Describe the printing revolution and the expansion of literacy.
Explain how the Medici family encouraged the development of Renaissance Art.
Trace how in the Renaissance era Florence became an economic center of Europe.
Describe the politics of Florence and the political writings of Niccolo Machiavelli
Describe the changes that the Renaissance brought to European music.
Identify and explain the historical significance major figures in the Renaissance.
The Crusades began in the year 1095, when Pope Urban II responded to a call for help, announcing a Crusade to push back an expanding Muslim empire in the holy land. For nearly 200 years, Europeans launched a series of Crusades, but only three are significant. The first from 1096 until 1099 led to the capture of major cities, including Antioch and Jerusalem. The Crusaders considered this crusade of victory, and many headed home. By 1044, Muslim armies began to retake captured territory and Europeans launched the Second Crusade, which lasted from 1146 to 1148. This crusade was a failure, and by 1187, the Muslim army had captured Jerusalem. Europeans launched a third Crusade under the leadership of King Richard the Lionhearted of England. This crusade also failed, but did lead to a truce and an uneasy agreement of toleration. Muslims would allow Christians into Jerusalem, and the Crusaders maintained control of a few cities. By 1291, however, Muslims recaptured these cities as well. Overall, the Crusades were brutal for both sides.
Have the students reenact the calling of the Crusades. Accompany the dramatization with a map showing Western Europe and the Mideast in 1095 when Poper Urban issued his challenge to the knights of Western Europe in the Declaration of Claremont.
Read the above website Pope Urban’s declaration to the knights. Ask the students to answer the following questions:
What did Pope Urban ask the soldiers of Europe to do?
Why is it called a Crusade?
Hint: Cruz means cross in Spanish
How would have reacted to this call if you were a noblemen, or a peasant priest ?
http://www.hetemeel.com/unclesamform.php Based on the above website ask the students to create a recruiting poster for the Crusades. Have them list beneath the poster why they should join the Crusades. Divide the class into three group:
Customize the poster to represent each of the three groups.
Use the reading “Bagdad in the Late Ninth Century”: See appendix: See worksheet C-18
Describe the Islamic civilization that the Crusaders encountered when they arrived in the Middle East.
What aspects of Islamic civilization might they bring back when the Crusades were over?
How would you compare the civilization of the Islamic world to that of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Describe the post crusade change in England.
Have students compare the Great Council with the Modern Parliamentary system.
Use a Venn Diagram model to visualize the structure of both.
Personal Profile: Joan of Arc
Show a biographical presentation of this legendary figure of the 100 Years War at: