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Ch 28Transformations Around the Globe, 1800–1914
CHAPTER OVERVIEW In China, a weak government could not resist European power. In Japan, a reforming emperor modernized the country and launched imperialist expansion. The Latin American economies fell prey to European businesses, and the United States became the dominant power in the region. A revolution freed Mexico from France, but civil war raged for decades. S1. China Resists Outside Influence
KEY IDEA Western economic pressure forced China to open to foreign trade and influence.
In the late 1700s, China was self-sufficient. It had
a strong farming economy based on growing rice.
Other crops, introduced from the Americas, helped
to feed its large population. Industry made silk, cotton,
and ceramics. Mines produced salt, tin, silver,
and iron. China needed nothing from the outside
China allowed only limited trade with European
powers, and it all had to come through one port.
Also, the trade at this port was in China’s favor. In
other words, the Chinese sold more than they
bought. Europeans, especially the British, were
eager to find something that the Chinese would
want in large quantities. In the early 1800s, they
times, shrewdly changing his positions in order to
In the 1830s, though, he was unable to prevent
people in Texas from winning their freedom from
Mexico. In the 1840s, the United States annexed
Texas, which angered many Mexicans. When a border
dispute broke out, the United States invaded
Mexico. Santa Anna led his nation’s army and was
defeated. Mexico had to surrender huge amounts
Another important leader of the middle 1800s
was Benito Juárez. A Zapotec Indian, Juárez
wanted to improve conditions for the poor in
Mexico. He led a movement called La Reforma—
the reform—that aimed at breaking the power of
the large landowners and giving more schooling to
the poor. He and his liberal supporters won control
of the government in the late 1850s. The conservatives
who opposed them did not give up, however.
They plotted with France to retake Mexico. In
1862, Napoleon III of France sent an army that
captured the country in 18 months. He named a
European noble as emperor. But, Juárez and his
followers kept fighting. In 1867, they drove the
French from Mexican soil and killed the emperor.
Juárez once again pressed for his reforms. He
made some progress but died in office in 1872. Soon
after, a new leader emerged. Porfirio Díaz dominated
Mexican politics for more than 30 years. Díaz
brought order to the country and encouraged economic
growth. However, he sharply limited political
In the early 1900s, calls for reform got louder.
Leaders “Pancho” Villa and Emiliano Zapata gathered
support with their demand for better lives for
the poor. They raised small armies and forced Díaz
to step down. Fighting continued, however, for
many years as several leaders struggled for power.
In the midst of this turmoil, Mexico adopted a new
constitution in 1917. It called for breaking up large
landholdings and for limits on foreign ownership of
business. It promoted the right to strike for workers
and promised some rights for women. Conflict
continued until a new political party gained control
of Mexico in 1929. The Institutional Revolutionary
Party (PRI) brought peace and political stability to
a troubled land.
Review (DO ALL QUESTIONS!)
1. Summarizing Describe China’s two major attempts to remain isolated from the outside world.
2. Recognizing Effects What was the result of Japan’s feelings of pride and strength in the late
3. Evaluating Courses of ActionThrough what method did the Japanese modernize during the Meiji era?
4. Drawing Conclusions Why did the Latin American nations not benefit from growing trade?
5. Comparing What did Juárez, Villa, and Zapata have in common?
6-10. Imperialism: Based on your study of this unit (Chapters 23-28), what do you see as the LONG TERM ROOTS and LEGACY of European Imperialism? Asian Imperialism? American Imperialism? Global Economic Imperialism?