The Crusades began in the year 1095, when Pope Urban II responded to a call for help, announcing a Crusade to push back an expanding Muslim empire in the holy land. For nearly 200 years, Europeans launched a series of Crusades, but only three are significant. The first from 1096 until 1099 led to the capture of major cities, including Antioch and Jerusalem. The Crusaders considered this crusade of victory, and many headed home. By 1044, Muslim armies began to retake captured territory and Europeans launched the Second Crusade, which lasted from 1146 to 1148. This crusade was a failure, and by 1187, the Muslim army had captured Jerusalem. Europeans launched a third Crusade under the leadership of King Richard the Lionhearted of England. This crusade also failed, but did lead to a truce and an uneasy agreement of toleration. Muslims would allow Christians into Jerusalem, and the Crusaders maintained control of a few cities. By 1291, however, Muslims recaptured these cities as well. Overall, the Crusades were brutal for both sides.