Chap 8 – Motivation and Emotion 2 How does Motivation and Emotion relate to previous study material?
Consider early development of psychology – (main list of characters, schools, concepts)
Freud – 3 part division of human personality
Ego – mainly rational
Superego – mainly moral
Id – primitive instinctual
Classical conditioning is learning to associate a reflex pattern with a neutral stimulus. Reflexes are unlearned patterns which occur when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) causes an unconditioned response (UCR) Repeated pairings of the UCS with a neutral stimulus lead the individual to respond to the neutral stimulus in the same way that they respond to the biologically programmed stimulus. The neutral stimulus has become a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response is now a conditioned response (CR) Learning has occurred. Example: A nurse gives a shot to an infant. The reflexive response to pain is fear and crying. The infant learns to fear the nurse and cries when the nurse enters the room. Pavlov's dog ; Watson's Experiment with Little Albert Operant conditioning involves learning due to reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is any consequence which causes an increase in behavior. Example: A parent gives a child a favorite treat after they practice on the piano for five minutes. The child practices more. Punishment is any consequence which causes a decrease in behavior. Example: A worker plays on facebook rather than complete a task. The boss makes the worker stay late to complete the task. The next day the worker does not play on facebook. B. F. Skinner
The nature/nurture controversy refers to the debate between whether genes (nature) or environment (nurture) plays the greater role in human development. Harry Harlow
Although historically this argument was either/or, current thinking rates the interaction between nature and nurture as primary. Basically what this means is that there is no easy cause-effect relationship between a stimulus and human behavior. One cannot ask “what causes autism” or why does an abused wife stay with her husband”. Human behavior is complex and influenced by multiple, interactive variables.
Other Important Motives, pg 288
How are stimulus motives different from primary drives?
Stimulus motives = Unlearned motives such as exploration, manipulation, curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us.
More responsive to environmental stimuli (primary drives are biological based)
Exploration and Curiosity
sparked by new and unknown, directed to a more specific goal of “finding out”
indefinable “curiosity” – (prepare a short-answer definition for exam)
contemporary thought holds emotions in better light – essential to survival and major source of personal enrichment, linked to immune functions and therefore to disease, and to how expression of behavior.
Refer to Figure 8 – 8 Plutchik’s eight basic categories of emotion. Pg 295
Robert Plutchik’s eight = fear surprise
each help us adjust to demands of our environment
What has been one challenge to Plutchik’s model?
Of interest – words used to name or describe an emotion may influence how that emotion is experienced.
generally thought that no more than dozen (12) primary emotions (found in all cultures)
What is thought of secondary emotions? Are these universal?
Theories of Emotion
What is the relationship among emotions, biological reactions and thoughts?
James – Lange Theory - stimuli in the environment cause physiological changes in our bodies and this causes emotions (muscles, skin, internal organs)
Cannon – Bard Theory - holds that we mentally process emotions and physically respond simultaneously, no one after another.
Schacter – Singer - cognitive theory of emotion (Two Factor theory), the situation gives us clues as to how we should interpret our state of arousal.
Facial Expression theory – (Carol Izard, 1994) – evokes an unlearned pattern of facial movements and body postures that may be completely independent of conscious thought.
- thus, emotional experiences arise from bodily reactions.
People express emotions verbally through words, most often convey feelings nonverbally.
Much of the information we convey is in how the information is expressed (feeling-tone , recall discussion of dream recall)
Facial expressions are the most obvious emotional indicators.