Q1. What is meant by foreign policy? Explain the basic principles of foreign policy of Pakistan?
No country in the modem world can service independently an total seclusion from others. Every state as a member of the comity of nations is bound to establish a relation with other states. The policy a state adopts in the process of establishing relations with other states as called foreign policy, it has been defined as the general plan of a country concerning its relations with other countries keeping in view the national interests.
According to Humayoon Idrees (1987) "the foreign policy of a country means that attitude which is adopted in the selection of friends in foreign affairs. The more dynamic this attitude will be, the more stable and durable will be the foreign policy. Changes are unavoidable in foreign policy in consonance with ever changing international geopolitical atmosphere. Foreign policy. is prepared in the light of problem forced by the country. The guiding principle of a country's foreign policy is to guarantee the national objectives interests and ideologies". (Pakistan; Foreign policy perspectives Hunayoon Idrees 1987 Aziz Pub. Lahore).
Objectives and targets of Pakistan's foreign policy
The targets and objectives of Pakistan's foreign policy are as follows:
Preservation of national independence and integrity.
Support for the right of self determination for all.
The main objective of the Pakistan's foreign policy is to preserve National Independence and integrity. The preservation of our national independence has always remained the paramount principle of our foreign policy.
Support for the right of self determination for all nations.
In international forums Pakistan always rendered full support to the cause of the nations fighting for independence. The basic target of our foreign policy is to support the right of self determination for all nations including the people, struggling in Kashmir, Bosnia, Libya, Indonesia, Eritrea and a number of other Asian and African countries.
Promotion of International Cooperation
Pakistan became the member of the united organization in the very next month after its independence. As a member of the UN, Pakistan always has struggled hard to bring about. International cooperation.
Pakistan used her good offices for their conciliation among different countries of the world at many occasions. In this respect, Pakistan's effort to bring about cease fire between Iraq and Iran during their long drawn out war needs special attention. '
We are living in a bi-polar world generally divided into socialistic and capitalistic blocks. Since Pakistan fought its way to freedom on the basis of ideology, based on the principles of Islam. it is not possible for us to become blind camp-followers of either of the two ideological blocks we have always tried to establish cordial relations with all countries of the world; irrespective of their ideological affiliations. In 1979, Pakistan joined the NAM (Non ALIGNED MOVEMENT)
Pakistan believes in peaceful co-existence and respects the liberty, freedom and sovereignty of other countries, and expects the same from others. Pakistan is always disinterested in the internal affairs of others, and opposes imperialism and aggression of every type.
Pakistan wants to develops its relations with all countries, on the basis of bilateralism. Pakistan also wants to solve its conflicts with neighbouring countries on bilateralism basis. Therefore, Pakistan has invited India many times to solve the Kashmir dispute by negotiation.
Support to Right of Self-determination
Pakistan supports the right of self-determination of all the suppressed nations. Pakistan believes that every nation must have the right of self-determination. Therefore, Pakistan has supported the demand of abolishing the colonialism and every movement for the exercise of the right of self-determination in Europe, Africa and Asia. Pakistan has played very important role in the: struggle of independence of Kashmir, Palestine, Bosnia, Namibia and Vietnam. It also opposed the occupation of Afghanistan by Russia, and helped the Afghans is to get the liberation from foreign rule.
Unity of Islamic World
Pakistan is the supporter of the unity of Islamic world, and is following the policy to establish good relations with Muslim countries. Pakistan has always tried to solve the conflicts of Islamic world and played very important role in Iran - Iraq war, Kuwait's occupation by Iraq, Palestine's liberation, and Afghanistan's liberation. Pakistan is an active member of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC). Pakistan has provided a platform for Muslim countries of Central Asia to solve their economic problems by establishing Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).
Pakistan is the main Supporter of de-weaponisation and supported all international efforts to de-weaponise the world. Therefore, Pakistan is not in the race of weaponisation. Pakistan uses atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Pakistan tries to avoid the danger of nuclear war in the world. Pakistan has repeatedly suggested for the de-weaponisation of South Asia, but India has not responded. it accordingly.
