Ch 1 The Earliest Americans American History



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Ch 2.1 The Earliest Americans

American History

Beringia

  1. Beringia – Land bridge that allowed for the passage of Native Americans from Asia to North America.

  2. Started immigrating about 40,000 years ago.

  3. Followed herds across the continent.

Nomadic vs. Sedentary

  1. Nomadic

  2. No permanent home…follows herds – hunter/gatherer

  3. Sedentary

  4. Permanent home = agriculture

  5. Lifestyle changes led to the development of a complex society with different jobs, positions and responsibilities (division of labor)

  6. Imagination…

Anasazi

  1. Cliff dwellers of the desert southwest.

  2. Egalitarian society – all people are equals, society built on cooperation.

  3. Very technologically advanced society.

  4. Lived in huge apartment buildings (+1000 people)…for +700 years, it was largest of it’s kind, until 1882 NYC.

Midwest Moundbuilders

  1. Built huge burial grounds, for the important people, in the shapes of animals

  2. Buried them with personal items = a belief in the afterlife.

  3. Extensive trade network

  4. Cahokia – built a burial mound that at it’s base is larger than the Great Pyramid of Egypt. Society of about 35,000 people.

Eastern Woodland Tribes

  1. Cleared parts of forests to farm…very important in reference to the Pilgrims

  2. Iroquois Alliance – a collection of 6, former enemy tribes that banded together for protection.

  3. The alliance works like a federal republic (should be familiar).

  4. Also almost entirely controlled by females.

Ch 2.2

Three Worlds Meet

Columbus

  1. Looking for a passage to the East Indies. Or the Western Passage. Round earth belief.

  2. 1492 is when he began his journey. Forever changing the face of America.

But was Columbus first?

  1. Chinese?

  2. Leif Erickson arrived in Canada around 1000 AD and the Indians force the Vikings out.

  3. Why then did do we think Columbus arrived first?

  4. Why no interest until he arrive after 1492?

  5. Inquisition, Marco Polo trade routes, period of peace etc…

Columbus’s Arrival

  1. He arrived in the Bahamas after a rough journey.

  2. He thought he arrived in the East Indies so he called the people he met Indians.

  3. Columbus made three voyages never knowing he reached a new continent.

America is Named

  1. Amerigo Vespucci drew a map that showed the New World as a separate continent…so people gave him credit for it.

  2. Soon there after Balboa crosses modern-day Panama and discovers the Pacific Ocean (name means peaceful)

  3. Soon after that Magellan tried and succeeded in a voyage around the new continent(s)

Imperialism

  1. Process of building an Empire.

  2. Line of Demarcation – North America for Spain to develop, South for Portugal…as dictated by the pope.

  3. What is the purpose?

  4. Christianize, Civilize, Culturalize

  5. “to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.”

  6. Does this desire ever go away?

  7. Mercantilism – colonies supply raw materials to the mother country to turn into finished products.

  8. Corn Flakes

Spanish Conquistadors

  1. Looking for places like El Dorado, the Fountain of Youth…lots of gold and riches.

  2. The Aztecs were toppled by Cortes and Incans by Pizarro.

  3. Spanish on horses, had metal armor…looked like godly warriors.

Famous Explorers and Their Country of Origin

  1. Cabrillo

  2. Coronado

  3. De Vaca

  4. Cortes

  5. De Soto

  6. De Leon

  7. Balboa

  8. Cartier

  9. Cabot

  10. Verrazano

  11. Narvaez

  12. Columbus

  13. Spanish

  14. Spanish

  15. Spanish

  16. Spanish

  17. Spanish

  18. Spanish

  19. Spanish

  20. French

  21. English

  22. French

  23. Spanish


Spanis

h

Columbian Exchange

  1. Think about the Simpson's.

  2. Things the new world gained.

  3. Horses, cows, oranges, sugar, weeds, disease, slavery, etc…

  4. Things the old world gained.

  5. Tobacco,, potatoes, beans, corn, more gold, more silver, etc…

  6. Columbus Day?

Disease

  1. Main killer was smallpox, and even influenza

  2. Well by Columbus’s death in 1506 the Americas, as he knew them, changed a lot. Up to 90% of the 50 million of indigenous people had died.

  3. The America’s were the most populous area in the world before Columbus.

  4. This did lead to an increase in Christianity because the European God could kill Indians and their god was powerless to stop the slaughter.

Roots of Slavery in America

  1. Sugar, tobacco, and cotton are very labor intensive. However, the Native Americans didn’t fair well under slave-type conditions…why?

