Categorize the colonies according to geographic region. Next, list at least TWO economic activities or products of that colonial region.
New England Colonies
Virginia South Carolina
New Jersey Massachusetts
Maryland New York
Delaware New Hampshire
North Carolina Georgia
Rhode Island Pennsylvania
The English Colonies
What reasons did colonists have for coming to America?
What group of people was taken to America and sold as slaves?
What was the first permanent English settlement in North America?
Servants who signed a contract to work for four to seven years for those who paid their way to the America were known as?
A Protestant group who wanted to purify the Anglican Church was called?
People who have left the country of their birth to live in another country are?
This was one of the first attempts at self-government in the New England Colonies. It was a legal contract in which all agreed to have fair laws to protect the general good?
Why did Pilgrims and Puritans leave Europe for the Americas?
Who founded the colony of Pennsylvania?
What was known as the trade of slaves from Africa to the West Indies and English Colonies in exchange for rum, sugar, and molasses?
What movement took place in Europe during the 1700s spreading the idea that reason and logic could improve society?
The French and Indian war was fought between?
Answer the following questions to show your understanding of the American Revolution:
What economic policy of Great Britain contributed to the rebellion of the colonists against British policies?
What effect did the “Acts” (Intolerable, Stamp, Tea, etc.) have on the colonies?
What was the purpose of Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, Common Sense?
What is the main idea of the Declaration of Independence?
List the grievances against King George III that were listed in the Declaration of Independence.
What were the first battles of the American Revolution?
Why is the Battle of Saratoga called a turning point in the war?
What was the contribution of George Washington to the American Revolution?
Applying the Principles of the Constitution
Match each statement below with the constitutional principle it best describes P-popular sovereignty F-federalism S-separation of powers
R-republicanism L-limited government C-checks and balances ____ 1. The people elect senators to serve in Washington, D.C.
____ 2. The national government conducts foreign policy.
____ 3. “We the people . . . do ordain and establish this Constitution.”
____ 4. Congress may impeach judges and the president.
____ 5. Government officials are never above the law.
____6. Government is by the consent of the governed.
____7. The president appoints federal judges who are then approved by Congress.
____8. The Legislative Branch makes the laws.
____9. Congress can override a presidential veto by a 2/3rds vote in each house.
____10. Both the federal and state governments can impose taxes.
Create a chart identifying the ideas of the Federalist and the Anti-Federalist.
ArgumentsFor and Against the Constitution:
the Federalists and Anti-Federalists
The Federalists: Alexander Hamilton of New York and James Madison of Virginia supported the ratification of the Constitution to strengthen and save the Union. Their Arguments FOR the Constitution:
The Articles of Confederation could not preserve the Union.
A strong national government was needed to sustain the Union.
The Constitution conformed to the true principles of republican government.
A bill of rights was not needed because peoples' rights were protected in the Constitution.
The national government must have the power to tax.
A strong national government was needed to carry on foreign affairs and protect the new country from its enemies.
The Anti-Federalists: Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia; Their Arguments AGAINST the Constitution:
Ratification of the Constitution endangered states' rights.
Slavery would be a divisive issue and might lead to a civil war.
A consolidated government would result in tyranny.
The national government would have unrestricted power over commerce that might injure some states.
The federal government would be too large to protect liberty and preserve property.
Federal authority would subvert state authority.
Using your knowledge and the information above, complete the following…. Who Am I: Federalist or Anti-Federalist?
Listed below are arguments for and against ratification of the Constitution. In the space provided, write “F” if the statement represents the belief of a Federalist or “AF” if it represents the belief of an Anti-Federalist. _____ 1. Ratification of the Constitution endangers states’ rights.
_____ 2. A bill of rights is not needed because peoples’ rights are
protected in the Constitution.
_____ 3. A strong national government is needed to sustain the Union.
_____ 4. The federal government would be too large to protect liberty.
_____ 5. The national government must have the power to tax.
_____ 6. A consolidated government would result in tyranny.
_____ 7. The national government would have unrestricted power over
commerce and this might injure some states.