Elimination of Racial Discrimination
Pakistan wants to eliminate the racial discrimination throughout the world. Pakistan has protested over racial discrimination in South Africa, Namibia and Rhodesia. There is no racial discrimination in Pakistan and all the minorities in Pakistan have equal rights.
Establishment of Peace
Pakistan wants to eliminate the racial discrimination throughout the world. Pakistan has also protested. against aggressive powers desires, and supported the oppressed nations for getting the peace. Pakistan has repeatedly invited India to negotiate peace in South Asia but he has rejected every move.
Good Relations with Neighbours
Pakistan wants good relationship with all neighbours including India. Pakistan also wants to solve all the issues with neighbouring countries including Kashmir issue with India peacefully. Therefore, Pakistan has invited India for talks at any time, at every level and at everyplace.
International and Regional Cooperation
Pakistan is an active member of' international and regional organizations for i.e; United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC),. Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and SAARC. .Pakistan always cooperates with all. these organizations for the security of world peace.
Q2. Discuss Pakistan's relations with China.
Pakistan & China
Pakistan and China are neighbouring countries. They have common boundary of about 600 km long. Their bilateral relations depends upon the glorious traditions and close friendship. Pakistan recognized China on its birth in October 1949 and developed good relationship with it.
The Prime Ministers of the both, countries met in Ban dung Conference in 1955 and after that the series of visits continued up till now. The heads of governments and states of both countries have made many visits. In 1961, the efforts to resolve the boundary issue were started and it was completed in 1963, which strengthened the good relationship and trade pact was signed by them. Pakistan Air Line started its flights to Beijing in early sixties.
The president of Pakistan visited China in February 1946, and China supported the claim of Pakistan to solve Kashmir issue peacefully. In the Indo-Pak war of 1965 China supported Pakistan and provide arms.
China gave economic and technical aid to Pakistan in establishing industries, including Texila Industries complex and its affiliated plans China setting up the heavy tools factory at Landhi and Sports Complex at Islamabad
The silk-route of Karakaram was completed m, 1969 that connected Pakistan with China by road. It helped in frequent exchange of delegations and establishment of close relationship. The air contact was also established between both the countries.
Many defense pacts were concluded between Pakistan and China in 1985. According by China provided economic and technical assistance in building the Kamra complex and Ordnance Factory at Wah. Likewise China provided the assistance of Rs. 273 million for setting up heavy Electric Complex in NWFP
Pakistan also sided China, and supported permanent membership of Security Council of United Nations. Pakistan played important role in establishing the close relation of United States with China. Pakistan supported China on the issue of the presence of foreign troops in Kampuchea and China supported Pakistan on the issue of the Russian intervention in Afghanistan
The bilateral relations between Pakistan and China were established and Chinese Prime Minister, Defense 'Minister and Chairman peoples congress visited Pakistan in 1987, February 1999 and April 1999 respectively, Again Chinese Prime Minister visited Pakistan in 2001 and president of Pakistan visited China in 2001 and 2002. The mutual strong relationship of both countries has helped them to come closer.
Q3. Discuss Pakistan's relations with India?
Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations. Its foreign policy encompasses historically difficult relations with India, a desire for a stable Afghanistan, long-standing close relations with the People's Republic of China, extensive security. and economic interests in the Persian Gulf, and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries.
Pakistan’s relations with India have improved recently and this has opened up Pakistan's foreign policy to issues beyond security. This development might completely change the complexion of Pakistan’s foreign relations.
Since partition, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. Although many issues divide and the two countries, the most sensitive one since independence has been the status of Kashmir.
At the time of partition, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharajah, had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. When the Maharajah hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, some of his Muslim subjects, aided by tribesmen from Pakistan, revolted in favour of Joining Pakistan. India has long alleged that regular troops from Pakistan had participated in the partial occupation of Kashmir from the Western front. In exchange for military assistance in containing the revolt, the Kashmiri ruler offered his allegiance to India. Indian troops occupied the central & eastern portion of Kashmir, including its capital, Srinagar, while the west-north western part came under Pakistani, control. India addressed this dispute in the United Nations on January 1, 1948. One year later, the UN arranged a cease-fire along a line dividing Kashmir, but leaving the northern end of the line un-demarcated and the vale of Kashmir (with the majority of the population) under Indian control. India and Pakistan agreed with Indian resolutions which called for a UN-supervised plebiscite to determine the state's future.
Full-scale hostilities erupted in September 1965, when insurgents believed to have been trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weeks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlemept of Kashmir and their other differences.
Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Pakistan President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indra Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India, in July 1972 for the Shimla Accord. They agreed to a line of control in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 cease-fire, and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. In 1974, Pakistan and India agreed to resume postal and telecommunications linkages, and to enact measures to facilitate travel. Trade and diplomatic relations were restored in 1976 after a hiatus of five years.
India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan. and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983 the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhi’s in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left un-demarcated by the ceasefire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949.
In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and prime ministerial level took place, with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Mr. Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Mr. Nawaz Sharif in February 1999.
The last few years have been particularly cantankerous in this regard, with India accusing Pakistan of abetting cross-border terrorism from its territory. Pakistan claims to provide only moral support to the fighters and maintains that the conflict is indigenous in nature. Hopes of peaceful resolution of issues through dialogue have met a stalemate a number of times over the issue. On June 20, 2004, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.
Q4. Discuss Pakistan's relations with Afghanistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia and United States?
Pakistan shares a long and porous border with Afghanistan (also called the Durand Line). The border is poorly marked.. The problem is aggravated by close relations between the fiercely-independent Pashton peoples who live on both sides of the border.
Following the Soviet invasion on Afghanistan in 1979, the Pakistani Government played a vital role in supporting the Afghan resistance movement and assisting Afghan refugees. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989, Pakistan, with cooperation from the world community, continued to provide extensive support for displaced Afghans. In 1999, the. United States provided approximately $70 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan and Afghan refugees in Pakistan, mainly through multilateral organizations and NGOs. .
The overthrow of the Taliban Regime in November 2001 has seen somewhat strained relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The present administration in Kabul feels that the remnants of the former Taliban government are being supported by certain factions within Pakistan. It has been rumored that Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden is, or has been, hiding in Pakistan's border region with Afghanistan.
A large share of Afghanistan's foreign trade is either with; or passes through, Pakistan.
Historically, Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran. However, strains in the relationship appeared in the 1990s, when Pakistan and Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Also, some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian violence which has plagued Pakistan. Nevertheless, Pakistan pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran, including recent overtures to seek a negotiated settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions.
Origins, CENTO, SEATO and the Cold War
The United States and Pakistan established diplomatic relations in 1947. The U.S. agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact/CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the two nations. However, the U.S suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally. Even though the United States suspended military assistance to both countries involved in the conflict, the suspension of aid affected Pakistan much more severely. Gradually, relations improved and arms sales were. renewed in 1975. Then, in April 1979, the United States cut off economic assistance to Pakistan, except food assistance, as required under the Symington Amendment to the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, due to concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program.
Anti-Soviet Alliance in the Afghan War
The Soviet invasion on Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia. In 1981, the United States and Pakistan agreed on a $3.2-billion military and economic assistance program aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs. With U.S. assistance in the largest covert operation in history, Pakistan armed and supplied anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan, eventually defeating the Soviets, who withdrew in 1988.
Recognizing national security concerns and accepting Pakistan's assurances that it did not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) on military assistance to Pakistan. In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988-93) $ 4-billion economic development and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment, which required that the President should certify annually that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear explosive device.
