Byzantine and other medieval ships extension



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BYZANTINE AND OTHER MEDIEVAL SHIPS EXTENSION

Version 1.2, 04/04

A Game Aid for “Croisades” and “Vikings” by Hervé Tardy, published in Claymore magazine issue #9 in 1996, and translated by Bob Gingell. The title ‘Les navires de Byzance’ translates more accurately as “Byzantine ships”, but in reality it deals with the main ship types of all areas in the early Middle Ages. No scenarios have yet been published to use these new ship types. Hervé Tardy is revising this Extension and will add scenarios: see his website, www.cryhavocfan.org.



Contents


1. Ship descriptions

  1. Crew tasks

  2. Using the sails

  3. Ship movement

  4. Collisions

  5. Movement and combat on the ships

  6. War engines

8. Comparative tables (added by Bob Gingell)

9. Markers (some published with this Game Aid and some added by Bob Gingell)


The rules below allow the rules of “Vikings” to be adapted for naval combat in the 11th and 12th centuries. [These rules should also work for the 13th and 14th centuries.] Only alterations to the standard rules are given below; if nothing is mentioned then the rules for “Vikings” will apply.
1. SHIP DESCRIPTIONS

Four new ship types are used in Byzantium:




  • The galley (La galère): The Byzantine, Saracen and Christian fleets consisted of galleys, which were the best warships of the 11th and 12th centuries. The galley has two decks: the lower deck with the rowing benches and the upper deck for the warriors and steersman. The galley is a fast ship but it is difficult to manoeuvre, and in practice it cannot move backwards. War engines such as ballistas and catapults were often installed on the upper deck. The Byzantine galleys were additionally equipped with a tube at the bow of the upper deck that served to throw the terrible Greek Fire.

The galley is represented by a drakkar (Viking longship). It will be necessary to photocopy the drakkar, with the copy representing the lower deck of the ship. This copy is not placed on the tactical map: the boat on the map only represents the upper deck. Place an upright ladder marker on each deck in front of the rudder hex (G) to mark the stairwell connecting the two decks. The hexes of the upper deck are higher above the waterline than those of a drakkar or Saxon ship.




  • The longboat (La chaloupe): This boat is used to embark and disembark passengers from galleys and nefs (see note below on the nef) when they are not moored in port. It is operated by the oars alone and has no rudder. Like the rowboat (la barque, from “Vikings”) it is easy to capsize. The longboat is represented by a Saxon galley.




  • The felucca (La felouque): This vessel is used both by Arab merchantmen and by Saracen pirates. Moving only under sail, its triangular lateen sail allows it to capture the wind and manoeuvre easily. The felucca is represented by a Viking drakkar.




  • The cog (La barge): A general-purpose ship, used for coastal trade and even navigation, the cog is mainly used to carry supplies and construction materials. Its rectangular sail with a complex system of control makes the boat very slow and difficult to manoeuvre. The cog is represented by a Saxon galley.


[‘Cog’ is the name given to the round-hulled sailing ship used widely in northern waters. In the later 13th century fighting platforms (or ‘castles’), were often added at the bow and stern to give an advantage in combat, but these additions, initially only temporary, can be ignored for the time period of “Croisades”. Coastal sailing ships in the Mediterranean, commonly called ‘round ships’, were very similar in design; the larger ones also carried oars and many were lateen-rigged. The ‘nef’ (mentioned above in relation to the longboat) was also of a similar type to the cog but much larger, however it is not reported as appearing until the 15th century. The lateen-rigged Moslem ships date from the 9th century; not all were as large as the felucca presented above, but they did tend to be faster and handier than the Christian ships even when those were lateen-rigged themselves. For simplicity just the one size of ship with sails only should be used for the felucca and the cog, and although galleys did carry sails they should be treated as only using oars in battle.]
Use of the sails by feluccas and cogs is explained in a special rule.

2. CREW TASKS
The high morale which was enjoyed by the Vikings and gave them their strength had been long lost by the 11th and 12th centuries. We can treat medieval ships as being crewed by three types of characters with well-defined roles.

  • Sailors: Their job is to row, steer (on a galley) and manage the sails (on a felucca or cog). They can also bail and can be used to operate the war engines and throw grappling hooks. They cannot take part in boarding actions but will defend if they are attacked.

