Cathedrals of Spain



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Cathedrals of Spain

E-text prepared by Chuck Greif and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net) from page images generously made available by Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org)

Note: Project Gutenberg also has an HTML version of this file which includes the numerous original illustrations. See 31966-h.htm or 31966-h.zip: (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/31966/31966-h/31966-h.htm) or (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/31966/31966-h.zip)

Images of the original pages are available through Internet Archive. See http://www.archive.org/details/cathedralsofspai00gadeiala

CATHEDRALS OF SPAIN

[Illustration: Photo by J. Lacoste, Madrid

NEW CATHEDRAL]

[Illustration: SALAMANCA]

CATHEDRALS OF SPAIN

by

JOHN ALLYNE GADE



Fully Illustrated

[Illustration]

Boston and New York Houghton Mifflin Company The Riverside Press Cambridge 1911

Copyright, 1911, by John A. Gade All Rights Reserved

Published February 1911

TO THE LAST CHÂTELAINE OF FROGNER HOVEDGAARD

IN REVERENCE, GRATITUDE AND AFFECTION

PREFACE


In the last dozen years many English books on Spain have appeared. They have dealt with their subject from the point of view of the artist or the historian, the archæologist, the politician, or the mere sight-seer. The student of architecture, or the traveler, desiring a more intimate or serious knowledge of the great cathedrals, has had nothing to consult since Street published his remarkable book some forty years ago. There have been artistic impressions, as well as guide-book recitations, by the score. Some have been excellent, though few have surpassed the older ones of Dumas, père, and Gautier, or Baedeker's later guide-book. A year ago appeared the second and last volume of Señor Lamperez y Romea's "Historia de la Arquitectura Cristiana Española en la Edad Media," a work so comprehensive and scholarly that it practically stands alone.

It has seemed to me that certain buildings, and especially cathedrals, cannot be properly studied quite apart from what surrounds them, or from their past history. To look comprehendingly up at cathedral vaults and spires, one must also look beyond them at the city and the people and times that created them. In some such setting, the study of Avila, Salamanca the elder and the younger, Burgos, Toledo, Leon, Segovia, Seville, and Granada is here attempted, in the hope it will not prove too technical for the ordinary traveler, nor too superficial for the student of architecture. The cathedrals selected cover nearly all periods of Gothic art, as interpreted in Spain, as well as the earlier Romanesque and succeeding Renaissance, with which the Gothic was mingled. All the great churches were the work of different epochs and consequently contain several styles of architecture. The series here described is very incomplete, but the book would have grown too bulky had it included Santiago da Compostella with its heavenly portal, and Barcelona or Gerona, Lerida or Tudela.

Whether we read a page of Cervantes, or gaze on one of Velasquez's faces, or wander through one of the grand cathedrals of Spain, we realize that this great world-empire has never ceased to exist in matters of art, but still in the twentieth century must rouse our wonder and admiration. In barren deserts, on parched and lonely plains, amid hovels crumbling to decay, still stand the monuments of Spain's greatness. But if nowhere else in the world can one find such glorious works of art surrounded by such squalor, let us draw from the past the promise of a revival in Spain of all that constitutes the true greatness of a nation. In the fourth century, Bishop Hosius of Cordova was, from every point of view, the first living churchman--Cordova itself became, under the Ammeyad Caliphs in the tenth century, the most civilized, the most learned, and the loveliest capital in Europe. Three hundred years later, Alfonso X of Castile was not only a distinguished linguist and poet, but the greatest astronomer and lawgiver of his age. When the Spanish people have once more made education as general as it was under the accomplished Arabs, and adopted the division of power insisted on in a letter from Bishop Hosius to the Emperor Constantius, "Leave ecclesiastical affairs alone.... We are not allowed to rule the earth," they will take the rank their character and genius deserve among the nations. Their cathedrals will then stand in an environment befitting their grandeur, a society which will help them to transmit to coming generations the noblest, imperishable hopes of humanity.

JOHN ALLYNE GADE.

NEW YORK CITY.

CONTENTS


I. SALAMANCA 1

II. BURGOS 31

III. AVILA 65

IV. LEON 89

V. TOLEDO 119

VI. SEGOVIA 165

VII. SEVILLE 189

VIII. GRANADA 237

BOOKS CONSULTED 267

INDEX 269

ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW CATHEDRAL OF SALAMANCA (page 24) Frontispiece

CATHEDRALS OF SALAMANCA: The towers of the old and new buildings 3

CATHEDRALS OF SALAMANCA: Plans 6

THRESHING OUTSIDE THE WALLS OF SALAMANCA 10

CATHEDRAL OF SALAMANCA: The Tower of the Cock 16

SALAMANCA: From the Vega 28

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: West front 33

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: Plan 36

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: View of the nave 40

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: Lantern over the crossing 46

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: The Golden Staircase 50

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: The Chapel of the Constable 54

CATHEDRAL OF BURGOS: The spires above the house-tops 58

CATHEDRAL OF AVILA 67

CATHEDRAL OF AVILA: Plan 68

CATHEDRAL OF AVILA: Exterior of the apse turret 72

AVILA: From outside the walls 80

CATHEDRAL OF AVILA: Main entrance 86

CATHEDRAL OF LEON: From the southwest 91

CATHEDRAL OF LEON: Plan 94

CATHEDRAL OF LEON: Looking up the nave 98

CATHEDRAL OF LEON: Rear of apse 104

CATHEDRAL OF TOLEDO 121

CATHEDRAL OF TOLEDO: Plan 124

CATHEDRAL OF TOLEDO: The choir stalls 140

CATHEDRAL OF TOLEDO: Chapel of Santiago, tombs of Alvaro de Luna and his spouse 158

CATHEDRAL OF SEGOVIA 167

CATHEDRAL OF SEGOVIA: Plan 170

CATHEDRAL OF SEGOVIA: From the Plaza 176

CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE: The Giralda, from the Orange Tree Court 191

CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE: Plan 194

CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE: Gateway of Perdon in the Orange Tree Court 210

CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE AND THE GIRALDA 228

CATHEDRAL OF GRANADA: West front 239

CATHEDRAL OF GRANADA: Plan 242

CATHEDRAL OF GRANADA: The exterior cornices of the Royal Chapel 248

CATHEDRAL OF GRANADA: The reja enclosing the Royal Chapel and tombs of the Catholic Kings 256

CATHEDRAL OF GRANADA: The tombs of the Catholic Kings, of Philip and of Queen Juana 262

I

SALAMANCA



[Illustration: Photo by Author

CATHEDRALS OF SALAMANCA

The towers of the old and new buildings]

CATHEDRALS OF SPAIN

I

SALAMANCA



In quella parte ove surge ad aprire Zeffiro dolce le novelle fronde, Di che si vede Europa rivestire.




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