_____ 8. The Articles of Confederation could not preserve the Union.
_____ 9. Slavery may be a divisive issue and might lead to a civil war.
_____ 10. A strong national government is needed to carry on foreign
affairs and protect the new country from its enemies.
An unalienable right —
A. is a right that cannot be taken away without due process
A well-organized essay is one that includes an introduction, three body paragraphs and a conclusion. Evidence should come from multiple sources. You may also draw on any additional knowledge you have acquired about the subject.
Men and women from all walks of life were caught up in the American Revolution. Women served in a variety of ways, including a few who fought on the battlefield. African-Americans, free and enslaved alike, served and became some of the war’s earliest heroes. Volunteers from Europe played important roles in the Continental Army, as well.
1. Create a graphic organizer (concept map) about the following:
2. Using information from your textbook, documents provided and your knowledge of United States history, write an essay in which you discuss and compare the roles played by women, African Americans, and Europeans in the American Revolution.
In your essay be sure to
Provide a thorough response to the task.
Cover all parts of the assignment.
Include specific text evidence. (Use the wall on ways to put it in your writing)
Organize your thoughts in a clear and logical way
Contributions of Women during the American Revolution
During the American Revolution thousands of women took an active role in both the American and British armies. Most were the wives or daughters of officers or soldiers. These women, who maintained an almost constant presence in military camps, were known as "camp followers." Here at Stony Point Battlefield, there were 52 women who were captured with the British garrison on the night of July 15, 1779 by the American Corps of Light Infantry. In spite of the fact that these women were not considered to be part of the army they were still included in the list of British prisoners taken at Stony Point. Because women frequently did not serve any military function during the war, their individual names were never listed in the records of the day and are therefore unknown to us. It is also difficult to state accurately what their duties were as camp followers. It may be surmised though that their duties consisted primarily of cooking, mending, laundry, childcare, and nursing the sick. As a camp follower a woman was paid a small wage and was supplied with a half ration of food for herself. While the above mentioned tasks were performed by the majority of women found within camp life, an occasional woman found herself placed or placed herself in extraordinary circumstances. Her participation in such situations were frequently well beyond the roles dictated by 18th-century society.
One of the most remarkable individuals of the Revolution was a young lady by the name of Deborah Sampson. It was her desire to avoid hard labor on the family farm that led her to impersonate a man and join the American army. Sampson first enlisted under the name Timothy Thayer early in 1782. When she failed to report for duty after a night spent imbibing at a local tavern, her true identity was discovered. In May of 1782, she re-enlisted, this time in Captain George Webb's Co. 4th Massachusetts Regiment, under the name of Robert Shurtleff. She participated in several battles and in 1783 was named aide-de-camp to General John Paterson at West Point. Her identity was again discovered during the summer of 1783 by a physician who treated her when she became seriously ill. Shortly thereafter she was honorably discharged from the army. She subsequently returned to Massachusetts where she married.
Margaret Cochran Corbin (Captain Molly), was the wife of John Corbin, an artilleryman in Captain Thomas Proctor's 1st Company of Pennsylvania Artillery. Unlike Deborah Sampson, Margaret was a camp follower. Following her husband's example she was taught how to load and fire cannons gaining the respect and admiration from the other artillerymen in the Company. On November 16, 1776, Margaret assisted in the battle at Fort Washington, New York. "Molly", as she later became known, stood on the front line with her husband John. In the course of the battle he was mortally wounded. As a result she assumed his duties as matross and was injured herself. Once the fort fell she was moved to Philadelphia where she was paroled and later pensioned by Congress. Corbin was later assigned to the Corps of Invalids at West Point where she remained until her death in 1800. "Captain Molly" is now buried on the grounds of the United States Military Academy.