  • Soldiers: They are primarily concerned with boarding, grappling and operating the war engines. They can row on a longboat if a place is empty and there are no other sailors on the boat. They can bail. They cannot take over the job of a sailor.

  • Nobles: Whether these are knights, mamluks or klibanophoroi, they can only take part in boarding and command the operation of war engines in place of an engineer. They can never lower themselves to take the placer of a sailor.

The different tasks that are possible are summarised in the table below:




Task

Sailor

Soldier

Noble

Special situations


Row

Yes

No (1)

No

  1. Soldiers may row a longboat (or rowboat) if there are insufficient sailors.

  2. Soldiers may be called on to help the sailors if there are insufficient sailors.

  3. A noble can command the operation of a war engine in place of an engineer.

Steer

Yes

No

No

Be ready to board

No

Yes

Yes


Influence of the tasks on the course of the game: In relation to the rules for “Vikings”, the new tasks of ‘manage the sail’ and ‘operate a war engine’, take place at the same time as the rowing task. The particular situation of galleys with their two superimposed decks requires special treatment, but the longboat, felucca and cog are treated just like any other vessel with a single deck.
1). Missile-fire: Only characters ready to board and on the upper deck can shoot. The steersman benefits from medium cover; the others only benefit from light cover as they are more exposed. All characters on the lower deck benefit from infinite cover, so no-one can fire on them from the outside and they cannot fire at targets outside.
A character on the ladder between the two decks benefits from medium cover irrespective of from where he is shot at (i.e. from another ship, or from the same ship whether from the lower deck or upper deck). A missile-man on the ladder may fire at a target on either of the two decks but with a die-roll modifier of +1 (which is additional to the normal +1 for shooting from a ship).
The remaining possibilities when shooting are summarised in the table below. The operators of war engines are treated like the steersman in relation to cover (i.e. medium cover).

Modification to die-roll for shooting from galleys

Location of shooter


Location of target

Task of target

Cover

Lower deck

Lower deck

-

0

On the ladder

-

Medium


Upper deck

Upper deck of another galley

Ready to board

Light

Steering

Medium

On the ladder

-

Medium

On another type of ship

Ready to board

0

Rowing / Steering

Light

On the ladder

On one of the two decks

-

0

On another ship

-

Impossible

On another ship

or on land

On the upper deck of the galley

Ready to board

Light

Steering

Medium

On the ladder

-

Medium

If a shot crosses a sail hex, add +1 to the die roll.


2). Combat: Due to the higher position of the upper deck of a galley, all characters ready to board another type of ship will benefit from a doubly advantageous position (+ +) both in attack and defence. They are treated as being in an advantageous position (+) when boarding another galley.


Other characters steering or operating a war engine are (0) in defence and (+) in attack. A character on the ladder is in a disadvantageous position (-) in both attack and defence.

3. USING THE SAIL
The wind: The two types of sailing ship used in this Game Aid (felucca and cog) can only move as a result of the direction and strength of the wind.


  • Wind direction: This is determined at the beginning of each scenario. The wind blows in the same direction for the whole of the scenario. As a result of the wind direction, three situations can occur in relation to the ship:

  1. Wind behind: The ship tries to move in one of the three directions towards which the wind is blowing from behind the ship. In this situation the ship’s speed is at maximum.

  2. Wind ahead: The ship tries to move in one of the two directions to the side of the wind when it is blowing towards the front of the ship. In this situation the speed of the ship is reduced by 1 Movement Point.

  3. Contrary wind: The ship tries to move in the direction from which the wind is blowing. Such movement is impossible. In this situation the ship stops.




  • Wind strength (WS): This can change in each phase of the game as a result of a D10 die roll. The wind force values vary from 0 (no wind) to 9 (storm). The wind strength changes by a maximum of 1 point up or down from one phase to another depending on whether the result of the D10 is higher, equal, or lower than the wind strength of the previous phase. Example: Wind strength during the previous phase was 6. On a result of 7 (or 8 or 9) the wind strength will increase to 7. On a result of 4 (or 5, 3, 2, 1 or 0) the wind strength drops to 5. On a result of 6 it stays at 6.


The position of the sail: The sail is represented by a marker that is 5 hexes long. The central hex is placed on the ship hex with a black circle (the mast). The sail will always be placed at right angles to the wind direction [or approximately so if the wind is directly astern or contrary, as it occupies a line of 5 hexes]. Its position in relation to the ship may thus change at each change of heading.
The bottom of the sail is approximately 1.5 metres above the deck. These sail hexes do not block movement by characters, but the sail impedes movement a little by forcing them to duck under it. The two sail hexes that extend outside of the ship are well above the water and do not restrict the movement either of the sailing ship or of other ships trying to board.
Ship speed: Several factors must be taken into account to determine the speed of a sailing ship: its relevant characteristics, its speed at the end of the previous naval phase, the direction and strength of the wind, the state of the sail.


  • No wind: The ship continues its movement in the direction of the previous phase. It can change direction at a cost of 1 point of speed. There is no longer a wind direction in this situation. If the absence of wind continues, the speed of the ship drops automatically by 1 Movement Point (MP) per phase.

  • Wind strength 1-8: The ship can accelerate, decelerate and change direction according to the abilities given in the Ship Characteristics Table.

  • Storm (Wind strength 9): The felucca must change its speed immediately to 6 MPs to avoid a risk of damage to the sail (speed 3 for the cog). The ship can try to increase to a higher speed: Roll 1D10 (counting 1-10) to determine if it reaches the threshold for sail damage. If the number on the die is higher than this threshold, the ship loses the relevant number of sail points. A felucca can even try to gain from the storm to accelerate up to a speed of 9 during the storm phase. To do this it must have an actual speed of at least 5 during the previous phase, be manoeuvred by 4 sailors, and can only move in a straight line.


Sail damage: This can result from a storm, from projectiles hurled by war engines, or from flaming arrows. The Ship Characteristics Table shows the maximum speeds that can be achieved by sailing ships with undamaged sails (which is 8 sail points). A damaged sail reduces the maximum speed of a ship by the number of sail points lost during the different phases. Lost points cannot be repaired during a scenario. Note: These 8 points are distinct from the 5 hexes representing the ship’s sail. The sail marker is not removed unless all 8 sail points have been lost.


Type of damage

Threshold

Sail points lost

Storm

Excess speed of 1 MP

8

1 point

Excess speed of 2 MPs

6

3 points


Stone

-

1 point



* This box was left blank. Assuming that this was an error, an estimated value has been added.


4. SHIP MOVEMENT

Ship Characteristics Tables





Sailing ship characteristics

Felucca

Cog

Number of sailors to manage the sail

4

4

Actual speed:



Wind astern

Wind Strength

Wind Strength /2

Wind ahead

Wind Strength -1

Wind Strength /2 –1

Acceleration - conditions needed

+1

Actual speed WS –1 or less

Actual speed WS –2 or less

+2

Actual speed WS –2 or less

Actual speed WS –4 or less

Deceleration - conditions needed



-1 or -2

At least 1 sailor among the 4 sail operators

-3 or -4

4 sailors

-

Effect of different types of movement on ship speed


Straight line

None

None

Turning with the wind



Astern to astern

Speed –1

Speed –1

Astern to ahead

Speed –1

Speed –2

Number of points of hull damage before a ship sinks


19

11

Effect of damage on speed

Effect of damage on acceleration



-1 per 3 points of hull damage

-1 per 6 points of hull damage



* Round down if necessary


Oared ship characteristics

Galley

Longboat

Maximum number of oarsmen

14

6

Actual speed



Equal to number of pairs of oarsmen *

Acceleration and deceleration - conditions needed

+1 **

At least 1 pair of oarsmen

At least 1 pair of oarsmen

+2

At least 3 pairs of oarsmen

At least 3 pairs of oarsmen



Effect of different types of movement on ship speed


Straight line

None

None

Turning





Speed

Speed –2

Speed –1

Restrictions

Max 60°, 1 per phase

Max 60°, 2 per phase

Number of points of hull damage before a ship sinks


25

3

Effect of damage on speed

Effect of damage on acceleration



-1 per 3 points of hull damage

-1 per 6 points of hull damage



* A galley can move at a speed of 8 with 7 pairs of oarsmen rowing.

