2 MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS 2.1 Marketing communications and their role Kotler et al. (2012, 776) defines marketing communications as the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade and remind customers - directly or indirectly - about the brands they market. Marketing communications are also compared to the voice of the company and its brands, and are said to be the ways in which it can establish a dialogue and build relationships with customers (said book p. 776). Marketing communications is one of the elements of a firm’s marketing mix, activities used to create, communicate and deliver value to the customer (Kotler et al. 2012, 973). The original marketing mix model suggested by E. Jerome McCarthy included four elements product, price, place, and promotion. Figure 1 demonstrates the position of marketing communications within a firm’s marketing mix. Once a company determines product, price, and distribution, it is ready to plan its marketing communications which refer to the promotion element of this model (Arens et al. 2011, 219). According to Pelsmacker et al. (2013, 155) the objectives of the marketing communications can be categorized into three groups reach, process and effectiveness. Reach goals refers to reaching the target audience which can be achieved by segmentation and analysing its media behaviour. Process goals concern conditions which make communications effective they should attract attention, be appreciated and processed. These two goals are prerequisites for achieving the effectiveness goals. Product Price Place Promotion communication) Target audience FIGURE 1. The communications within marketing mix.
4 The specific objectives of marketing communications are set by marketers and typically refer to how the communications should affect the mind of the target audience, (Smith&Zook 2011, 234). More detailed discussion of marketing communications objectives is presented chapter 2.2.1. In order to achieve the desired impact marketers have different instruments at their disposal which are discussed in chapter 2.3, but before that the theories concerning consumer response to marketing communication and the buying process will be reviewed.