
e. All of the choices are correct


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