** A ship with no-one rowing will lose speed at 1 Movement Point per phase.


Initiative: The ship with the highest effective speed moves first. In the event of equal speed, galleys move before feluccas, cogs, longboats and rowboats.
Number of oarsmen: Like a drakkar, a galley can achieve a maximum speed of 8 if there are 7 pairs of oarsmen on board.
Number of sailors: In addition to the steersman, there must be 4 sailors to manage the sails during manoeuvres. If the number of sailors is only 2 or 3, the speed of the ship is reduced by 1 extra point for each manoeuvre (except when turning from wind astern to wind astern which only concerns the steersman). If there is no more than 1 sailor (or if there are none), the ship remains in the last direction that it was facing. If the ship moves forward with wind astern, it can continue to change direction between the three wind astern positions so long as there is still a steersman.
Soldiers can be requisitioned to replace sailors. Taking account of their inexperience in navigation, at least one sailor must be present to direct them in manoeuvring the sails. If 3 soldiers help 1 sailor, the ship can change to a new direction at a cost of 1 extra point for each manoeuvre (except for wind astern to wind astern).

Running aground


  • Galley: It cannot approach the shore closer than 12 hexes without risking running aground. A galley with a speed less than or equal to 3 stops automatically on the first hex less than 12 hexes from the shore. It is treated as run aground without damage and cannot move until the end of the current scenario. A galley with a speed of more than 3 does not stop until the next hex (i.e. 11 hexes from the shore) and its hull is torn open on the rocks. The situation is treated like a frontal collision with a ship travelling at the same speed (see the section on collisions).

  • Felucca and cog: These cannot move into shallow water hexes without risking running aground. A sailing ship with a speed equal to or less than 3 will stop automatically on the first hex less than 2 hexes from the shore. It is treated as run aground without damage. It can be pushed back into deep water using the rules for “Vikings”. A sailing ship with a speed of more than 3 does not stop until the next hex (i.e. one hex from the shore). The ship is treated as firmly aground in the sand and it cannot be moved until the end of the scenario.

  • Longboat: This follows exactly the rules for “Vikings”.


Refloating: This rule does not apply to the galley, which cannot run aground on the beach. 2 characters are needed to push a longboat into the water, and 4 for a felucca or cog.

5. COLLISIONS
An additional type of collision

  • Diekplus: This naval tactic was known under this name by the ancient Greeks and it is apparent that it was also used during galley combat in the Middle Ages. When 2 galleys strike one another, the attacker can try this manoeuvre to break the oars of its opponent. [It is suggested that this type of collision only applies to ‘Type 2’ and ‘Type 3’ rams against galley sides and does not apply to ‘Type 1’ rams against bow or stern.] To succeed in this type of attack:

  • The attacking ship must first ship oars to avoid damaging them. This action must take place before the collision and costs 1 movement point. After this moment, the speed of the ship will automatically drop by one point per phase until the oars have been put back into the water.

  • The attacked ship also has the possibility of shipping oars before being struck if it succeeds in the following initiative test: The morale level of the highest ranking character on board the ship and not adjacent to an enemy is taken into account (e.g. 8 for a kataphractos). If the result on 2D10 is less than or equal to this morale level, the test is passed and the oars can be shipped. All the restrictions noted in the paragraph above will apply. If the result is higher, the ship has not seen the danger or has not had time to achieve this manoeuvre.

  • If the 2 ships have their oars shipped, the attack ends with the simple collision of one ship with another.

  • If the attacked ship has not been able to ship its oars in time, the attack breaks the number of oars shown on 1D6.


Effect of damage

  • Galley: Crew: Characters located on either deck, on the hexes hit and on hexes that strike the other ship, can be stunned, wounded or killed. The damage affecting members of the crew will apply to each deck, so doubling the losses.

Hull: A waterline hole is made in the lower deck. A hex that has lost 1 point of damage (or more) cannot be used to row from.

  • Felucca and cog: The same rules apply as for a Viking drakkar or Saxon galley.

  • Longboat: If a galley hits a longboat with an effective speed of 3 or more, this will automatically sink it and the characters aboard will fall into the water. The galley does not suffer any damage but its speed is reduced by 1 point. If a longboat hits a galley the collision has no effect.



6. MOVEMENT AND COMBAT ON THE SHIPS
Embarkation and disembarkation

  • Longboat, felucca and cog: Use in full the embarkation and disembarkation table in “Vikings”.

  • Galley: Taking account of the difference in level for the upper deck, the table is modified as follows:




Entering a galley




Leaving a galley




From an adjacent galley

+0

Onto another galley

+0

From a deep water hex



+6






It is not possible to climb into a galley from land or shallow water since the galley cannot approach closer than 12 hexes from the coast. At this distance, although the depth of water is insufficient for the ship, it will still be treated in relation to the characters as if it were deep water.