Nuclear Weapon Tests
India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in May 1998 and Pakistan's matching response set back U.S. relations in the region, which had seen renewed U.S. Government interest during the second Clinton Administration. A presidential visit scheduled for the first quarter of 1998 was postponed and, under the Glenn Amendment, sanctions restricted the provision of credits, military sales, economic assistance, and loans to the government. An intensive dialogue on nuclear nonproliferation and security issues between Deputy Secretary Talbott and Foreign Secretary Shamshad Ahmad was initiated, with discussions focusing on CTBT signature and ratification, FMCT negotiations, export controls, and a nuclear restraint regime. The October 1999 overthrow of the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government triggered an additional layer of sanctions under Section 508 of the Foreign Appropriations Act which include restrictions on foreign military financing and economic assistance. U.S. Government assistance to Pakistan was limited mainly to refugee and counter-narcotics assistance.
Pakistan moved decisively to ally itself with the United States in its war against Osama bin Laden and AI-Qaeda. It gave the U.S. a number of military airports and bases, for its attack on Afghanistan. Pakistan has arrested ever five hundred AI-Qaeda members and handed them over to the U.S. President Bush and senior U.S. officers have been lavish in their praise of Pakistani efforts.
Status of Kashmir with India; water-sharing problems with India over the Indus River (Wular Barrage) Illicit drugs: producer of illicit opium and hashish for the international drug trade (poppy cultivation in 1999 - 15.7 km & sup2, a 48% drop from 1998 because of eradication and alternative development); key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets; narcotics still move from Afghanistan into Balochistan Province
Answers'>Objective Questions With Answers
Four probable answers are written below. One is correct. Tick ( ) the right answer.
1. Length of common border of Pakistan and China is about
a. 40.0. b. 50.0.
c. 60.0. d. 70.0.
2. In which city of Pakistan, the SAARC Conference was held in January 2004.
a. Lahore b. Islamabad
c. Karachi d. Peshawar
3. In which year the foundation of ECQ was laid?
a. 1970. b. 1975
c. 1980. d. 1985
4. Length of common border of Pakistan and Afghanistan is
a. 2252 km b. 2282 km
c. 2350. km d. 2452 km
5. Name of Saudi King who visited Pakistan in 1966
a. Shah Abdul Aziz b. Shah Abdullah
c. Shah Saud d. Shah Faisal
6. In which year Pakistan made nuclear explosions?
a. 1997 b. 1998
c. 1999 d. 2000
7. The incident of World Trade Center took place in
a. Britain b. France
c. America d. South Korea
8. The country, which helped Pakistan in the construction of Kamra complex.
a. Iran b. Saudi Arabia
c. Afghanistan d. China
9. The year in which Indus Basin Treaty between India and Pakistan concluded was
a. 1960. b. 1962
c. 1964 d. 1966
10. The country which first recognize Pakistan after independence is
a. Kuwait b. Iran
c. Indonesia d. Saudi Arabia
1 – c, 2 – b, 3 – d, 4 – a, 5 – d, 6- b, 7- c, 8 – d, 9 – a, 10 - b
Fill in the blanks.
1. Pakistan was established on August 14, ________
2. Sometime the foreign policy of Pakistan is presented before the national Assembly and _______ for approval.
3. The common border of Pakistan and China is about ________ km.
4. The construction of Silk-Route between Pakistan and China was completed in year of _______.
5. The Agra Conference between President of Pakistan and Prime Minister of India was held on 14-17 July __________
6. The pact of Regional Co-operations for Development (RCD) was concluded in ________.
7. The _________ line divides the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
8. The core issue between Pakistan and India is the dispute of ________.
9. The boundary issue between Pakistan and China was resolved in year of ________.
10. The foundation of Organization of Economic Co-operation (ECO) was laid in the year of ______.
11. Shah Faisal officially visited Pakistan in the year ________.
Match column' A' 'with column 'B' and write down the answer in column C
Organization of Islamic countries
Organization of Economic cooperation
Ideology of Islamic
Ideology of Pakistan
Permanent member of United Nations
Organization of Non-allied countries
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Ideology of Islamic
Permanent member of
Give Short Answer. ,
1. What is foreign policy?
No country in the modem world can survive in isolation.
