Resettlement of populations - a deliberate process of solving political and economical problems of Europe's power interests in the 20th century
(Causes, forms, means and implications)
The goal of the first meeting is to capture resettlements of populations in the 20th century1 on the Czechoslovak and European territory as well as in comparison with other continents, especially as regards resettlement (migration) events that occurred deliberately with the aim of resolving a particular political or economical interest. The meeting also involves causes, forms, means and consequences of all manifestations of resettlements of populations (or their sections), it means voluntary migration, but especially involuntary (emigration, immigration, re-emigration) and forced migration (as well as exile and exodus) as regards: leaving the country as a result of expulsion, banishment, deportation, loss of citizenship or as the result of political, nationalistic, racial or religious persecution and the accompanying repressions.
A brief historical outline of the issue: Resettlements of populations became a well established and natural form of the victors' as well as losers' acting. In both cases, the main motive for resettlement was safeguarding one's own existential conditions, although usually at the expense of another nation's entity or community. Ethnic relocations were a standard component throughout the human history during the war as well as peace (usually as an outcome of stipulated peace conditions in a war or the victor's decision) at the cost of huge human casualties and losses.
Relocation of ethnic groups was a logic consequence of conquering policies of ancient nations before Christ and after Christ.2However, it gained vast dimensions (though motivated by different motives) after discovering and colonization of America, when millions of black people were forced to leave America between the 16th and 18th century.
Resettlements in Europe reached a gigantic proportion during the 19th century [as a result of radical transformation of the European society caused by the influence of republicanism, but also spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and dominance of several nations (Great Britain, France, Prussia, Russia, Austria-Hungary and formation of new nations by unification of Germany or Italy) and their huge effort to gain (or keep) vast colonies] when, because of a massive development of capitalism, immigrants from all European nations moved to America or Australia. Asia was more stable in this respect, although almost twenty million Chinese and Japanese people moved to Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia or Vietnam after 1840. Populations were also relocated on the Indian sub-continent and, in the 1880s, we can observe the first wave of alija Jews to America and Erec Jisrael to their original homeland.
In the 20th century, resettlement of populations became an acute form of controlling the population under the pretext of reversion to the original homelands and racial cleansing. Political atrocities of Nazism and communism gave birth to forced relocations, genocides, holocaust, shoah, porajmos (of the Armenians, Jews, Romanians, Romani, Germans, Slavs, as well as Tatars, Chechens, nations of the former Yugoslavia, African nations, etc.). Resettlements of the populations were nourished by both world wars (1914-1918, 1939-1945), economical crises and division of Europe into the Western and Eastern blocs.