Loading a horse on board: This action is only possible for cogs and feluccas. Horses cannot be transported in galleys. The longboat is too lightly built to sustain the weight of a horse.
The sail: The 3 ship hexes occupied by the sail cost 2 Movement Points (due to the need to duck).
Combat

  • Ship to ship: In the event of combat between a galley and another type of ship (except a rowboat), a character on a galley is always considered to be in favourable terrain (+) in both attack and defence. The advantage due to the galley is neutralised if an enemy is also on the upper deck. In the event of an attack into a galley from a rowboat, the attacker is also considered to be in unfavourable terrain (-). A combatant in a sail hex is considered to be in unfavourable terrain for both attack and defence.

  • Ship to sea: A character in the sea cannot fight a character on the upper deck of a galley.


7. WAR ENGINES
Descriptions of the war engines: War engines can only be used on galleys. There are 3 types of engine that can be used:

  • Ballista: Its main role is to hurl flaming arrows at long distance to set fire to enemy ships. [As this is its ‘main’ role, optionally it may hurl normal ballista arrows using the ranges below and the “Siege” Missile Results Table.] Ballistas are represented by Ballista counters from “Siege”.

  • Catapult: This is used to hurl stones so as to damage enemy vessels. The types mounted on galleys are smaller and less powerful than those used during a siege. Catapults are represented by Mangonel counters from “Siege”.

  • Siphon: This tube, located in the bow of Byzantine galleys, allows the dangerous Greek Fire to be projected onto enemy ships or onto the sea to protect the galley itself. The mixture of naphtha is set on fire by flaming arrows. It has the peculiarity of burning on water and cannot be extinguished other than with sand or vinegar. Siphons are represented by the counters supplied with this Game Aid.




War Engine Characteristics Table

War engine

Ballista

Catapult

Siphon


Range

Short

1-30 hexes

1-25 hexes

5-10 hexes

Medium (+1 on die)

31-60 hexes

26-50 hexes

-


Frequency of fire (loading time)

Every 3 phases

Every 5 phases

Every 5 phases


Movement of the engine

Impossible

Impossible

Impossible


Damage caused by the projectiles


  • Determining the target and accuracy: The war engines are fixed in position, so the target must be situated in line with the engine; for the ballista this line must be determined at the start of the scenario. The target must either be a ship hex or a sail hex. In the case of the three hexes containing both ship and sail, the shooter must announce which is the target (ship or sail). The consequences of this choice are explained later. Whatever the number of hexes separating the engine from the target hex, the accuracy is determined by consulting the War Engine Characteristics Table and applying the appropriate penalty to the die-roll.



Missile-fire Results Table

Die-roll

Arrow

Stone

Greek Fire


10

D

D

D


Explanation of results
T: Target hex. The projectile hits the hex chosen.

T + ‘x’: The projectile falls ‘x’ hexes distant from the target hex. Depending on the distance, the shooter rolls:



  • 1D6 if the distance is 1 hex

  • 2D6 if the distance is 2 hexes

  • 3D6 if the distance is 3 hexes

  • 4D6 if the distance is 4 hexes.

The result shows the hex in which the projectile falls. The die numbers are allocated clockwise, with hex number 1 being the hex that is located behind the target hex as a continuation of the straight line from the war engine. [This system is not strictly based on distance, since two die rolls could cancel each other out, e.g. a 2 and a 5.]

D: Fault in the war engine: the projectile is not hurled. In each succeeding phase, and if the number of operators remains the same, a roll of 1D10 is used to determine whether there is a successful repair of the damage (e.g. a broken rope or jammed mechanism):



  • 8-10: the engine is repaired

  • 1-7: the engine remains broken.

Once the engine is repaired, the number of phases to reload must be complied with.
Effect of damage


  • Greek Fire: The inflammable mixture covers the surface of the 6 hexes around the target hex. The mixture will float on the surface of water. Place [inverted] fire markers on the 7 hexes affected. The mixture catches fire once a flame reaches it (due to a flaming arrow or an existing fire) [turn the fire markers face up]. The mixture burns until the end of the scenario, even on water! Fire on a ship spreads as per the rules of “Siege”. [Roll each turn for each burnable adjacent hex, which should include the lower deck hex below an upper deck side hex: on 7-10 it spreads to that hex.] Hexes where Greek Fire has spread are treated as ordinary fires. Characters cannot extinguish Greek Fire [but can attempt to extinguish ordinary fires (see below)].

