Ch24/Sec1: The Ottoman Empire Egypt & the Napoleonic Example

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Ch24/Sec1: The Ottoman Empire

  1. Egypt & the Napoleonic Example, 1798-1840

  1. Napoleonic Invasion

  • Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798

  • Defeated the Mamluk forces

  • French withdrew in 1801, leaving a power vacuum  Muhammad Ali

  • Commander in Ottoman army

  • Sent by Sultan to regain control of Egypt

  • Took place of governor in 1805

  • Removed Mamluks from power in 1811

  1. Military Reforms: based on the French military practices

  • Conscription army

  • Military schools that taught modern European techniques

  • Officers trained in France

3. Egyptian military power

  • Removed the Saudi clan from Mecca & Medina

  • Involved in Greek War for independence

  • Attacked Anatolia

- Withdraw after European British navy became involved

  • Family of Ali ruled Egypt until 1952

B. Ottoman Reform & the European Model, 1807-1853

  1. First attempt at reform

  • Sultan Selim III (r.1789-1807)

  • Attempted to reform military, centralize power, standardize taxes

  • Failed due to resistance by Janissaries and ulama

  • Failed reforms led to military uprising

  • Selim was jailed & executed in 1807

2. Reform reconsidered

  • Sultan Mahmud (r.1808-1839) saw that empire was backward & weakening

- Success of Ali in Egypt

- Greek independence in 1829

 Created new artillery unit in 1826  Janissaries revolted  artillery unit bombarded Janissary barracks  Janissary corps dissolved

3. Tanzimat: “reorganization”

- Public trials

- Equality before the law

- Conscription into the army (regardless of religion)

- Ended tax farming

- New law codes modeled on European, no Shari’a law

C. The Crimean War & Its Aftermath, 1853-1877

  1. Conflict with Russia

  • Russia wanted access to the Black Sea

  • Free access to Mediterranean

  • Expanded south at the expense of the Ottomans

- Russia claimed to be protector of all Orthodox citizens in the Ottoman Empire

2. The Crimean War

  • Began as dispute over access to churches in Jerusalem

  • Russia invaded the Balkans

    • Britain, France & Kingdom of Sardinia & Piedmont allied with Ottomans

  • War fought in Romania, on the Black Sea and Crimean Peninsula

3. Effects of the War

  • Russian expansion to the south blocked

  • Tsar weakened

  • First time propaganda used to generate support for war

  • England and France

  • Transition to modern warfare

- High casualties

- Breech loading rifle

- End of the significance of cavalry forces

4. Problems associated with the reforms

  • Dependence on foreign loans

  • Trade deficit

  • Inflation

  • In the 1860s and 1870s, discussion of a law that would have permitted all men to vote

- Muslims worried that the Ottoman Empire was no longer a Muslim society.

- contributed to Muslim hostilities against Christians in the Ottoman territories

  1. The decline of Ottoman power and wealth

  • Young Ottomans


- a group of educated urban men

  • Constitutionalism

  • liberal reform

  • creation of a Turkish national state

  • A constitution was granted in 1876

  • a coup soon placed a more conservative ruler on the throne

  • The Ottoman Empire continued its weakened existence under the sponsorship of the Western powers until 1922.

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