Ch 12 Part 2 Notes post war of 1812 expanison good and bad 



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CH 12 Part 2 Notes POST WAR OF 1812 EXPANISON GOOD AND BAD 

****These notes are vital…to understanding many issues of today and to understanding how we fight a Civil War….THE MOST sig. event in our HISTORY, issues still affect us today…
The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
Note: James Monroe win re-election in 1820, THE ONLY PRESIDENT TO BE RE-ELECTED WHEN A MAJOR FINANCIAL PANIC OCCURS DURING THEIR 1ST TERM IN OUR HISTORY…
Note: Economic “panic”, depressions, recessions….etc.. are common throughout our history and occur every 20 – 30 years…( We begin to study them in 1819) until the “big one” in 1929, when the Federal Gov’t creates a slew of new policies that begin to even out the “ECONOMIC CYCLE”... OF UPS AND DOWNS….From 1945 post WW2 there was an unprecedented cycle of growth …in the USA…some say the highest growth period in the history of the World… until about 1970’s…then a stagnant period of even growth AND then….A RETURN OF BOOM AND BUST CYCLES- in 1987 we had another meltdown…and again in 2007 a BIG meltdown….and we are still recovering…. Interesting that these began to reoccur again when conservatives began to regain power and began to eliminate the safeguards instituted by liberals after the 1930’s and 40’s…believing that there were too many restrictions on the economy…hmmmm.
ECONOMIC PANICS …occur in 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893, 1907, 1929, 1987, 2007……. What are the causes: Generally speaking it is always one or both of these things….OVERSPECULATION OR OVERPRODUCTION…. We will examine the causes individually…BUT I STRESS THIS POINT FOR A REASON…. The EFFECTS OF THESE ARE CALAMATOUS…especially until after the 1930’s … there was no SAFETY NET….no GOV”T Programs at ANY LEVEL (fed, state, local) People starve to death, lose everything, when banks failed YOU LOST YOUR $..... Many economists today still debate the value of gov’t support during these times…HOWVEVER, YOU are very fortunate to live now…due to the few programs still in place that lessen the effects of these cycles on your lives…you may not realize it, but whew… when you think about the consequences of the past BUST PERIODS…imagine how YOU and YOUR FAMILY would have done if YOU had LOST EVERYTHING….and NONE OF IT WAS YOUR FAULT….that there was no action(s) you could have taken before, during, or after to change the outcome of complete loss…. A truly helpless feeling…
Enough of my History lesson on Economic Panics in General and back to the show 
The 1819 Panicbrought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, and overcrowded slums called DEBTOR’S PRISONS !
1819 PANIC is the 1st economic panic since GW took office in 1789, about 20 years before, Factors that contributed to the CAUSE but one is pointed out in the text:

OVERSPECULATION IN FRONTIER LANDS…GAMBLING….attempting to get rich quick… some say the TRUE AMERICAN DREAM….
The Bank of the United States made lots of loans to ****“Wildcat Banks” ***in the West (these are small and typically underfunded banks who are created for a variety of purposes, THERE ARE NO REGULATIONS, therefore ANYONE COULD OPEN A BANK) who in turn loan money to avg. citizens to purchase collectively the huge amount of land available after the War of 1812 had moved most Native American Tribes out of the way in the North and South WEST…. Besides avg. citizens were those entrepreneurs who went west to make their fortunes…buying low and selling high….NO ONE anticipated that the BOOM would bust….and when it did so…THE BANK OF THE USA CALLED IN ITS LOANS FROM THE “WILDCAT BANKS”….then the WB’s called in its loans from avg. citizen farmers and the speculators….none were in a position to pay back the loans… so WHAT HAPPENS… $$$ IS LOST WILDCAT BANKS FAIL…. ALL INVESTORS LOSE EVERYTHING…..AND who is fit the hardest….as usual the AVG CITIZEN-HIS FAMILY-HIS CHILDREN….HAVE NOTHING BUT HARD TIMES, not even their fault…nothing they could do….Their mortgages were foreclosed on… land taken away…when the banks close they lose their deposits….nothing, all that hard work for nothing….imagine the chaos. WHO WAS TO BLAME !!!
The Bank of the USA was considered by most to be the BAD GUY… not the speculator…hmmm…. A FINANCIAL DEVIL . This perspective of the avg. western citizen will lead to a major conflict in the next chapter, 1830’s.
******HUGE******Debtor’s prisons…are full… this inhumanity will come under severe criticism and as this period continues…states begin to ELIMINATE PROPERTY QUALIFICATIONS TO VOTE…. Unlimited White Male Suffrage by 1840 increases the electorate from 300,000 total eligible voters in 1824 to over 3 million by 1840. As the “masses” begin to acquire the vote… changes occur…ending debtors prisons and more “free” public education are two of the most powerful… that come as a result of politicians realizing that they need to “campaign” to earn the vote of the “COMMON MAN.”
GROWING PAINS OF THE WEST Free States v Slave States…Expansion WEST is our MANIFEST DESTINY… GOD HAD GIVEN US THIS CONTINENT…
*****The debate over the expansion of Slavery into the West continues from this point until the Civil War…it is THIS ISSUE which causes the Civil WAR !!!
-Between 1791 and 1819, 9 more “frontier” states join the UNION of the original 13… total = 22.

