Carved in marble over the entrance of the Supreme Court building in

precedent earlier decision (p. 183)constitutional law

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precedent earlier decision (p. 183)
constitutional law type of law based on the US. Constitution and on Supreme Court decisions interpreting the Constitution p. 183)
appeal process of asking fora review of the court’s decision (p. 183)
Taking Notes
Type of Law Sources
Criminal law Statutory law
Use laws to
settle disputes
Civil law
Common law
in lower
courts can be
appealed in
higher courts
Teach the Main Idea
Equal Justice under the Law
Teach Ask students the Reading Focus questions to teach this section.
Apply As students read the section, have them take notes on how the US. government helps guarantee justice.
Review To review the section’s main ideas, have students recite together the last six words of the Pledge of Allegiance with liberty and justice for all Explain to the class that the word liberty
comes from the Latin word for free Then lead a class discussion on how the ways the US. government ensures justice is related to Americans freedom.
Practice/Homework Have students write a brief essay on the relationship between justice and freedom in the United States. At Level

Differentiating Instruction
Other laws protect your property, your freedom to speak and practice your religion, and your health. Laws set boundaries or limits on behavior. So while you may have the right to practice playing your electric guitar, that right is limited somewhat by your neighbor’s right to the peaceful enjoyment of his or her property.
Criminal Law
There are two basic categories of laws, criminal law and civil law. When people talk about breaking the law they are usually referring to a crime. Ab crimeb is any behavior that is illegal because society, through its government, considers the behavior harmful to society. Criminal law refers to the group of laws that define what acts are crimes. Criminal law also describes how a person accused of a crime should be tried in court and how crimes should be punished. Criminal laws are intended to protect society as a whole. For example, laws against assault, murder, and rape help protect you and other people from being harmed. Laws against stealing help protect your property and other people’s property as well. You might think that a crime against another person does not affect you, but that is not true. If someone who breaks into your neighbor’s house and steals something is not caught and punished, the criminal may steal again. The criminal might even break into your house next. And if criminals are not caught and punished, people may begin to think that it is okay to steal.
Civil Law
The other basic category of laws is civil law.
Civil law is the group of laws that refer to disputes between people. If you have a dispute with someone and you cannot solve it privately, you may go to court to settle the matter. In court, the judge and maybe a jury will listen to the facts of the case. The judge will then apply the civil law and make a decision. Civil laws are used to settle a wide range of personal issues, such as contract disputes, divorce proceedings, and property boundaries.

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