1. Historians use many kinds of clues to understand how people lived in the past.
2. Physical geography and human geography contribute to the study of history.
3. Prehistoric people learned to adapt to their environment, to make simple tools, to use fire, and to use language.
4. As people migrated around the world they learned to adapt to new environments.
5. The development of agriculture brought great changes to human society.
6. The valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were the site of the world’s first civilizations.
7. The Sumerians developed the first civilization in Mesopotamia and made many advances to help their society develop.
8. After the Sumerians, many cultures ruled parts of the Fertile Crescent.
9. The water, fertile soils, and protected setting of the Nile Valley allowed a great civilization to arise in Egypt around 3200 B.C.
10. The Egyptians made lasting achievements in writing, architecture, and art.
11. The kingdom of Kush, the land called Nubia, developed an advanced civilization with a large trading network