  2. So the easy answer was to take the Africans and enslave them.

  3. But this wasn’t the first choice…indentured servitude was.

  4. Work as a servant for a few years and then your free…trouble was they were either kept as slaves or ran away and blended in because they were usually white.

A Triangle of Trade

  1. Europeans pick up Africans for slaves, ship them to the West Indies where they drop them off and pick up sugar, rum etc.. And send these back to Europe.

  2. Later on the American Colonies would be the middle destination.

  3. The journey from Africa to North America was called the Middle Passage.

Middle Passage

  1. Where the majority of the slaves died…

  2. Movie Amistad

  3. Very cramped, read passage on page 34 and look at pic on 35.

  4. How were slaves treated once in America?

  5. Amazing Grace

  6. How would life in America today be different with out the African influence?

  7. Religion, entertainment, music, athletics etc…

Ch 2.3 Building Colonial America

American History

First English Colonies

  1. First attempt failed – 1585 Roanoke Island

  2. First successful attempt – 1607 Jamestown

  3. Survived because of tobacco

Jamestown as an example

  1. House of Burgesses

  2. Elected body (similar to a state house/legislature)

  3. England to far away to run things directly

  4. First foot hold to democracy, Revolution, and self-rule

Other Settlers

  1. England – Virginia – Sir Walter Raleigh

  2. Middle Colonies, and New England

  3. William Penn – Pennsylvania – Quakers (…Pacifist)

  4. Holland – Hudson River – Henry Hudson

  5. New Holland (New York)

  6. France – St. Lawrence River – Fur Trappers

  7. Canada, the Great Lakes Region, and the Mississippi River Basin

  8. Spanish – Looking for gold and converts

  9. Stuck mainly to the southern U.S. and the west coast.

Europe of the 1600s

  1. religious turmoil

  2. flee to America

  3. First break of Catholic Church = Protestants (most of which were unorganized)

  4. Only organized group = Separatists who flee to America to escape persecution

  5. Those who make the journey called – Pilgrims

Pilgrims

  1. Took Mayflower to Cape Cod (New England/Massachusetts) but were trying to get to Virginia

  2. The men set up written law – Mayflower Compact

  3. Laws to help common man

  4. Established Plymouth

  5. Plymouth was cleared land by Indians who have since died off

The Great Migration

  1. 20,000 Puritans flocked to New England in the 1600’s

  2. Led by John Winthrop

  3. Actually settled in Connecticut and developed a constitution

  4. Constitution = framework for government

  5. Puritans didn’t like those who were different and wouldn’t allow them in their colony. (Salem Witch Trials)

  6. Started the U.S. school system…wanted everyone to be able to read the Bible.

3 Colonial Regions

  1. Northern Colonies – small farms, fishing, manufacturing, many ports, rivers, streams some religious tolerance

  2. Middle Colonies – medium sized farms, good ports and religious freedoms

  3. Southern Colonies – large farms (with labor intensive crops), few ports, few rivers, some religious tolerance

Early Colonial Government

  1. England 1215 – Magna Carta

  2. Established a written common law to protect the rights of the common man

  3. 1688 – Glorious Revolution

  4. Kings can not rule without Bill of Rights

  5. Colonies – 1700’s all had governors without Parliament

Gov’t. (Con’t.)

  1. Parliament draws up a plan for assembly houses = state legislation

  2. England had to let the colonies self-rule because they were too far away.

  3. = colonies gain valuable experience in government for the colonies

  4. = prosperity

Re-creating England in the Colonies

  1. Unlike Spain or France, England formed a partnership with merchants willing to finance colonization in hopes of a profit.

  2. A combination of factors led thousands of settlers to relocate to an unknown land: rising prices (from the Spanish silver glut), overpopulation, dispossession of small landowners, a surge in poverty, and religious wars that resulted in persecution and disrupted trade.

  3. Although the English settled in the
    West Indies and all along the eastern seaboard, the biggest surge in immigration occurred in New England, where the Puritans sought to re-create English life and ways.

Ch 2.4 Conflict and Growth of the Colonies

American History




Native American Wars

  1. Pope’s Rebellion

  2. In the Spanish Southwest, priests tried to destroy Native American religions that competed with Christianity.

  3. Popé organized the Taos Pueblo into an impressive fighting force that attacked Spanish settlements in New Mexico and drove the hated priests and settlers back into Mexico, where they remained for more than a decade.

