Independent city-states started to form all over Greece in order to pull the country out of the Dark ages. A polis is another word for city-state. The creation of city-states marked the beginning of what is known as Greece’s classical age, one that was marked by great achievements.
City-states were built to last. A large fortress called the acropolis sat on a high hill. The town around the acropolis were surrounded by walls for protection.
Life inside the walls consisted of marketplaces, also called an agora. Farmers lived outside the walls of the city-state walls bringing their crops inside to the market for trade made by the craftsmen in town. Markets places also served as political and religious meeting areas.
The city-state became the foundation of Greek civilization where people considered themselves residents of a city where people were expected to participate in the city’s affairs, economy, and government.
Groups from city-states around Greece began to set up colonies in distant lands as independent sectors. Colonies were set up around the Mediterranean and Black seas, Turkey, France, and Italy. Colonies would trade metals such as copper and iron back to the mainland where they received wine and olive oil.