Chap. 12, Sec. 2 The Fight Against Slavery Roots of the Antislavery Movement

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Chap. 12, Sec. 2
The Fight Against Slavery
Roots of the Antislavery Movement

  • 1780: Pennsylvania became the first state to pass a law gradually ending slavery.

  • Ohio was the first state to ban slavery in its constitution

  • By 1804, every Northern state had ended or pledged to end slavery.

  • The American Colonization Society began an effort to gradually free and then send slaves back to Liberia

  • But it was unsuccessful

Growing Opposition to Slavery

  • Definition – reformers who wanted to abolish slavery

William Lloyd Garrison

  • Important abolitionist leader who founded the newspaper, Liberator, in 1831

  • Supported giving all African-Americans full political rights

  • Cofounded the New England Anti-Slavery Society

David Walker

  • Wrote Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, in 1829, a pamphlet that called on enslaved people to rebel to gain their freedom.

Frederick Douglass

  • An escaped slave and powerful speaker

  • Published the North Star, an antislavery newspaper

Chap. 12, Sec. 2(cont.)

John Quincy Adams

  • As member of Congress, he read antislavery petitions from the floor of the House

  • Spoke to the Supreme Court for 9 hours to help free Amistad captives

The Underground Railroad

  • Definition: a system for helping people escape slavery

  • Conductors: were people who helped runaway slaves move between stations

  • Stations: usually abolitionists’ homes, churches, or caves

  • Harriet Tubman: nicknamed the Black Moses, escorted more than 300 slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad

Opposition to Abolition

  • In the North

  • Northern textile mill owners and merchants relied on cotton produced by slave labor

  • Northern workers feared that freed slaves would take their jobs

In the South:

  • Defended slavery as a positive force

  • Southerners in Congress won passage of a “gag rule” which blocked discussion of antislavery petitions

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