Case-level design chapter 8 case-level research designs



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CASE-LEVEL DESIGN

Chapter 8

CASE-LEVEL RESEARCH DESIGNS

  • ‘Blueprints” for studying single cases

  • Individual, group, organization, or community

  • Also called single subject, single case, or idiographic research

  • Case-level designs symbols

  • A: baseline

  • B: intervention

  • C, D, E: each letter is a different intervention

EXPLORATORY CASE-LEVEL DESIGNS

  • Used to explore (or learn about) if a problem exists for a particular case and if so, whether the problem endures with or without intervention

A Design

  • Answers the questions:

  • Does a problem exist?

  • Is the problem changing over time without intervention?

  • The assessment or baseline phase

  • A client problem (or variable) is operationally defined, systematically measured on repeated occasions, and the scores graphed

Features of case-level graphs

  • Horizontal line is the x-axis (time interval)

  • Vertical line is the y-axis (variable score)

  • Red line is actual case score

  • Dotted-line is the clinical cutting (normed) score

B Designs

  • Answers the question:

  • Is the problem changing over time while an intervention is being applied?

  • Levels of the problem are monitored at the same time that you are applying the intervention

  • No baseline or assessment measures were collected

BB1 Design

  • B represents a specific intervention applied to the case

  • B1 indicates that the original intervention (B) was modified in a subtle but important way

BC Design

  • B represents the first intervention applied to the case

  • C represents a second (and entirely different) intervention applied to the case

DESCRIPTIVE CASE-LEVEL DESIGNS

  • Used to describe a case-level problem during both the assessment and intervention phases of the helping process

  • Do not provide evidence that an intervention “caused” any observed change

AB Design

  • Answers the question:

  • Compared to baseline, does the problem improve, worsen, or stay the same when a single intervention is being applied?

  • A tracks baseline or assessment scores

  • B tracks scores during an intervention

ABC and ABCD Designs

  • Answers the question:

  • Compared to baseline, does the problem improve, worsen, or stay the same when different interventions are applied in sequence?

  • Because multiple interventions are applied, you will not know whether change is associated with a single intervention or the combination of interventions

EXPLANATORY CASE-LEVEL DESIGNS

  • Answers the question:

  • Is an intervention responsible for observed changes in the case-level problem? Or Does the intervention cause change?

  • Explanatory designs eliminate other potential causes of change to isolate the intervention being studied

Reversal Designs

  • An interventions is first applied and then removed from the case

  • If the intervention works, then the problem should improve during intervention and return to a problematic state when the intervention is removed

ABA and ABAB Designs

  • Answers the question:

  • Does the intervention cause change in the target problem?

  • Begins with an assessment phase (no intervention)

  • Repeated withdrawals of intervention strengthen the research design

BAB Design

  • Answers the question:

  • Does the removal of the intervention cause change in the target problem?

  • Begins with the intervention phase

  • Useful for crisis problems

BCBC Design

  • Answers the question:

  • Do different interventions cause change in the target problem? Or Which intervention produces a more desirable outcome?

  • An assessment phase is not included

Multiple Baseline Designs

  • A second type of explanatory case-level designs

  • Used with

  • More than one case

  • (One case) with more than one setting

  • (One case) with more than one problem

More than One Case

  • The same case-level design is applied to multiple cases (clients)

  • “Causality” is determined by similar patterns of improvement across different cases that are suffering from the same problem and exposed to the same intervention

More than One Setting

  • One case-level design is used multiple times in different locations for a single case (client)

  • “Causality” is determined by similar patterns of improvement across different settings

More than One Problem

  • Once case-level design is used multiple times to monitor different problems for a single case (client)

  • “Causality” is determined by similar (or corresponding) patterns of improvement across different problems

SUMMARY


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