Mary Ludwig Hays, another camp follower, accompanied her husband John, a member of the 1st Pennsylvania Artillery, into the Monmouth, New Jersey Campaign of 1778. During the battle she supplied water to the troops, thereby receiving the name "Molly Pitcher." Like Corbin before her, when Mary's husband was wounded, she assumed his duties as matross assisting the other artillerymen in the Company. Shortly after the war ended John died and Mary remarried. Unfortunately her second marriage did not last long. She supported herself until her death in 1832 with grants, however unlike Margaret Corbin, never received a military pension. These accounts are only a few of the many examples of women who have served their country since its beginnings, something to be proudly remembered during Women's History Month.
African Americans and the American Revolution
By Edward Ayres
Historian,Yorktown Victory Center
Only 50 years after the defeat of the British at Yorktown, most Americans had already forgotten the extensive role black people had played on both sides during the War for Independence. At the 1876 Centennial Celebration of the Revolution in Philadelphia, not a single speaker acknowledged the contributions of African Americans in the establishing the nation. Yet by 1783, thousands of black Americans had become involved in the war. Many were active participants, some won their freedom and others were victims, but throughout the struggle blacks refused to be mere bystanders and gave their loyalty to the side that seemed to offer the best prospect for freedom.
By 1775 over a half million African Americans, most of them enslaved, were living in the 13 colonies. Early in the 18th century a few New England ministers and conscientious Quakers, such as George Keith and John Woolman, had questioned the morality of slavery, but they were largely ignored. By the 1760s, however, as the colonists began to speak out against British tyranny, more Americans pointed out the obvious contradiction between advocating liberty and owning slaves. In 1774 Abigail Adams wrote, “it always appeared a most iniquitious scheme to me to fight ourselves for what we are daily robbing and plundering from those who have as good a right to freedom as we have.”
Widespread talk of liberty gave thousands of slaves high expectations and many were ready to fight for a democratic revolution that might offer them freedom. In 1775 at least 10 to 15 black soldiers, including some slaves, fought against the British at the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill. Two of these men, Salem Poor and Peter Salem, earned special distinction for their bravery. By 1776, however, it had become clear that the revolutionary rhetoric of the founding fathers did not include enslaved blacks. The Declaration of Independence promised liberty for all men, but failed to put an end to slavery; and although they had proved themselves in battle, the Continental Congress adopted a policy of excluding black soldiers from the army.
In spite of these discouragements, many free and enslaved African Americans in New England were willing to take up arms against the British. As soon states found it increasingly difficult to fill their enlistment quotas, they began to turn to this untapped pool of manpower. Eventually every state above the Potomac River recruited slaves for military service, usually in exchange for their freedom. By the end of the war from 5,000 to 8,000 blacks had served the American cause in some capacity, either on the battlefield, behind the lines in noncombatant roles, or on the seas. By 1777 some states began enacting laws that encouraged white owners to give up slaves for the army in return for their enlistment bounty, or allowing masters to use slaves as substitutes when they or their sons were drafted. In the south the idea of arming slaves for military service met with such opposition that only free blacks were normally allowed to enlist in the army.
Most black soldiers were scattered throughout the Continental Army in integrated infantry regiments, where they were often assigned to support roles as wagoners, cooks, waiters or artisans. Several all-black units, commanded by white officers, were also formed which saw action against the British. Rhode Island’s Black Battalion was established in 1778 when that state was unable to meet its quota for the Continental Army. The legislature agreed to set free slaves who volunteered for the duration of the war, and compensated their owners for their value. This regiment performed bravely throughout the war and was present at Yorktown where an observer noted it was “the most neatly dressed, the best under arms, and the most precise in its maneuvers.”
Although the southern states refused to recruit African Americans for the army, they had no objections to using free and enslaved blacks as pilots and able-bodied seaman. In Virginia alone, as many as 150 black men, many of them slaves, served in the state navy. After the war, the legislature granted several of these men their freedom as a reqard for faithful service. African Americans also served as gunners, sailors on privateers and in the Continental Navy during the Revolution. While the majority of blacks who contributed to the struggle for independence performed routine jobs, a few, such as James Armistead Lafayette, gained renown serving as spies or orderlies for well-known military leaders.
