Changing Life in Eighteenth Century Europe



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31. Colonial Latin America: Social Structure of Latin America



  • Creoles

  • Mestizos

  • Indians

  • Slaves

32. Debt peonage

33. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (1776)



  • Laissez faire

  • Govt’s “only three duties” according to Smith?

  • “Invisible hand”

  • What is a monopoly? Smith’s view of monopolies?

  • Economic liberalism/Capitalism

  • What would Smith say about mercantilism?

Chapter 20: The Changing Life of the People

  1. Extended family vs. Nuclear family

  2. Describe the pattern of marriage before 1750? Why was marriage delayed?

  3. Describe the pattern of marriage after 1750?

  4. Young people who live in towns will work away from home to earn enough for marriage:

  • Boys:

  • Girls:

  1. What is the effect of community controls?

  2. Illegitimacy explosion of 1750-1850: Why?

  3. Childhood: Attitude toward children? Why?

  4. Foundling homes

  5. Importance of Rousseau’s Emile (1762)

  6. Which was the first European state to mandate compulsory elementary education?

  7. Popular literature: Common people vs. educated elites

  8. Diets and nutrition of the common folk?

  9. Diets and nutrition of the middle class?

  10. Diets and nutrition of the rich/nobility?

  11. Just price:

  12. Bread riots:

  13. What is Scurvy?________________________What is Gout?_____________________

  14. Describe changes in food consumption habits of Europeans in the eighteenth century.

  15. How did the potato come to the aid of the poor?

  16. Describe medicine during the eighteenth century

  • Faith healers

  • Apothecaries and purging

  • Physicians

  • Surgeons

  • Midwives

  • Hospitals: What were hospitals like?

  • Edward Jenner (1749-1823): Smallpox inoculation

  1. While the Enlightenment was spreading among the educated elites, religion remained a strong force in the lives of the common people. Catholic Piety: What percentage of Catholics attended Easter Communion?

  2. In the eighteenth century, still, the basic religious unit was…?

  3. What were the aspects of the Protestant Revival or Pietism in Germany?

25. Why was John Wesley (1703-1791) and the Methodists appealing?

26. Leisure and Recreation: Describe leisure and recreation in the eighteenth century.



  • Carnival

  • Socializing

  • Towns and cities

  • Blood sports

  • Common people vs. elites



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