Canon Law in the “Century of the Individual”: Revolution and Continuity

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in seinen, sondern vor seinen Ausführungen liegt. BARION’S position did not change: Der Rechtsbegriff Rudolph Sohms. Zur 100. Wiederkehr von Sohms Geburtstag (29.10.41), in: Deutsche Rechtswissenschaft. Vierteljahreschrift der Akademie für Deutsches Rechts 7 (1942), S. 47-51.


. W. KÖHLER, Rezeption in der Kirche: Begriffsgeschichtliche Studien bei Sohm, Afanas’ev, Dobois und Congar (Göttingen 1998), S. 82-94, also JOSEPH CARDINAL Cardinal RATZINGER (10 November 1999) on the negation of law in modern Christianity, Crises of Law, accessed at www.A ZENIT DAILY DISPATCH.htm on 15 May 2001. While not discussing Sohm directly, see the interesting treatment of Wisconsin vs. Yoder, heard by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1972 concerning the education of Amish in the United States by D. M. Smolin, The City of God Meets Anabaptist Monasticism: Reflections on the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of Wisconsin vs. Yoder, in: Capital University Law Review 25 (1996) accessed via Lexis-Nexis on 15 June 2001.

40. Among various studies: P. LANDAU, Sakramentalität und Jurisdiktion in: G. RAU, H-R. REUTER, K. SCHLAICH (Hgg.), Das Recht der Kirche. vol. 2. Zur Geschichte des Kirchenrechts, Gütersloh 1995, S. 58-94 at 58-79, J. VAN ENGEN, From Practical Theology to Divine Law, in: P. LANDAU, J. MÜLLER (Hgg.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law (Monumenta Iuris Canonici. Subsidia 10) Vatican City 1997, S. 873-896 and P. LANDAU, Johann Lorenz von Mosheim über den Rechtszustand der frühen Kirche, in: Johann Lorenz Mosheim. Theologie im Spannungsfeld von Philosopie, Philologie, und Geschichte (Wolfenbüttler Forschungen 77), Hannover 1997, S. 329-46.

41. H.J. BERMAN, Law and Revolution. The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition, Cambridge and London 1983.

42. Ibid., 201.

43. Ibid., 151-164.

44. Ibid., 143-155.


. A.L FELL, The American Historical Review 89.4 (1984) S. 1040-1044.

46. R. SCHIEFFER, The Papal Revolution in Law? Rückfragen an Harold J. Berman, in: Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law 22 (1998), S. 19-30. See also R.H. Helmholz, A Conference on the Work of Harold J. Berman: Essay: Harold Berman’s Accomplishment as a Legal Historian, in: Emory Law Journal 42 (1993) 1-15.

47. A.P. RUBIN, in: American Journal of International Law 80.1 (1986) S. 222-225.

48. Landau, Kanonisches Recht und römische Form 564-66.

49. E. PETERS, Transgressing the Limits Set by the Fathers: Authority and Impious Exegesis in Medieval Thought, in: S.L. WAUGH and P.D. DIEHL (Hgg.), Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, Cambridge 1994, S. 338-361.

50. L.K. BARKER, History, Reform, and Law in the Work of Ivo of Chartres, (Unpublished Dissertation) University of North Carolina 1988, and R. SPRANDEL, Ivo von Chartres und seine Stellung in der Kirchengeschichte (Pariser Historische Studien 1), Stuttgart 1962

51. PL 161-162 (Paris 1844)

52. A. BECKER, Papst Urban II (1088-1099) (MGH Schriften 19.1-2; Stuttgart 1964-1988) 1.187-226 and, most recently, Robert Somerville, Pope Urban II, the Collectio Britannica and the Council of Melfi (1089), Oxford 1996.

53. L. FISCHER, Ivo von Chartres, der Erneuerer der Vita canonica in Frankreich, in: H. GIETL and G. PFEILSSCHRIFTER (Hgg.), Festgabe Alois Knöpfler, Freiburg 1917, S. 67-88, C. DEREINE, Les coutumiers de Beauvais et de Springersbach, in: Revue d'histoire écclesiastique 43 (1948), S. 411-442, L. MILIS, Le coutumier de Saint-Quentin de Beauvais in: Sacris Erudiri 21 (1972-1973) , S. 435-481. (Ivo served as provost of Saint-Quentin during the 1080s.) See also L.K. BARKER, Epistola 63 and the Canonical Reform Movement: Keys to Understanding the Typological Exegesis of Ivo of Chartres, in Proceedings of the PMR Conference 9 (1984), S. 51-58.

54. On Ivo's relations with the feudal nobility, see SPRANDEL, Ivo von Chartres, S. 86-115 and K. LOPRETE, Adela of Blois and Ivo of Chartres: Piety, Politics, and the Peace in the Diocese of Chartres, in: Anglo-Norman Studies 14 (1991), S. 131-152.

55. UTA-RENATE BLUMENTHAL, The Papacy and Canon Law in the Eleventh-Century Reform, in: The Catholic Historical Review 84.2 (1998), S. 201-218.


. P. FOURNIER and G. LE BRAS, Histoire des collections canoniques en Occident depuis les Fausses décretales jusqu'au Décret de Gratien, 2 vols. Paris 1931-1932, reprinted Aalen 1972) 2.85-114. In collaboration with Dr. M. BRETT, I am at work on a critical edition of Ivo's Panormia. For the edition, including current bibliography, see

57. R. SOUTHERN, Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe: The Heroic Age, Oxford 1997, S. 260, focusing on the Ivonian Decretum. The Panormia is not considered in detail.

58. H. HOFFMANN, Ivo von Chartres und die Lösung des Investiturstreits, in Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 15 (1959), S. 393-440.

59. For Ivo's views on marriage and sexual relations, see M. G. SCHOOVAERTS, L 'amour et le mariage selon les lettres d'Yves de Chartres, in: Studia canonica 22 (1988), S. 305-325. Social and political issues are treated by M. GRANDJEAN, Laïcs dans l'église regards de Pierre Damien, Anselme de Cantorbéry, Yves de Chartres (Théologie historique 97), Paris 1994, S. 310-317 and P. LANDAU, Das Dominium der Laien an Kirchen im Decretum Gratiani und in vorgratianischen Kanonessammlungen der Reformzeit, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte. Kanonistische Abteilung 83 (1997), S. 209-222 at 214-216.

60. On which see most recently J-M. Werckmeister, Yves de Chartres: Prologue (Sources canoniques 1), Paris 1997, with brief study of Ivo’s sources and a provisional edition drawing partially from B.C. Brasington, The Prologue to the Decretum and Panormia of Ivo of Chartres. An Eleventh-Century Treatise on Ecclesiastical Jurisprudence (Dissertation, UCLA 1990). S. KUTTNER, The Revival of Jurisprudence, in Renaissance and Renewal, S. 299-332 at 311.

61. P. FOURNIER, Les collections canoniques attribuées à Yves de Chartres, in: Bibliothèque d’école de Chartres (1896), S.645-698; 58 (1897) 26-77, 293-326, 410-624, reprinted in: T. KÖLZER (Hg.), Mélanges de droit canonique, 2 vols., Aalen 1983 1.451-678 at S. 579-581 for discussion of the Prologue.

62. Idem., Yves de Chartres et le droit canonique, in: Révue des questions historiques 63 (1898), S. 51-98, 384-405, reprinted in: Mélanges 1.679-86 at 686.

63. IDEM, Un tournant de l'histoire du droit, in: Nouvelle revue d’histoire du droit français et étanger 41 (1917), S. 129-180 reprinted in: Mélanges 2.373-424 at 402. See also FOURNIER and LEBRAS, Histoire 2.106-07.

64. J. De GHELLINCK, Le mouvement théologique du xiie siècle, 2nd ed. (Museum Lessianum. Section historique 10), Paris 1948, S. 488-490. See also A. VAN HOVE, Prolegomena ad codicem iuris canonici 2nd ed. (Commentarium Lovaniense in codicem iuris canonici 1.1), Rome 1945, S. 420-421 and IDEM, De dispensationibus, 2nd ed. (Commentarium Lovaniense in codicem iuris canonici 1.5), Rome 1939, S. 299. Other studies include H. MARTIN KLINKENBERG, Die Theorie der Veränderbarkeit des Rechts im frühen und hohen Mittelalter, in: Lex et sacramentum (Miscellanea Medievalia 6), Berlin 1969, S. 157-188, and T.G. DORAN, Canon Law in the Twelfth Century: The Views of Bernold of Contance, Ivo of Chartres and Alger of Liège (Excerpta ex dissertatione ad doctoratum in facultate juris canonice pontificae universitatis gregorianae), Rome 1979

65. SPRANDEL, Ivo von Chartres, S. 28-31

66. M. GRABMANN, Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, 2 vols. Freiburg im Breisgau 1911, reprinted Berlin 1956, 1.246.

67. On caritas, especially within the Augustinian tradition, see L. BUISSON, Potestas und Caritas. Die päpstliche Gewalt im Spätmittelalter, Graz 1948

68. H. DE LUBAC, Exégèse médievale 2 vols. in 4 parts, Paris 1959-1964, 1.2.495, 2.2.266, 273, 289 and also H. BRINKMAN, Mittelalterliche Hermeneutik, Tübingen 1980, S. 123-132, especially at 124.

69. G. SCHLEUSENER-EICHHOLZ, Das Auge im Mittelalter, 2 vols. (Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften 35), Münster 1985, though without discussion of Ivo's text, when noting that oculus cordis is very old, and has foundations in Scripture (p. 165). On the elaborate eye imagery in the second prologue to the Paradisus, a patristic, overwhelmingly Augustinian, florilegium compiled by Bonizo of Sutri, see W. BERSCHIN, Bonizo von Sutri Leben und Werk, (Beiträge zur Geschichte und Quellenkunde des Mittelalters 2), Berlin and New York 1972, S.126.


. SPRANDEL, Ivo von Chartres, S. 20-24 and BARKER, History, Reform, and Law, S.124 n. 76.

71. Among many studies, P.BROWN, The Cult of the Saints and its Rise in Western Christianity,Chicago 1980

72. SPRANDEL, Ivo von Chartres, S. 22 and note 53.

73. Ibid.

74. Compare, however, an excerpt from Gregory VII (Reg. 2.67), in: E. CASPAR (Hg.), Das Register Gregors VII, (Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Epistolae selectae in usum scholarum 2.1-2), Berlin 1920-1923, reprinted Munich 1978, 2.223: precepta hec non de nostro sensu exculpimus sed antiquorum patrum medium propalamus...quamquam increscentes excessus nova quoque decreta atque remedia procurare que rationis et auctoritatis edita iudicio nulli hominum sit fas ut irrita refutare, on which see J. GILCHRIST, Gregory VII and the Juristic Sources of his Ideology, in: Collectanea Stephan Kuttner, 2 vols. (Studia Gratiana 12), Rome 1967, 2.4-37.

