Capitalism Bad Kritik Wave 1 Sophs



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Link --- Development

Even access to imperialistic development is class-based. The bourgeois, space capable nations restrict access to space from the proletariat, space incapable nations.


Marshall 95 (Alan Marshall is in the Institute of Development Studies at Massey University, February 1995, “Space Policy”, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V52-3XWRMXY-11-1&_cdi=5774&_user=1458830&_pii=026596469593233B&_origin=&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F1995&_sk=999889998&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzV&md5=3654427bdc6e87641fbbb117001107b9&ie=/sdarticle.pdf)

If development does occur in space it will be of an imperialistic nature. It will be undertaken by a few technologically elite space-capable nations who will appropriate the commonly-owned resources of the Solar System for themselves, without any committed provision for the sharing of the benefits to other, non-space capable, nations. Unfortunately such imperialistic tendencies are not just a prospect for the future, they are evident in current space activities. Not throughout the Solar System maybe, but certainly within the confines of the near space of Earth orbit. Imperialistic tendencies in this realm have provoked a growing sense of resentment amongst those nations being subjected to it. For instance, with the continued development of the geostationary orbit, concern is being expressed that the space a satellite occupies in this type of orbit is becoming a scarce resource, and one which is becoming increasingly unavailable to non-space nations. Some of these nations have banded together under the 1986 Bogota Declaration to express their right to benefits accumulating to users of geostationary orbits above their territories. Included in this group of nations are the Third World states of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Kenya, Uganda, Zaire and Indonesia. None of these states receives rent for the occupation of their geostationary space, just as no satellite launching nation or company pays rent to the rest of the global community for occupying a common space that belongs to all the world. Those nations and firms that launch and operate satellites generally feel that the benefits accrued from satellite activities are offered throughout the world through the normal market procedures. However, unlike the free-riding satellite operators, user nations have to pay to receive satellite services. Additional to this is the ability of the space-capable nations to obtain information about resources in the territories of non-space-capable nations, which is either made unavailable to the latter or is sold to them at a profit




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