Black participation in the Revolution, however, was not limited to supporting the American cause, and either voluntarily or under duress thousands also fought for the British. Enslaved blacks made their own assessment of the conflict and supported the side that offered the best opportunity to escape bondage. Most British officials were reluctant to arm blacks, but as early as 1775, Virginia’s royal governor, Lord Dunmore, established an all-black “Ethiopian Regiment” composed of runaway slaves. By promising them freedom, Dunmore enticed over 800 slaves to escape from “rebel” masters. Whenever they could, enslaved blacks continued to join him until he was defeated and forced to leave Virginia in 1776. Dunmore’s innovative strategy met with disfavor in England, but to many blacks the British army came to represent liberation.
Methods of European Support
Many European powers had obvious motives to join in on America’s fight for independence. The question remains, though, how exactly did these European nations provide aid to the colonies? Once again, it is helpful to consider this on a country-by-country basis:
Considering how much was at stake for the French, it is not surprising that France involved itself directly in the American Revolution. Following the American victory at Saratoga in 1777, which showed that the colonists actually had a chance at winning the war, French support of the American cause began to increase drastically. Acting as the American ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin was able to negotiate a formal alliance with France that secured French financial support, as well as military supplies. ((The French Contribution to the American War of Independence, 2009, http://people.csail.mit.edu/sfelshin/saintonge/homepage.html (accessed June 2012).)) In a more round-a-bout sort of way, the French helped keep the British at bay through a series of proxy wars in the West Indies throughout the late 1770’s and 1780’s. These conflicts, over French and British colonial possessions in the Caribbean, did enough to distract British ships and troops away from the fighting in the colonies. Also key to American victory was direct French military aid. The French navy served as an invaluable ally to the fledgling American fleet and French land forces helped win the decisive battle of the war—victory at Yorktown.
Like France, Spain provided aid to the colonists in the form of funding, as well as by fighting Britain on a second front. The Spanish made significant financial contributions in the form of individual loans and populist fundraisers. The Spanish government gave large loans to prominent patriots, such as John Jay. ((Mildred Murry and Chuck Lampman, Spain’s Role in the American Revolution: From the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, 1999, http://www.americanrevolution.org/hispanic.html (accessed 2012 June).)) Moreover, in 1780, the Spanish king, Carlos III, issued a Royal Order asking for a donation from all Spaniards living in the Americas to decrease the cost of the war against Britain and help the American cause. This request received high levels of participation and popular support. ((Edward F. Sr. Butler, Chronology of Events Surrounding Spain’s Participation in the American Revolutionary War, January 2002, http://www.sar.org/mxssar/sphist.htm (accessed June 2012).)) Shortly following Spain’s formal entry into the war, in 1779, Spain began plotting to recapture many of the Floridian forts and ports it had lost following the Seven Years’ War. Using the Spanish-controlled Louisiana Territory and Spain’s Caribbean possessions as a launching point, Spain was able to successfully wrestle back from the British several southern forts. ((Mildred Murry and Chuck Lampman, Spain’s Role in the American Revolution: From the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, 1999, http://www.americanrevolution.org/hispanic.html (accessed 2012 June).)) While the fighting in Florida was neither as brutal nor as constant as the fighting along the Atlantic coast, the creation of a second front undoubtedly stretched British military commitments even further and increased the likelihood of an American victory.
Germany did not become a united nation until 1871. Lack of a unified German state made it difficult for the German people to exert much international influence in an era dominated politically by the nation-state. What “Germany” lacked in political power, however, it made up for with a well-trained military populace. The greatest German contribution to the American Revolution came in the form of hired mercenaries on the side of the British, often referred to as Hessians. German Hessians made up anywhere between a fourth and a third of Britain’s land forces. ((Edward J. Lowell, The Hessians and Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War.)) The heavy use of such troops, however, only further served to anger many Americans and actually drew some previously British supporters to the colonists’ side. By using Hessian mercenaries, the British treated the American colonies just as they would any indigenous or non-white population—which at this time was a grave insult to the Americans.