Elected body (similar to a state house/legislature)
England to far away to run things directly
First foot hold to democracy, Revolution, and self-rule
England – Virginia – Sir Walter Raleigh
Middle Colonies, and New England
William Penn – Pennsylvania – Quakers (…Pacifist)
Holland – Hudson River – Henry Hudson
New Holland (New York)
France – St. Lawrence River – Fur Trappers
Canada, the Great Lakes Region, and the Mississippi River Basin
Spanish – Looking for gold and converts
Stuck mainly to the southern U.S. and the west coast.
Europe of the 1600s
flee to America
First break of Catholic Church = Protestants (most of which were unorganized)
Only organized group = Separatists who flee to America to escape persecution
Those who make the journey called – Pilgrims
Took Mayflower to Cape Cod (New England/Massachusetts) but were trying to get to Virginia
The men set up written law – Mayflower Compact
Laws to help common man
Plymouth was cleared land by Indians who have since died off
The Great Migration
20,000 Puritans flocked to New England in the 1600’s
Led by John Winthrop
Actually settled in Connecticut and developed a constitution
Constitution = framework for government
Puritans didn’t like those who were different and wouldn’t allow them in their colony. (Salem Witch Trials)
Started the U.S. school system…wanted everyone to be able to read the Bible.
3 Colonial Regions
Northern Colonies – small farms, fishing, manufacturing, many ports, rivers, streams some religious tolerance
Middle Colonies – medium sized farms, good ports and religious freedoms
Southern Colonies – large farms (with labor intensive crops), few ports, few rivers, some religious tolerance
Early Colonial Government
England 1215 – Magna Carta
Established a written common law to protect the rights of the common man
1688 – Glorious Revolution
Kings can not rule without Bill of Rights
Colonies – 1700’s all had governors without Parliament
Parliament draws up a plan for assembly houses = state legislation
England had to let the colonies self-rule because they were too far away.
= colonies gain valuable experience in government for the colonies
Re-creating England in the Colonies
Unlike Spain or France, England formed a partnership with merchants willing to finance colonization in hopes of a profit.
A combination of factors led thousands of settlers to relocate to an unknown land: rising prices (from the Spanish silver glut), overpopulation, dispossession of small landowners, a surge in poverty, and religious wars that resulted in persecution and disrupted trade.
Although the English settled in the
West Indies and all along the eastern seaboard, the biggest surge in immigration occurred in New England, where the Puritans sought to re-create English life and ways.
Ch 2.4 Conflict and Growth of the Colonies
Native American Wars
In the Spanish Southwest, priests tried to destroy Native American religions that competed with Christianity.
Popé organized the Taos Pueblo into an impressive fighting force that attacked Spanish settlements in New Mexico and drove the hated priests and settlers back into Mexico, where they remained for more than a decade.
King Philip’s War
In the Northeast, Metacom (King Philip) tried unsuccessfully to fight the English who had greedily overrun Wampanoag hunting and fishing lands, but he failed to dislodge the colonists
Native American Wars (continued)
When Virginias royal governor, Sir William Berkeley, tried to reserve frontier land for Native Americans, planter Nathaniel Bacon and his land-hungry followers declared war on the Native Americans, even those who were friendly, and then battled the governor and his troops.
Bacon was killed and the rebellion collapsed. His followers, however, gained seats in the Virginia legislature, where they passed laws legalizing Native American slavery–an act condemned by the British.
France and Britain Struggle for Control
Competition – religious, trade/financial, and power.
The Seven Years War/French and Indian War
When the French and Indian War ended, France had lost Canada and all of its territories east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. The Native Americans, however, had lost the power they had enjoyed from playing one side against the other.
A population explosion had made the eastern seaboard crowded. One-fourth of the growth stemmed from willing immigration of indentured servants from Ireland and Germany and the forced immigration of Africans. Three-quarters of the increase came from a high birthrate accompanied by a low death rate.
The Great Awakening
As the population skyrocketed, many Americans came under the sway of the revivalism of the Great Awakening, which posed serious challenges to accepted authority.
The Great Awakening led colonists
to create new churches, enslaved Africans to question the basis of their enslavement, and in general promoted a spirit of individualism and independence.
Hospitals, the University of Pennsylvania, Post Office, Virtues, Poor Richard’s Almanac, inventor, and statesman.
Ch 3.1 Toward Revolution
Paying for Security
The 7 Years War was the culmination of +70 years of England vs. France fighting…which leads to a huge debt on both sides.
Protecting the American Colonies is very costly.
Proclamation of 1763
After an Native American uprising, Parliament set aside all lands west of the Appalachians as Indian Territory. = Colonists can’t settle there
How does this make the colonists feel?
Where the colonists asked for their opinion?
The Sugar Act
This is not just one single tax…it is a series of taxes on all imported goods…like a tariff.
Taxes were higher on imports that were more of a necessity…textiles, coffee, wine etc..
This is especially crippling to Boston…Why?
A tax on all paper products sold in the colonies…receipts, newspapers, decks of cards, official documents.