- to keep a BALANCE between FREE AND SLAVE states…they had been admitted in balance…

- *****The idea of Westward Expansion is a major theme as we progress through the next 100 years of our history… the effects on the creation of a unique AMERICAN NATIONAL IDENTITY is tied to this long process… and the many issues and debates associated with this journey…
We have been moving WEST since early in the Colonial period… CHEAP LAND/FREE LAND…. Is a huge attraction… for those who were here and for IMMIGRANTS…

OHIO FEVER… MISSISSIPPI FEVER… immigrants begin to stream to our shores with the DREAM of owning land and fulfilling their AMERICAN DREAM…after the WAR of 1812…The barriers of War itself ,the elimination of many Native American Tribes across the MISS. R., ROADS (Cumberland or National ROAD which ran from Maryland to Illinois), steamboats, Canals, and eventually RR’s, allows for a HUGE amount of GREAT LAND to be made available…ALL IT TOOK WAS A SMALL DOWN PAYMENT AND YOU COULD ACQUIRE HUGE AMOUNTS OF LAND…



-The LAND ACT OF 1820- allows a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land for $1.25 per Acre…

THE WEST was slowly but surely gaining population… and influence in Congress… and pressured the National Gov’t for 3 THINGS…1-CHEAP LAND, accomplished above,2- CHEAP TRANSPORTATION (this debate over Internal Improvements further ties the WEST to the NORTH due to the Southern Presidents and Congressmen objecting to the Constitutionality of spending Federal money on these projects- mentioned previously…Madison’s VETO…AND OTHER PRES’S FOLLOW… and 3-CHEAP MONEY- issued by Wildcat Banks in the West…
BUT… it still needed to ally itself with either the North or the South usually to accomplish anything politically.

-AT THIS POINT… The AMERICAN SYSTEM, developed by Henry Clay, which hoped that raw materials from the West and South would be shipped to the Northeastern Manufacturing centers…then the Manufactured Goods would be shipped back to the West and South…this MARKET and the Subsequent Transportation and Communication Revolution… ******Changes the NATURAL TIES THAT EXIST BETWEEN WEST AND SOUTH, due to the flow of rivers in the west, AS THE ROADS, CANALS, AND RAILROADS ARE BUILT OVER THE COMING DECADES, these ARTIFICIAL LINKS BEGIN TO TIE THE WEST ECONOMICALLY and ,due the MARKETPLACE OF IDEAS that also travel along these artificial links, COMMON BELIEFS AND VALUES are linking the WEST TO THE NORTH…. This is a huge development as the time passes…


Slavery and the Sectional Balance – The Missouri Compromise of 1820***
The “FREE” North and the “SLAVE” South COMPETE FOR CONTROL OF THE WEST AND THE CONTROL OF THE POLITICS OF THE NATION…(leads to the CIVIL WAR)
****This rivalry appears in 1819 when the lands of the Louisiana Purchase begin to gain enough population to begin applying for Statehood (remember the process of “Temporary Tutelage”, the Territory System established by the NW Ordinance of 1787)

-Missouri applies for Admission in 1819 as a Slave State.

