Category: Crop Rotation



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Nicole Breighner

Framework for Review FRQs

Prompt: Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences.

Category: Crop Rotation

Factual information list

--Rotating crops with nitrogen-storing crops periodically throughout the year in order to prevent having to let the land lie fallow while it recovers its nutrients.

-used the plants: Peas, beans, turnips, potatoes, clovers, and grasses

-effects of new crops: ideal feed for animals (clovers, turnips, etc...)

-Charles “Turnip” Townsend- introduced 4 field crop rotation in England, wheat, barley, turnips, and clover, move plants from one field to the next in order, no need to let the land lie fallow because the clover would replenish the nutrients



--SOCIAL EFFECTS: more animals, healthier animals, healthier people- better diets, more meat, more manure for fertilizer (more grain and other crops)

--ECONOMIC EFFECTS: new crops ideal feed for livestock- cheaper/easier to feed animals, allowed them to build larger herds of cattle- more meat, milk, animals to use for work, more crops to buy and sell

Possible transition sentence: Crop rotation also inspired the new enclosure method, which would greatly alter the social hierarchy between the wealthy and poor classes. (introduces next paragraph and ties in another social effect)

Topic Sentence: The introduction of crop rotation during the agricultural revolution allowed Europeans to produce a greater surplus of crops, which caused them to lead healthier lives and greatly improved their economy.

Category: Enclosure

Factual information list

--The open field system was quickly dying out and people began to realize that this method was no longer effective enough.

--Landowners, such as Townsend, discovered that combining the plots of land into a enclosed field, rather than the public common lands that people used to do their agricultural tasks would allow them to better grow their new crops

--The peasants who did not own any land depended on the common lands for grazing their livestock and public farming

--The wealthy landowners began passing acts to claim collective ownership of the land in the commons they desired to farm, preventing the peasants from using the common land, leaving them with nothing.



--led to Proletarianization- transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners

SOCIAL EFFECTS: peasants no longer had access to the common lands resulting in:

--Peasants no longer having anywhere to graze their livestock or do any agricultural tasks- eliminated common rights

--Created the landless rural proletariat:

--only a tiny minority of wealthy landowners held most of the land and pursued profits aggressively

--leased their land through agents at competitive prices to middle-sized farmers

--middle-sized farmers depended on the landless laborers as their workforce

--peasants usually dawn to dusk, 6 days a week, all year long

--lost their small amount of independence from the common lands and became entirely dependent on cash wages

--created a new social hierarchy (wealthy landowners > middle-sized farmers > peasants)

ECONOMIC EFFECTS:

--Brought about the rise of market-oriented estate agriculture:



--the wealthy owned the land, it was leased to the middle-sized farmers, landless peasants worked the land for wages

--More crops were produced and sold



Topic Sentence: The introduction of the enclosure system during the agricultural revolution resulted in a new social hierarchy and the new economic system of market-oriented estate agriculture.

Category: Improvement of general farming techniques

Factual information list

--Population expansion led to a need for more agricultural production and employment opportunities, so they were forced to develop a way to make more land usable for production

--They did so (especially in the Low Countries and England) by draining marshes and swamps

--Cornelius Vermuyden- Dutch, directed large draining projects in Yorkshire and Cambridgeshire, reclaimed 40,000 acres in Cambrigeshire, the land was then farmed in the Dutch manner

--Jethro Tull- English, promoted new methods of farming- using horses rather than oxen for plowing, sowing seed using drilling equipment (new technology) rather than scattering by hand

--Robert Bakewell- English, first to implement systematic breeding of livestock, resulting in better quality animals, such as sheep, cattle, and horses

SOCIAL EFFECTS: Dutch and English became known for their advanced farming techniques and the model for other countries, new methods of farming- farmers had to adjust

ECONOMIC EFFECTS: new methods of farming resulted in more land available for use, better crop production, and better quality livestock, this led to a higher output of crops and a better economy

Topic Sentence: New technologies in farming involving drainage, livestock breeding, and planting led to the Dutch and English becoming well known for their great advances in agricultural production and a better economic system.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme)

During the Agricultural Revolution in Europe, the introduction of crop rotation, the enclosure method, and new innovations in farming technology led to a healthier lifestyle for the European people, a new social hierarchy between the wealthy and poor classes, and an improved economy.

Nicole Breighner

Framework for Review FRQs

Prompt: Louis XIV declared his goal was “one king, one law, one faith.” Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and discuss the extent to which he was successful.



Category: “One king”- Divine Right of Kings, Palace of Versailles

Factual information list

--As an absolute monarch, Louis XIV had to assert his authority over all other people as the “one king”

--Divine Right of Kings- idea that the king was placed on the throne by God and therefore owed his authority to no one

--Used this idea to assert his authority over all others, allowed him to do as he pleased

--L'etat c'est moi”- “I am the state.”

--This shows how he envisioned himself as the one and only person of power in the country

--Built the Palace of Versailles

--Palace was built in the Rococo style- over the top, grand, lots of gold, showed the grandeur of France and Louis XIV as its king

--demonstrated his power/the supremacy of himself as the one king and France as the most powerful country in Europe

-- allowed him to observe and control the nobility, as this was where all meetings were held and all people working in the government resided

Topic Sentence: Louis the XIV asserted his authority as the “one king” of France by using the divine right of kings and building the Palace of Versailles.

