Century global skills



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Range of Writing

WHST.6-8.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.


Unit Essential Questions

The Role of Essential Questions

Key essential questions reoccur throughout the study of history. They provoke inquiry and lead to deeper understanding of the big ideas that enable students to better comprehend how the past connects to the present. The essential questions created for Westward Expansion and Reform were used to frame content goals and to inform the development of the cumulative progress indicators.


Essential Questions For This Unit:

1. How did geography affect the early Greeks?

2. What contributed to the development of the Minoan civilizations?

3. How did Greek culture spread to other parts of the world?

4. What different types of government developed among the Greek city-states?

5. How does culture refer to the socially transmitted behaviors, beliefs, values, traditions, institutions, and ways of living for a group of people?

6. What ideas did the Greeks develop to explain the world around them?

7. How were the approaches of history of Herodotus and Thucydides similar, and how were they different?

8. How were the sculptures of human figures different from those in the Golden Age of Greece?

9. What ideas and discoveries emerged during the Hellenistic Era?

10. How did the Greeks influence Roman religion, science, art, architecture and literature.

11. How did geography affect the rise of Rome?

12. How did Rome gain control of the Mediterranean region?

13. What conflicts between Rome’s social classes led to change in its government?

14. What events enabled Rome to become an empire?

15. What events caused the Roman Empire to prosper?

16. Who were the Plebeians and Patricians and how were their two systems similar and different?

17. What problems can cause the decline or instability of a government or nation?

18. How did the Byzantine Empire become powerful?

19. How has geography shaped the development of China’s civilization?

20. In what ways were society and government influenced by Chinese thinkers?

21. How did life improve in ancient China under the Han rulers?

22. How did China and the rest of the world benefit from the Silk Road?

23. How has Africa’s geography influenced trade in the region and what types of trade occurred?

24. To what degree did African’s economy dependent on trading?

25. How was Africa’s arts and music influenced today’s popular culture?

26. What economic reasons were behind the slave trade?

27. How did Ghana’s location help it become a powerful trading empire?

28. how did trade affect the development of East African kingdoms?

29. How did African rulers govern their territories?

30. How did the slave trade affect Africans?

31. Why were art forms important to Africans?



Learning Targets

  • Identify similarities and differences between the rights and responsibilities of ancient Greek citizens and U.S. citizens today.

  • Discuss how the ancient Greeks honored gods and goddesses.

  • Evaluate the ideas that the ancient Greeks expressed in their literature, drama, art, and architecture.

  • Assess ancient Greek beliefs about history and science.

  • Evaluate how successful Alexander the Great was in achieving his goals.

  • Compare and contrast Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

  • Compare and contrast the qualities of a great military leaders and an effective ruler.

  • Analyze images of culture from the Hellenistic Era.

  • Compare ancient and modern Greek beliefs.



  • Explain how geographic features contributed to the settlement and growth of Rome.

  • Analyze the perspective of a member of a Roman-conquered community.

  • Discuss the perspective of Roman social classes.

  • Explain how conflict was resolved between patricians and plebeians.

  • Discuss how conflict between Rome and Carthage led to the Punic Wars.

  • Determine the impact of Julius Caesar.

  • Identify the events and people that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

  • Determine the impact of Augustus.

  • Compare and contrast information about Roman women and women today.

  • Analyze a primary source document about the Oppian law.

  • Identify and evaluate Rome’s contribution to our society and government today.

  • Make predications about why an empire might collapse.

  • Analyze how the economy influenced the fall of the Roman Empire.

  • Make connections with trading cities in the United States today and Rome.

  • Analyze a map of the Byzantine Empire’s trade routes.

  • Compare and contrast the Huange He Valley civilizations with other river valley civilization, including those along the Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, and Indus Rivers.

  • Identify Confucius, Laozi, and Hanfeizi and how their philosophies affected society and government.

  • Describe Confucianism, Daoism, and legalism.

  • Apply the concepts of monopoly and competition to the economies of trade along the Silk Road.

  • Analyze how trade affected Africa’s development.

  • Read a map on the exchange of ideas with Africa’s through trade.

  • Compare and contrast primary source quotes on the slave trade.







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