75. For example, Caesarius of Arles, Sermo 26: De diligendis inimiciis, in: G. MORIN (Hg.), Sancti Caesarii Arletalensis Opera, 2 vols. (Corpus christianorum latinorum 103-104), Turnhout 1953, 1.155-161 at 160-161. On the Augustinian tradition concerning this language of healing, see S. POQUE, La langage symbolique dans la prédication d'Augustin d' Hippone, 2 vols, Paris 1984), 1.176-190

76. For example, the Penitential of Columban (ca. 600), H. WASSERSCHLEBEN (Hg.), Die Büssordungen der abendländischen Kirche, Leipzig 1851 reprinted Graz 1958, S: 355: "Diversitas culparum diversitate facit poenitentiarum; nam et corporum medici diversis medicamenta generibus componunt. Aliter enim vulnera, aliter morbos, aliter tumores, aliter livores, aliter putredines, aliter confractiones, aliter combustiones curant. Ita igitur etiam spirituales medici diversis curationum generibus animarum vulnera, morbos, culpas, dolores, aegritudines, infirmitates sanare debent." Common to many penitential collections, it eventually passed--with modifications-- into the Corrector of Burchard: Decretum 10.20. On this text, as well as a detailed examination of the treatment of the diversity of human conditions and behavior in the penitential collections--a treatment most commonly made through medicinal language--see J. GRÜNDEL, Die Lehre von den Umständen der menschlichen Handlung im Mittelalter, (Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Theologie des Mittelalters 39.5), Münster 1963, S. 66-93 at 91-93

77. On the saint’s merciful remedy (mediated by the bishop) as a welcome alternative to the rigors of earthly justice, see R. VAN DAM, Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul (Transformation of the Classical Heritage 8), Berkeley 1985, S. 256-280.


. K.F. MORRISON, Unum ex multis. Hincmar of Rheims' Medical and Aesthetical Rationales for Unification," in: Nascità dell' Europa Carolingia: un' equazione da verificare (Settimane di studio sull’alto medioevo 28), Spoleto 1981, S. 583-712 at 594-595, with numerous examples.

79. W. ULLMANN, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages, 3rd. ed., London 1979, S. 374, and, in contrast, H. ZIMMERMANN, Römische und kanonische Rechtsschulung im frühen Mittelalter, in:, La scula nell’ alto medioevo (Settimane di studio sull’alto medioevo 19), Spoleto 1972, S. 767-794, especially at 778 disputing that Burchard's emphasis on "medical" language in law--the example chosen by Ullmann--indicates that Burchard was uninterested in legal studies. He does agree with Ullmann, however, that pastoral concerns guided the bishops thought.

80. They call to mind Gregory the Great, on whom see C. STRAW, GREGORY THE GREAT. PERFECTION IN IMPERFECTION (Transformation of the Classical Heritage 14), Berkeley and Los Angeles 1988, S. 90-106.

81. KUTTNER, Some Considerations, S. 356, cited by BERMAN, Law and Revolution, S. 601 n. 7.


. B. STOCK, Listening for the Text. On the Uses of the Past, Philadelphia 1990, S. 140-158.

83. Idem., S. 10.

84. Idem., The Implications of Literacy. Written Language and Models of Interpretation in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, Princeton 1983

85. Ibid., 88-240.

86. Ibid., 42-58.

87. Ibid., 525. See also two studies by J. O'DONNEL: Avatars of the Word. From Papyrus to Cyberspace, Cambridge, Mass. 1998, S. 39, and Pragmatics of the New: Trithemius, McLuhan, Cassiodorus, accessed on 15 May 2001 at

88. For examples of such “augmented” Panormia, see the on-line manuscript list (n. 56 above.) A particularly outstanding example is the Panormia in Trier, Stadtsbibliothek 910, from the second half of the twelfth century. Book two, which treats a variety of issues, including ecclesiological concerns, contains numerous such additions.

89 For a similar discussion of how the “canon” of texts from the Enlightenment should be enlarged to include authors outside the pantheon of famous philosophes like Voltaire and Diderot, see Dorinda Outram, The Enlightenment, (New Approaches to European History 5), London 1995. Outram’s comments prompted my initial reflections on the possibility that the “scholastic revolution” might have created an equally restrictive canon of texts for modern students of medieval canon law.