Category: “One law”- Reorganized government to ensure he had total power

Factual information list

--Created new councils- 4 new councils of which he was the head, limited the power of the nobility

--Council of State, “High Council”- foreign policy

--Council of Dispatches- internal affairs

--Council of Finances- taxation, tariffs, revenues, expenditures

--Privy Council- administration of justice

--Intendant System- regional officials were appointed by the king and responsible only to the king

--recruited people from the middle class for chief ministers in order to limit influence of the nobility

--Peasants payed taxes to the church

--Corvée- forced labor, peasants worked one month per year on public projects

Topic Sentence: Louis XIV established his idea of “one law” in France by creating new programs and preventing anyone else from having any influence in the government to ensure that he had total power.

Category: “One faith”- Created religious, Catholic uniformity

Factual information list

--Louis XIV was a devout Catholic

--made himself head of the Gallican Church (French Catholic Church)

--Edict of Fountainbleau- repealed the Edict of Nantes

--Huguenots lost their right to practice Calvinism

--Supported the Jesuits- who cracked down on Jansenists, Catholics who held Calvinist ideas

Topic Sentence: Louis XIV implemented his “one faith” idea in France by creating religious uniformity in Catholicism with the Edict of Fountainbleau.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme)

As an absolute monarch, Louis XIV of France implemented his goal of “one king, one law, one faith” by claiming the divine right of kings and showing his supreme power, creating new programs that allowed him to eliminate outside those with influence in the government, and imposing religious uniformity in Catholicism with the Edict of Fountainbleau.

Nicole Breighner

Framework for Review FRQs

Prompt: Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth- and sixteenth- century European exploration and trade.



Category: Learning- Humanism

Factual information list

--focused on secularism and individualism, the classics- literary works of ancient Greece and Rome

--look back, put a new spin on it, and move forward

--studied the humanities- poetry, philosophy, history, etc..

--Virtú- quality of being a man, idea of excelling in all of one’s pursuits

--emphasized man’s achievements, not God’s

--wealth to be enjoyed

--stressed an active life

--humans are the shapers of their own destinies

--”the humanization of the divine”- religion still incredibly important but interpreted humanistically

--Renaissance man- the gentleman has the ability to do many things well- academically, socially, politically, culturally... well rounded.

--The Book of the Courtier, Castiglione- wrote about how to be a perfect gentleman, ideal Renaissance man

HOW IT INFLUENCED EXPLORATION AND TRADE: people were more curious and eager to learn about new things, the never ending search for knowledge, motivated in exploration by “god, glory, and gold”- wanted to spread their ideas to the native people, glorified the pursuit of knowledge and spreading their own knowledge (humanism)

Topic Sentence: During the Italian Renaissance, people began to formulate the concept of humanism, which influenced fifteenth and sixteenth century European exploration and trade by motivating people to learn and study new things and share their own ideas with new people.

Category: Technology for Navigation

Factual information list

--Advances in cartography- better maps = more accurate navigation

--Printing Press- more maps available, allowed information and ideas to spread allowing more exploration and trade to become possible

--Martin Behaim- invented the terrestrial globe in 1492

--Magnetic Compass- metal needle in the center is held in a north-south position by the earth’s north and south magnetic poles

--allowed more accurate directional travel, alternative to simply depending on star positioning

--Astrolabe- circular device, measures angles, used to determine the latitude of a ship at sea by measuring the sun's noon altitude (declination) or the meridian altitude of a star of known declination

--Quadrant- improved version of astrolabe, one quarter, or qudrant, of a circle, same purpose just easier to use

--Cross staff- consists of a long staff with a perpendicular vane that slides across it, measures angles between points, typically used to calculate latitude by measuring the altitude of the Pole Star above the horizon



HOW IT INFLUENCED EXPLORATION AND TRADE: allowed explorers to travel easier and more accurately across the sea, more people went due to calling for adventure and knowledge, the introduction and constant improvements of these technologies was characteristic of the time period (ties to humanism and the quest for knowledge)

Topic Sentence: The introduction of new technologies for navigation during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries influenced European exploration and trade by allowing explorers to travel more accurately and easily, leading to more people going on the long sea voyages.

Category: Technology for traveling/trade

Factual information list

--New technology in ship building-

--Portugese caravel- Lighter, faster than the Spanish

Galleons, better suited for exploration along the African Coast, could sail into the wind

--Lateen sail and rope riggings- sails could be quickly and efficiently maneuvered to take advantage of wind power

--Axial rudder (side rudder)- allowed improved change of direction

--Gunpowder- helped protect against hostile ships and allowed domination of indigenous people in lands that were explored

--Commercial Revolution- resulted in capitalist investments in overseas populations (trading)



HOW IT INFLUENCED EXPLORATION AND TRADE: allowed better travel of the seas due to new ship building technology, safer/easier travel, better transport of goods for trading with foreign lands, gunpowder allowed easier colonization of land and control of people, commercial revolution increased trading with native people

Topic Sentence: During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, new technologies in ship building and materials used in the colonization of foreign lands greatly influenced European exploration and trade by improving the ease of travel and transport of goods and increasing the amount of trade between Europeans and native people.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme)



During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the formulation of humanist ideology, new technologies used in navigation, and new technologies in travel and trade goods greatly influenced European exploration and trade by allowing for easier, more reliable travel and and increase in trade between the Europeans and native people.

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