Colonists hated it
External Tax – tax on foreign goods
Internal Tax – tax on locally produced goods
They understood external . not internal
Taxation without representation wasn’t popular
Especially since they had no say in how the money was spent.
Sons of Liberty
The mafia of early America.
Let’s read this section together….
How is this story different from the situation in Iraq or even N…
How justified were our founding father’s actions?
Tar and feather opposition, extortion, etc…
But it did unite the colonies.
Parliament sent troops to Boston to increase the peace…does this help? No, all it does is cause fear…
One group of soldiers get cornered by an angry mob…things turn south…gun fires…troops unload…5 men died, including Crispus Attucks a African/Native American sailor.
Protests and boycotts organized by the Sons of Liberty got the Stamp Act repealed…however Britain still needs money.
There idea is to set up a tea monopoly in the colonies to aid their mercantilistic operation…the colonies weren’t too happy, even though the tea was now cheaper = Boston Tea Party
342 chests of tea dumped in the harbor
Parliament’s response – close Boston law and place the city under the army’s command
Committees of Correspondence
Most thought the actions of the colonists, and the Sons of Liberty bordered on treason.
However grassroots campaigning of brochures, letters, and newspapers slowly united the colonists together…it was basically a propaganda campaign.
The 1st Continental Congress met in 1774 and then was planned to meet yearly to discuss ways on handling the situation.
By 1775 they had decided to boycott all British goods.
This slowly leads to ignoring British rule and setting up of their own local institutions…i.e. courts, laws, etc…
Parliament tells General Gage – stationed at Boston – to disband these groups of local law warriors
Which equals Lexington and Concord
British troops went to disband…local militia said no…Shot Heard Round the World??? War has begun 88 colonists casualties, 273 British casualties
Ch 3.2 War for Independence
Lexington and Concord
The first famous “Shot Heard Around the World”
This was not intended to be the start of a Revolution, merely an accidental start.
The one important lesson here is how the Colonists were able to inflict more casualties.
British - 273
What happens next?
Small battles/skirmishes really.
One large battle in June 1775 – Bunker Hill (aka Breed’s Hill) – “Don’t fire until you see the white’s of their eyes!”
Colonists lost after a British war of attrition.
It becomes clear at this point to the founding fathers that conventional war it not the way to go, and that maybe war can still be avoided.
Can war be avoided?
For almost a year after Lexington & Concord, diplomatic measures were taken to avoid more bloodshed.
However, King George III wants to punish the colonies for his troubles and Thomas Paine and his Common Sense start to change the majority of colonists opinions.
Before Thomas Paine’s document the majority of the American Colonists were Tories – loyal to the King, after his publication more were becoming Patriots – those loyal to the colonial cause.
Common Sense was just what it is called. In plain English the situation is stated in which the King is blamed for all the trouble and the colonists love it.
120,000 copies are sold in 3 months
Declaration of Independence
At the 2nd Continental Congress it became clear that there was no way to turn back now. That independence was the only justifiable outcome.
But how could they make the world see their view point and agree with them.
The answer is in the Enlightenment
aka The Age of Reason and philosophy
They believed that human reason could be used to combat ignorance, superstition, and tyranny and to build a better world. Their principal targets were religion (embodied in France in the Catholic Church) and the domination of society by a hereditary aristocracy.
With thinkers like Descartes (I think, therefore I am), Voltaire, Rousseau whose ideas are spread via the printing press these ideas take hold
Why do the colonists accept Enlightenment ideals?
Taxation without representation
King and Parliament are too far away
Most colonists left Europe to get away from something…but did they ever really leave if they are still being told what to do and controlled by European interests.
Gen. George Washington in charge of the Continental Army. Chose for his experience in the French & Indian War.
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont capture Ft. Ticonderoga in the north preventing British invasion through Canada.
American troops could never stand up to a trained British army…hit and run battles, sneak attacks etc…
So whenever they lined up and fought it was a slaughter.
However things aren’t going well for the Americans
Little supplies, little aid etc…
The first winter at Valley Forge was terrible…very cold…lots of desertion etc…
Nathanael Green helps Washington out in the Battles of Trenton and Princeton capturing the Hessian army.
But the major victories are still eluding the Colonists
Battle of Saratoga
Just when things were looking bad…British are advancing from the north and coming up from Philadelphia at the same time…Colonists are retreating and their knowledge of the land is of a vast importance…the burn bridges, raid towns etc…slowing the British advance. This gives the Americans time and they are able to win the battle.
This victory is huge because it convinces the French to be our ally.
This also becomes the turning point in the war.
French help wins the war
French troops, and leaders (like Lafayette) help train the Americans. They also supply guns, ammo, and other necessities.
The war is eventually won at Yorktown when Washington and a French army trap Gen. Lord Cornwallis on a peninsula where the French navy prevented his escape route through the sea.
The largest British force surrenders = war is over
Treaty of Paris of 1783 makes the war officially over.
Who else fought?
Some fought with the promise of freedom, although most fought with the British because their promise seemed more likely
Fought with the British because they feared colonist expansion
Actually fought in war disguised as men…but were an immense help in supplying the war (farmers, nurses, spies etc…)Their role is key in the movement towards women’s suffrage.