  4. King Philip’s War

  5. In the Northeast, Metacom (King Philip) tried unsuccessfully to fight the English who had greedily overrun Wampanoag hunting and fishing lands, but he failed to dislodge the colonists

Native American Wars (continued)

  1. Bacon’s Rebellion

  2. When Virginias royal governor, Sir William Berkeley, tried to reserve frontier land for Native Americans, planter Nathaniel Bacon and his land-hungry followers declared war on the Native Americans, even those who were friendly, and then battled the governor and his troops.

  3. Bacon was killed and the rebellion collapsed. His followers, however, gained seats in the Virginia legislature, where they passed laws legalizing Native American slavery–an act condemned by the British.

France and Britain Struggle for Control

  1. Build-Up

  2. Competition – religious, trade/financial, and power.

  3. The Seven Years War/French and Indian War

  4. When the French and Indian War ended, France had lost Canada and all of its territories east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. The Native Americans, however, had lost the power they had enjoyed from playing one side against the other.

Population Explosion

  1. A population explosion had made the eastern seaboard crowded. One-fourth of the growth stemmed from willing immigration of indentured servants from Ireland and Germany and the forced immigration of Africans. Three-quarters of the increase came from a high birthrate accompanied by a low death rate.

The Great Awakening

  1. As the population skyrocketed, many Americans came under the sway of the revivalism of the Great Awakening, which posed serious challenges to accepted authority.

  2. The Great Awakening led colonists
    to create new churches, enslaved Africans to question the basis of their enslavement, and in general promoted a spirit of individualism and independence.

Ben Franklin

  1. Hospitals, the University of Pennsylvania, Post Office, Virtues, Poor Richard’s Almanac, inventor, and statesman.

Ch 3.1 Toward Revolution

American History




Paying for Security

  1. The 7 Years War was the culmination of +70 years of England vs. France fighting…which leads to a huge debt on both sides.

  2. Protecting the American Colonies is very costly.

Proclamation of 1763

  1. After an Native American uprising, Parliament set aside all lands west of the Appalachians as Indian Territory. = Colonists can’t settle there

  2. How does this make the colonists feel?

  3. Where the colonists asked for their opinion?

The Sugar Act

  1. This is not just one single tax…it is a series of taxes on all imported goods…like a tariff.

  2. Taxes were higher on imports that were more of a necessity…textiles, coffee, wine etc..

  3. This is especially crippling to Boston…Why?

Stamp Act

  1. A tax on all paper products sold in the colonies…receipts, newspapers, decks of cards, official documents.

  2. Colonists hated it

  3. External Tax – tax on foreign goods

  4. Internal Tax – tax on locally produced goods

  5. They understood external . not internal

  6. Taxation without representation wasn’t popular

  7. Especially since they had no say in how the money was spent.

Sons of Liberty

  1. The mafia of early America.

  2. Let’s read this section together….

  3. How is this story different from the situation in Iraq or even N…

  4. 3ew Orleans?

  5. How justified were our founding father’s actions?

  6. Tar and feather opposition, extortion, etc…

  7. But it did unite the colonies.

Boston Massacre

  1. Parliament sent troops to Boston to increase the peace…does this help? No, all it does is cause fear…

  2. One group of soldiers get cornered by an angry mob…things turn south…gun fires…troops unload…5 men died, including Crispus Attucks a African/Native American sailor.

Tea Act

  1. Protests and boycotts organized by the Sons of Liberty got the Stamp Act repealed…however Britain still needs money.

  2. There idea is to set up a tea monopoly in the colonies to aid their mercantilistic operation…the colonies weren’t too happy, even though the tea was now cheaper = Boston Tea Party

  3. 342 chests of tea dumped in the harbor

  4. Parliament’s response – close Boston law and place the city under the army’s command

Committees of Correspondence

  1. Most thought the actions of the colonists, and the Sons of Liberty bordered on treason.

  2. However grassroots campaigning of brochures, letters, and newspapers slowly united the colonists together…it was basically a propaganda campaign.

Continental Congress

  1. The 1st Continental Congress met in 1774 and then was planned to meet yearly to discuss ways on handling the situation.