-****the Northern representatives in the House…pass the TALLMADGE AMENDMENT (defeated in the Senate by the Southern States)- which stated that no more slaves could be brought into Missouri and provided for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parent already there…

What is going to happen now…Southerners are ANGRY….This is a threat to their CHOSEN way of life… With every passing decade more and more people were coming to the USA…The North was becoming Wealthier and more populated….this gave the North an advantage in the House of REPs, despite the 3/5ths clause… (IN THE SENATE IT WAS STILL EQUAL…11 STATES TO 11 STATES…THE SOUTH COULD BLOCK ANY POTENTIAL THREATS AT THIS POINT)

Remember the “old northwest” had banned slavery a long time ago…

-The future of the Slave System caused Southerners profound concern…



-If the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT could ban Slavery as new states are coming in from the Louisiana Purchase… it MIGHT SET A DANGEROUS PRECEDENT…and COULD THE POWERFUL FEDERAL GOV’T IN THE FUTURE BAN SLAVERY ALTOGETHER???

-A small, but powerfully motivated, group in the NORTH began to raise an outcry against the EVILS OF SLAVERY…ABOLITIONIST SOCIETIES, small but intellectually powerful began to form….


THIS STORY IS JUST BEGINNING…THE OUTCOME THOUGH IS PREDICTABLE…TWO DIVERGENT SOCIETIES…ARE GOING TO CLASH…IS THE OUTCOME INEVITABLE?
DOC #2 –IS MANDATORY AND GOES INTO MORE DEPTH*****


The Uneasy Missouri Compromise
Note: Henry Clay begins to earn his nickname…”the great compromiser,” he eventually “saves the nation,” 3 times… here in 1820, in the Nullification compromise in 1833, and last, just before his death, with the Compromise of 1850.
3 Compromises make up the “Missouri Compromise, 1820”:

1 Missouri is admitted as a Slave State

2 Maine (separated from Mass.) is admitted as a Free State

3 The 36-30 line is drawn east to west across the Louisiana Purchase territory…all future states above the line would come in Free….all states below that line would come in as Slave… note; the only exception was Missouri itself ….the 36 -30 line was its SOUTHERN boundary…


