Case: Construction Company

Consumer response to marketing communications

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2.2 Consumer response to marketing communications
This chapter presents the theories concerning the consumer response to the marketing communications.
2.2.1 Communication objectives within response hierarchy model
There are several classic models which describe a series of mental stages between the point of unawareness of a product and the ultimate purchase. These models are called response hierarchy models and include a cognitive, affective and behavioural stages. The cognitive element refers to awareness or knowledge, the affective component is the feeling associated with the brand, and the behavioural/conative stage is the intention to purchase and ultimate purchase. Marketing communications are meant to lead the buyers through these stages therefore the models help to set communications objectives depending on what response is required (Smith and Zook 2011).
Response hierarchy model

Figure 2 displays the model proposed by Robert J.Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner. Kotler et al. (2012, 781) mentions that this model provides a useful guide for marketing communications in case the customer has high-involvement with the market offering, the purchase when customer actively participates in the information search and evaluation, spends more time and efforts before making the actual purchase decision. At the awareness stage a customer becomes aware of the market offering/company existence. Knowledge refers to the state when a customer knows about the features of

5 Unawareness Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Behaviour stage
Affective stage Cognitive stage
FIGURE 2. Response hierarchy model proposed by Robert J.Lavidge and
Gary A. Steiner.

the market offering/company more in detail. Liking means a favourable attitude and in the preference stage a customer develop preference to the company over substitutes.
At the stage of conviction the customer has an intention to buy which possibly results in an actual purchase. The hierarchy of response models are usually criticized for their linear form, which is not necessarily the case. For example a consumer may first purchase a product and then form an attitude. Similarly an individual may become aware of the product and instantly forms a preference (Blythe 2006, 6). Nevertheless, the model presented above may suggest directions for setting specific communication objectives and choosing appropriate communication methods.
Marketing communications objectives
Kotler et al. (2012) presents four categories of marketing communications objectives which can beset at any level of the model (Rossiter and Percy 1997): category need, brand awareness, brand attitude, and brand purchase intention. Pelsmacker et al.
(2013, 156) explain marketing communications objectives using the DAGMAR model. DAGMAR stands for Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results and represents a variation of the hierarchy of response model. In addition to the goals suggested by Rossiter and Percy, this model contains the objectives in the fol-

6 lowing areas brand knowledge, purchase facilitation, purchase, satisfaction, and brand loyalty. Table summarizes the main characteristics of the objectives in various categories presented by Kotler et al. (2012) and Pelsmacker et al. (2013).

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