90. R. SOMERVILLE and B.C. BRASINGTON, Prefaces to Canon Law Books in Latin Christianity. Selected Translations, 500-1245, New Haven 1998, S. 61-62 concerning the variety of collections copied in the Carolingian period.

91. B.C. BRASINGTON New Perspectives on the Letters of Ivo of Chartres, in: Manuscripta 37.2 (1993), S. 168-178.

92. Idem., Zur Rezeption des Prologs Ivos von Chartres in Süddeutschland, in: Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 48 (1992), S. 167-174 and A Note on Two Panormia-Derivative Collections, in: The Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law NS. 22 (1998), S. 11-18.

93. For example, Köln, Stadtarchiv W*130, where the following selection (following the numeration of the edition in PL 162) of Ivos letters appears on fol. 1r-23v: 8, 186, 143, 135, 111, 74, 60, 68, 73, 55, 58, 63, 140, 102, 156, 123, 71, 57, 36, 27, 125, 174, 99, 32, 159, 133, 105, 188, 189, 35, 148, 155. The letters treat a variety of cases, most notoriously the ex-crusader, Rambold, who had forced a monk to be castrated, on which see B.C. BRASINGTON, Crusader, Castration, Canon Law: Ivo of Chartres Letter 135, in: The Catholic Historical Review 75.3 (1999), S. 367-382. On the manuscript, see J. VENNEBUSCH, Die theologischen Hss. des Stadtarchivs Köln. Part. 5, Köln 1989. S. 42-43.

94 Decretists of the French/Rhenish school periodically used Ivo’s Prologue in their commentaries on Gratian, on which see my forthcoming article, Require in Prologo: The Decretists and Ivo of Chartres’ Prologue, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte. Kanonistische Abteilung.

95. For example, Ralph Diss, dean of St. Pauls London during the Becket controversy excerpted Ivos Prologue in his Ymagines historiarum and Abbreviationes chronicorum, on which see BRASINGTON, The Prologue, vol. 3.

96 B.C. Brasington, The Abbreviatio “Excerptiones evangelicarum”. A Distinctive Regional Reception of Gratian’s Decretum, in: Codices Manuscripti. Zeitschrift für Handschriftenkunde 15 (1994), S.95-99.

97. R.L. WILKEN, Memory and the Christian Intellectual Life, in: Remembering the Christian Past, Grand Rapids 1995, S. 165-180 at 173.

98. CONSTABLE, Reformation of the Twelfth Century, S. 296-328.


. G. MELVILLE, Ordensstatuten und allgemeines Kirchenrecht. Eine Skizze zum 12./13. Jahrhundert, in: Proceedings Ninth International Congress, S. 691-712.

100. P. SAENGER, Reading in the Middle Ages, in: G. CAVALLO, R. CHARTIER (Hgg.), translated by L. COCHRANE, A History of Reading in the West (Cambridge 1999), S. 120-148 at 123-126, without reference to canon law. A representative example among R. ROUSE'S many studies on medieval manuscript culture is Cistercian Aids to Study in the Thirteenth Century, in: Studies in Medieval Cistercian History 2 (1976) 123-134.

101. Ibid., 704.

102. Ibid., 711. See also J.VAN ENGEN, The Crisis of Cenobitism Reconsidered: Benedictine Monasticism in the Years 1050-1150, in: Speculum 61 (1986) S. 269-304, examining critically another so-called "turning point".

103. B.C. BRASINGTON, Religious Reform and Legal Study: Manuscripts of Canonistic Works by Ivo of Chartres at Cloister Schäftlarn, in: Manuscripta 39.3 (1995) S. 173-185.

104 On which see E. D. Elliott, The Evolutionary Tradition in Jurisprudence, in: The Columbia Law Review 85 (1995), accessed via Lexis-Nexis on 15 May 2001. Useful also are the comments by R. POUND, The Spirit of Common Law, Boston 1963, reprinted New Brunswick 1999, S. 139-165 on “The Philosophy of Law in the Nineteenth Century”.

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