The majority of Southerners voted against the compromise… but it passed with some help from the South.
The Balance between Slave and Free States was kept now at 12-12
This compromise will become “fixed” in the peoples minds… and lasts until the 1850s.
John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism & Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses (essay alert)
*****NOTE: Remember that Marshall is appointed by John Adams, he believes in a strong national government, he affects the national judicial system more than any other single individual…and his “court” makes decisions that are still used as precedent today  In a sense his nationalism was the most tenaciously enduring of the era---he serves as 34 years as Chief Justice- all but a few months during a period when the Democrat-Republicans controlled the other two branches of Gov’t…He buttressed the Power of the Federal Gov’t, helped to create a stable, nationally uniform environment for business, checked the excesses of the State Legislatures…he almost single handedly shaped the Constitution into a conservative idea…
Please know the significance of the following cases: There are some great stories associated with these cases… (extra credit opportunity) …
Marbury v. Madison, 1803 – Established the power of Judicial Review solidly with the Supreme Court…ends the argument with JEFF that a state could judge the constitutionality of an act of the Federal gov’t Nullification (Ky res) the Supreme Court from this point forward has the power of Judicial review.
****McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 – “the power to tax is the power to destroy”… this case rules that Maryland could not tax the paper $ issued by the 2nd Bank of the USA… the decision rules that the federal gov’t’s use of “implied powers” created by the Necessary and Proper clause is Constitutional-this ruling repudiates the radical states rights argument against “implied powers’ presented by TJeff when arguing this case originally…and that The “Supremacy” of the Federal Gov’t is clear…based on the Supremacy Clause, “The sovereignty of the Federal Government lies with the people not with the individual states,” No other opinion—has so profoundly defined the Power of the Federal Government over the states.***this case happens just prior to the debates on the Tallmadge Amendment---which gives Southerners further pause due to it proclaiming the “Supremacy” of the Federal Government over the states…and is one reason so many “internal improvement” programs are VETOED by Southern-Democratic Presidents…a FEAR of the growing power of the Federal Government…
Cohens v. Virginia, 1821-Allows the Supreme Court to review state supreme court decisions in criminal law matters… again the Fed. Gov’t is Supreme over the States.
***Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 – “Steamboat Case”… Stated: “only the Federal Government has the power to regulate interstate commerce.” Based on the “commerce clause”—the court ruled that Congress had the power to regulate any aspect of commerce that crossed state lines, “Congress may pass any law that regulates commerce, as long as that commerce is not wholly confined within a single state…and that power to regulate “interstate commerce” is “plenary,” meaning—that it is absolute and without limitation. More than any other case****Ogden set the stage for the Federal Government’s overwhelming growth of Power into the 20th century*******
Fletcher v. Peck, 1810 –Yazoo land case”…A contract was binding… and cannot be invalidated. Even if illegally secured? The Court protected Contracts, thus, business, and INVALIDATED A STATE LAW… that was in conflict with the Constitution…Georgia’s Legislature repealed a contract given to the “Yazoo” land company to sell land, 35 Million acres in “Mississippi” Territory---building the “Cotton Kingdom”…as a new legislature is elected they claimed FRAUD…and attempted to end the contract…THIS BECAME A NATIONAL ISSUE DUE TO THE SIGNIFICANT INVESTMENTS OF BANKS AND THE WEALTHY FROM THE NORTH… THUS MARSHALL’S DECISION BENEFITS THE “ORIGINAL” INVESTORS AND THE BANKS ARE SAVED. 
Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819 another Contract case…This case limits the ability of States to impair a contract…specifically protects private institutions from state encroachment… A famous case for Daniel Webster, Sen. From Mass. who argues often if front of the Supreme Court and along with Henry Clay and John Calhoun are the “Great Triumvirate” of congressional leaders over the next 40 years…the NEW GENERATION OF LEADERS IN THE COUNTRY…
Worcester v. Georgia, 1832- Famous Cherokee Indian case… “only the United States, and not the individual states, had power to regulate or deal with the Indian Governments.” Georgia passed a series of laws in 1828 which had stripped the Cherokee Indians of their rights…and authorized their removal from Georgia, The Congress in 1830 passes the Indian Removal Act…forcing all Native Americans east of the Mississippi River to move to “Indian Territory” (present day Oklahoma). Marshall dictates that Georgia cannot take their lands and that the Cherokee Indians constitute a Nation holding distinct sovereign powers--- The Cherokee Win.. However, Pres. Andrew Jackson does not enforce the decision and in 1838 the Cherokee are forcibly removed in the Trail of Tears… Jackson states famously…”Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it.”
Barron v. Baltimore, 1833- John Barron filed a lawsuit against the city of Baltimore claiming a violation of his 5th amendment rights based on the claim that the city had taken his property without just compensation. Barron loses his case on appeal and the case is sent to the Supreme Court. MARSHALL rules that Barron had no claim against the state based on the 5th amendment BECAUSE THE “BILL OF RIGHTS” DOES NOT APPLY TO THE STATES.****************THIS IS NOT CHANGED UNTIL THE 14TH AMENDMENT IS PASSED IN 1868, AFTER THE CIVIL WAR***** CALLED “INCORPORATION.”
Shaping Oregon and Acquiring Florida
-Foreign Policy is affected by the upsurge of Nationalism as well… we were feeling our strength..
James Monroe’s Secretary of State….is the amazing John Quincy Adams….maybe the best ever….
Treaty of 1818 with Britain- permitted the sharing of the Newfoundland fishing grounds..set the northern limits of the Louisiana Purchase at 49 degrees Latitude (Oregon territory) across the Northern boundary of Canada, and provided for a 10 year joint-occupation of Oregon Country…until it could be settled later.
Adams-Onis or Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819 –

Background:

Latin American Revolutions had deprived Spain of many soldiers needed to protect Florida… General Andrew Jackson after Horseshoe Bend in Northeast Alabama and New Orleans goes to Mobile…with the intention of attacking Seminole Indians who were giving runaway slaves protection along with the Spanish Gov’t… he hangs two indian chiefs, executes two British citizens for assisting the Indians, and seized two Spanish forts at St. Marks and Pensacola…and there deposes the Spanish Governor…whew…

Then the SPANISH SIGN THE ABOVE TREATY… Spain cedes Florida, as well as claims to Oregon in exchange for American relinquishing its claims to Texas…and clarifying the Louisiana Purchase Border in the far West…


The Menace of Monarchy in America & Monroe and his Doctrine & Appraised
Note: the MONROE DOCTRINE…immediately really not significant…. Becomes the CORNERSTONE OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY UNTIL WW 1.
Due to the revolutions occurring throughout the world after the end of the Napoleonic Wars… Latin America and Europe…. The Monarchies of Europe ban together at the Congress of Vienna.. to ensure a return to the “responsible conservatism of Monarchy.” “The world must be made safe from democracy.”
The concern of Britain was a possible united European Monarchies going around the world….esp. Latin America where Britain had a number of new trading partners… and crush these “democratic revolutions.”
The United States was equally concerned about a possible European combined Fleet and armies who may want to do the same thing in North America….and possibly keep the USA from fulfilling its MANIFEST DESTINY to control the continent…
*****In August 1823…George Canning the British Foreign Minister suggests America with a proposition: Would the USA combine with GB in a join Declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory and to warn Euro Monarchs to keep their hands off Latin America?

John Quincy Adams writes the response to GB minister Canning in 1823, which Pres. Monroe gives officially, it is called the Monroe Doctrine and it has two parts:
1 Non-Colonization- the era of colonization the Americas had ended and was permanently closed. What the Great Powers currently had they could keep BUT no country could seize or acquire more

2 Non-Intervention – He warns the Euro Monarchs to keep their armies and navies at home…and out of our hemisphere…no excuse… and America would stay out of Europe…
America gives this statement ALONE… to ALL COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD….
European Monarchies Response:
Anger…who were the Americans to make such claims..BUT…they were powerless to do anything about it because GB the greatest of the powers wanted this as well and would fight to protect its access to the newly opened markets…and their NAVY ruled the WORLD at this point… so America inadvertently benefits from this protection…

The MD does not have much immediate impact…THE STRENGTH OF THE DOCTRINE HAS NEVER BEEN GREATER THAN AMERICA’S ABILITY TO MILITARILY BACK THE IDEA


The MONROE DOCTRINE was never law- domestic or international- IT WAS MERELY A STATEMENT OF POLICYTHAT BECOMES A MANDATE FROM AMERICA AND EVENTUALLY A KEY PIECE OF OUR FOREIGN POLICY PHILOSOPHY INTO THE 20TH CENTURY…AND DEEPENS THE IDEA OF ISOLATIONISM…WE WERE SEPARATED BY TWO GIANT OCEANS… FROM ANY MEANINGFUL THREAT…
Directory: cms -> lib4 -> NC01000579 -> Centricity -> Domain -> 2830
2830 -> Unit 2 French Colonization/North America 1754-1800 This includes: -thematic learning objectives (each multiple choice question is tied to one (1) of these that follows
2830 -> The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) and in Response … The Kentucky
2830 -> A note… this is not a complete history just my observations of what has been tested on the Multiple choice in the past… use this wisely 
2830 -> Period Packets – Period 8: 1945-1980 Unit 9 – Chapters 36-39 Included in Each Period Packet
2830 -> Reading Questions Ch. 8 Part 2 including Varying Viewpoints “Whose Revolution” Varying Viewpoints pp. 162-163 Notes
2830 -> War of inconsistency timeline
2830 -> Notes ch. 31Part 1 (text) 32 Part 1 de to “The Advent of the Gasoline Age”
2830 -> Civil war society
2830 -> Rq ch 21 Part 1 – You will need to read and study my notes, too  Visuals


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