..Every state as a member of the community of nations is bound to establish a relation with other states. The policy a state adopts in the process of establishing relation with other states is called foreign Policy Foreign policy is the general plan of one country concerning its relation with other countries.
2. Write down the basic principles of foreign policy.
The basic principles of the foreign policy of any country include:
Preservation of national Independence
Support for the right of self determination for all countries
Non - Alignment,
3.. Write down the objectives offoreignpolicy.
,The main objective$ of the foreign policy of any country 'include:
These are the objectives that work as the objectives of the foreign policy of any country in the world.
4. What is national integration?
National integration is the unificatiof1 of the centrifugal and centripetal forces of the country. National integration occurs when the binding or cementing forces (centripetal forces) in a group of people are more powerful than disintegrating forces (centrifugal forces). National integration leads to' national prosperity. It is a step towards mutual co-operation. It helps in , maintaining ,peace and order. It ascertains the welfare of the people. National integration is the promise of strong administration. It discourages wastage of time and resources.
5. What is administrative 'troika?
Administrative troika is the determinant of the foreign policy
of Pakistan. It comprises
The, President of ' -. The Prime Minister -. hief Qr Army sta
Administration, troika is the pivot determinant of Pakistan's foreign policy. It can approve, disapprove or alter the foreign policy of Pakistan. However, it hardly deviates its commitments on- extemal affairs. In accordance with new constitution development, the Troika has been replaced by
National Security Council.
6. What are the duties of Ministry of Foreign Affairs?
The Ministry of foreign affairs plays a significant role - in formatting the foreign policy. The bureaucrats of high level. It formulates the policy, plans and programmes regarding the
Foreign Policy ~f Islamic Republic of Pakistan
l'rioritiesof fon:ign policy. Ministry of foreign Affairs- fully
co-operates with National Security Council.
,7. What is the role of parliament in foreign policy?
The Parliament approves, disapproves or alters the policies and
,plans formulated by the Ministry of Foreign Affair,s and
National Security Couflcil.
8. When was the permanent commission of Pakistan and
Permanent, Joint Commission betWeen Pakistan' and Afghanistan was set up in May 2000., This commission was established to:
Regulate cro,ss border movement of refugees.
ChecK the production and smuggling of narcotics.
objectives of Pakistan-Saudi economic
9. What are the commission? Answer
Pak-Saudi Economic Commission was established in Riyadh in 1998. this commission initiated 155 projects in Pakistan. It also provided economic assistance for tl1e completion of these
projects. The objectives of this commission are:
To initiate development of projects in Pakistan , To provide financial assistance to Pakistan
To take steps to enhance bilateral trade
, io. Write a note on the incident o'fWorld Trade Center.
Qn September 11, 2001, the world Trade Centre in New York,
United States was blasted as a result of air-bombardment.
After this incident, United States formed international coalition
against terrorists.' Pakistan favoured this coalition with out
hurting its national interests.
11. Write a note on Pakistan's nuclear tests.
, IIi response to India, Paid stan exploded nuclear bombs on 28th
, ,May; 1998 in the hills of Chaghi. This explosion proved
Pakistan' defence unbreakable. If Pakistan. did not mak\ nuclear explosions, India would have harmed it. Pakista~ should maintain its nuclear capability to retain its deterrence.
12. What is the role of political parties and pressure group ill foreign policy?
The political parties and pressure groups have deep impact on the formulation of foreign policy. They forced the government to alter the plans and programmes of foreign policy according to their priorities.
13. What are the defence pacts Pakistan signed with China?
Many defence pacts were concluded between Pakistan and China in 1985. According to these pacts, China provided economical and technical assistance in building the Kamra Complex and Ordinance Factory at Wah. China also provided .the assistance of 273 million for setting of Heavy Electric Complex in NWFP.
14. What is the role of foreign policy in the economic d~velopment of Pakistan.
Foreign has played a. pivoted role in the economic development of Pakistan..