The first civilizations developed in river valleys, where fertile land made it easy to grow crops and feed large numbers of people and it also provided fish and water. It also encouraged trade, which allowed for the exchange of both goods and ideas. The cities that developed these valleys became the centers of civilizations.
People formed governments to protect themselves and their food supplies. The first governments were monarchies led by a king and queen. Monarchs created armies to defend against enemies and made laws to keep order. They also appointed government officials who managed food supplies and building projects.
Emerged to help people explain their lives. It helped to explain the forces of nature and the role of humans in the world. Early people believed that gods were responsible for a community’s survival. Priests performed religious ceremonies to try to win the support of gods. Rulers claimed that their own power was based on the approval of gods.