Unit Enduring Understandings 1. A system called feudalism brought social and political order to Europe until conflicts arose between popes and monarchs
2. Life and society during the High Middle Ages was organized around a highly stratified military system called feudalism, with Kings and feudal lords at the top of society, peasants and serfs, at the bottom.
3. The Roman Catholic Church dominated all aspects of life and society during the Middle Ages.
4. Major forces for changes during the Middle Ages, which set the stage for the Renaissance, included political reform in England under the Magna Carta, the changes in military technology and tactics seen in the Hundred Years war, and the Black Death.
5. The Magna Carta limited the monarch’s power and helped establish rights that Americans enjoy today.
6. Europeans launched the Crusades to free the Holy Land from Muslim control and doing so had lasting effects on economic and cultural values.
7. The High Middle Ages saw great improvements in agriculture, trade, and banking with guild systems forming in crafts and goods production.
8. Starvation, warfare, and the Black Death spread throughout Europe and helped destroy social order.
9. The cultural revival known as the Renaissance began in the Italian city-states bringing economic and social changes which broke down feudal order.
10. Renaissance thinkers looked to classical learning for a deeper understanding of human life, through humanistic and secular thought, which was evident in the arts.