  2. By 1775 they had decided to boycott all British goods.

  3. This slowly leads to ignoring British rule and setting up of their own local institutions…i.e. courts, laws, etc…

  4. Parliament tells General Gage – stationed at Boston – to disband these groups of local law warriors

  5. Which equals Lexington and Concord

  6. British troops went to disband…local militia said no…Shot Heard Round the World??? War has begun 88 colonists casualties, 273 British casualties

Ch 3.2 War for Independence

American History

Mr. Peterson

Lexington and Concord

  1. The first famous “Shot Heard Around the World”

  2. April 1775

  3. This was not intended to be the start of a Revolution, merely an accidental start.

  4. The one important lesson here is how the Colonists were able to inflict more casualties.

  5. British - 273

  6. Colonists -88

  7. Guerrilla Warfare

What happens next?

  1. Small battles/skirmishes really.

  2. One large battle in June 1775 – Bunker Hill (aka Breed’s Hill) – “Don’t fire until you see the white’s of their eyes!”

  3. Colonists lost after a British war of attrition.

  4. It becomes clear at this point to the founding fathers that conventional war it not the way to go, and that maybe war can still be avoided.

Can war be avoided?

  1. For almost a year after Lexington & Concord, diplomatic measures were taken to avoid more bloodshed.

  2. However, King George III wants to punish the colonies for his troubles and Thomas Paine and his Common Sense start to change the majority of colonists opinions.

Common Sense

  1. Before Thomas Paine’s document the majority of the American Colonists were Tories – loyal to the King, after his publication more were becoming Patriots – those loyal to the colonial cause.

  2. Common Sense was just what it is called. In plain English the situation is stated in which the King is blamed for all the trouble and the colonists love it.

  3. 120,000 copies are sold in 3 months

Declaration of Independence

  1. At the 2nd Continental Congress it became clear that there was no way to turn back now. That independence was the only justifiable outcome.

  2. But how could they make the world see their view point and agree with them.

  3. The answer is in the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment

  1. aka The Age of Reason and philosophy

  2. They believed that human reason could be used to combat ignorance, superstition, and tyranny and to build a better world. Their principal targets were religion (embodied in France in the Catholic Church) and the domination of society by a hereditary aristocracy.

  3. With thinkers like Descartes (I think, therefore I am), Voltaire, Rousseau whose ideas are spread via the printing press these ideas take hold

Enlightenment continued.

  1. Why do the colonists accept Enlightenment ideals?

  2. Taxation without representation

  3. King and Parliament are too far away

  4. Most colonists left Europe to get away from something…but did they ever really leave if they are still being told what to do and controlled by European interests.

Can the Colonists win the war?

  1. Colonists Advantages

  2. Homefield

  3. Cause

  4. Short supply lines

  5. Benedict Arnold

  6. Colonists Disadvantages

  7. Little established manufacturing

  8. No army

  9. No money

  10. No Friends

  1. British Advantages

  2. Trained army

  3. The best army in the world

  4. Lot’s of money and power

  5. Benedict Arnold

  6. British Disadvantages

  7. Long supply lines

  8. No cause

  9. Historical enemies


Fighting away from hom

e

Revolutionary War

  1. Gen. George Washington in charge of the Continental Army. Chose for his experience in the French & Indian War.

  2. Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont capture Ft. Ticonderoga in the north preventing British invasion through Canada.

  3. American troops could never stand up to a trained British army…hit and run battles, sneak attacks etc…

  4. So whenever they lined up and fought it was a slaughter.

War Continued

  1. However things aren’t going well for the Americans

  2. Little supplies, little aid etc…

  3. The first winter at Valley Forge was terrible…very cold…lots of desertion etc…

  4. Nathanael Green helps Washington out in the Battles of Trenton and Princeton capturing the Hessian army.

  5. But the major victories are still eluding the Colonists

Battle of Saratoga

  1. Just when things were looking bad…British are advancing from the north and coming up from Philadelphia at the same time…Colonists are retreating and their knowledge of the land is of a vast importance…the burn bridges, raid towns etc…slowing the British advance. This gives the Americans time and they are able to win the battle.

  2. This victory is huge because it convinces the French to be our ally.

  3. This also becomes the turning point in the war.

French help wins the war

  1. French troops, and leaders (like Lafayette) help train the Americans. They also supply guns, ammo, and other necessities.

  2. The war is eventually won at Yorktown when Washington and a French army trap Gen. Lord Cornwallis on a peninsula where the French navy prevented his escape route through the sea.

  3. The largest British force surrenders = war is over

  4. Treaty of Paris of 1783 makes the war officially over.

Who else fought?

  1. Africans

  2. Some fought with the promise of freedom, although most fought with the British because their promise seemed more likely

  3. Indians

  4. Fought with the British because they feared colonist expansion

  5. Women

  6. Actually fought in war disguised as men…but were an immense help in supplying the war (farmers, nurses, spies etc…)Their role is key in the movement towards women’s suffrage.

Chapter 4:
A New Nation

Section 1:

From Federation to

Constitution

Need for a National Government

  1. 13 independent nations?

  2. Different currencies, trade regulations, taxes, laws = CHAOS

  3. War debt - $60 million

  4. Who controls western lands.

  5. This all equals the need for the Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation

  1. Confederation --- Define it

  2. Loose collection of states, stand together when needed, but all looking out for themselves.

  3. Fear of a strong central government – example Britain

  4. Confederation Congress – one house, 13 delegates (one from each state) one vote a piece.

  5. Unanimous votes needed to pass legislation

  6. Congress could not; collect tax, regulate trade, over rule states.

  7. Congress could; have an army, postal system, foreign policy.

Troubles with the

  1. No money. Couldn’t tax, couldn’t repay $60 million debt.

  2. Had to print more money and issue it like bonds.

  3. Scarcity -

  4. Inflation -

  5. Bottom line money was worthless.

Shays’s Rebellion

  1. The plight of the farmer – farmer borrows money to plant crops…farmer can’t pay back = loses land, or thrown in prison.

  2. Daniel Shays leads other farmers in Massachusetts against the government in an effort to foster change.

  3. The state legislature doesn’t care

  4. Why? – This way the rich/education/law makers keep getting richer.

Shays continued

  1. Shays must be thinking…D of I…

  2. Shays doesn’t get real far…he does have an armed revolt…it didn’t go well.

  3. However, it scared the rich and powerful into thinking it might be time to change the government a bit.

Constitutional Convention

  1. Meet in Philadelphia to amend the A of C in 1787.

  2. It soon became obvious that the Articles were beyond repair and that they should start from scratch.

  3. Wait a minute…isn’t that treason?

  4. = meet in secret again.

  5. For 6 months

Who attended the Convention?

  1. Ben Franklin – the host – 81 and almost dead, had others read his speeches, was carried in

  2. James Madison – the wise – has studied other governments

  3. George Washington – the hero – placed in charge, the leader

  4. About 50 others – all white, male, and rich!

Who was missing?

  1. Everyone from Rhode Island

  2. Patrick Henry – he didn’t like taking away powers from the states. Was against a new stronger central government = he wouldn’t be accepted in the convention, even if he wanted to go.

  3. Thomas Jefferson – stuck in France.

A More Perfect Union

  1. How can we have a stronger government – but not have it take over – like Britain?

  2. Checks and Balances – 3 branches where each branch oversees the other.

  3. Legislative – Congress – makes the laws

  4. Executive – President – enforces the laws

  5. Judicial – Supreme Court – rule on law

Things to fix the nation.

  1. Congress needed to be stronger than the states.

  2. Congress needs to be in charge of money.

  3. So the important question is who is in charge of Congress.

James Madison’s Model

  1. Two house government

  2. The Great Compromise made it happen

  3. Small states = want equal say = Senate

  4. But at this time senators aren’t elected.

  5. Large states = want representation based on population = House of Representatives

  6. Uh-oh what about slaves?

  7. Aren’t they property?

  8. 3/5 compromise

The legacy of the Constitution

  1. 75% required to approve Constitution. Same with amending it.

  2. Had some trouble getting the Constitution approved…

  1. However, because the Constitution can be changed is why it still works.

  2. Ben Franklin and others left the convention thinking they failed because the Constitution had too many holes. In other words they left some issues for later generations to solve.

Ch 4.2
Debate & Ratification

Two sides to every issue.

  1. Federalists

  2. Those who favored the Constitution

  3. Anti-Federalists

  4. Those who were against the Constitution

  5. They were afraid because the original Constitution did not contain the Bill of Rights.

Bill of Rights

  1. Rights to protect the common man

  2. At least the common (white, and male) man.

  3. Once this was promised most of the Anti-Federalists were satisfied and voted to approve the Constitution

  4. It took 2 full years to get the Bill of Rights correct and added to the Constitution.

Ch 4.3
Launching the New Government

Stop and do Ch 4.3 WKST

George Washington

  1. 1st President…in New York (our first capital)

  2. Being the first means that he will set the precedent for all the following presidents.

  3. Story of the first treaty.

  1. Washington gave two warnings to the people when he left office.

  2. 1. Stay out of European affairs.

  3. 2. Stay away from political parties.

Alexander Hamilton vs. Thomas Jefferson


Aaron Burr vs. Alexander Hamilton




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