If one of the hexes reached by Greek Fire also contains a sail, this is also covered in naphtha and will catch fire at the same time as the rest…




  • Flaming arrows: Use the rules from “Siege”. [The French rules for flaming arrows in “Siege” differ from the English rules, with only one die-roll to determine success. Since the flaming arrow will always land somewhere, it would be best to use the ballista tables above when shooting at Greek Fire. Assume that Greek Fire mixture catches fire automatically if any flaming arrow hits it. The other rules from “Siege” still apply to shortbow arrows: e.g. short range only. Characters cannot enter a burning hex and must retreat from a hex to which a fire has spread. Each adjacent character can attempt to extinguish an ordinary fire once per turn, on a die-roll of 1-5 for a flaming arrow on its first turn of burning and 1-3 for other fires. Three turns of burning will destroy a hex: it is proposed that this should cause one point of hull damage, but the fire will remain burning with a continuing chance of spreading.]




  • Stone: If the affected hex is on a ship (or the upper deck of a galley), the damage points inflicted are equal to those from the ‘12-17’ row on the Collision Table in “Vikings”. If the affected hex is a sail, the damage is one sail point.




Result

Damage to hull

Damage to character in impact hex

Damage to other crew on ship

12-17

2 hull points

Killed

1 wounded, 2 stunned

8. COMPARATIVE TABLES (added by Bob Gingell)

Summary of ship types

Vessel

French

Length

Size

Hull


Max Speed

Oarsmen

Sailors


Rowboat **

Barque

3 hexes

3 hexes

1 points

2

2

-

* The Knarr was a high-sided, round-hulled Viking transport ship with an open storage hold in the centre. This ship was also designed by Hervé Tardy, and published in Claymore #10; a translation of the relevant rules can be found in the ‘Vikings Supplement’.

** Six rowboats are provided in the boxed game “Vikings” but none in “Viking Raiders”.
[Note: The author of this extension also designed three additional larger ship types, 13-15 hexes long and 5-hexes wide, with 3 levels of deck: the nef with 2 masts and 7-hex sails (max. speed 8), the horse-carrier (huissier: carries 12 horses) with 1 mast and a 7-hex sail (max. speed 4), and the oared flagship galley (galée:5 pairs of benches of 2 oarsmen, max. speed 8).]

Diagram of wind directions

Wind astern

Wind ahead

Contrary wind

| | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | |



Terrain summary chart for ships

Hex type

Move

Cover

Combat

Ladder

2

Medium

-


Notes:


  1. Targets on the open deck that are shot at from the same deck will be at one less cover type than would be normal if shot at from another ship or from land (i.e. None instead of Light). Optionally the same approach could also be adopted for the operators of a war engine and the steersman (reducing cover from Medium to Light).

  2. Targets on the sail hex itself are treated as being on the open deck. However, if the shot crosses the sail hex the target gains +1 to cover (i.e. None becomes Light or Light becomes Medium).

  3. Although war engine hexes cannot be entered, the adjacent operators (including the engineer or noble directing fire) do benefit from cover, whether the shot crosses the war engine or not.



9. MARKERS

The original markers supplied for copying consisted of 3x 5-hex sails, 1x Wind Direction and 3x Greek Fire siphons. The numbers of these markers have been increased, and other markers added, including catapults, ballistas, ‘jammed’, ‘loading’ and ‘loaded’ markers. ‘Target’ markers can be used to mark the target hexes from which deviation of shot is measured. ‘Broken Oars’ markers are placed by the relevant side of the lower deck of galleys, with a speed number marker to show how many oars have been broken with consequent loss of speed points. ‘Greek Fire’ and extra ‘Fire’ markers have been included to distinguish between those fires that can be extinguished and those that cannot. ‘Hole’ markers are to show where a hole has been made by a stone or by ramming.



Sail and War Engine counters; Wind Direction, Broken Oars and Target markers




SAIL -


- SAIL -

- SAIL -


- SAIL -

- SAIL


^

WIND





BROKEN


OARS

BROKEN


OARS

SAIL -


- SAIL -

- SAIL -


- SAIL -

- SAIL


^
SIPHON

BROKEN


OARS

BROKEN


OARS

CATAPULT >





CATAPULT >





CATAPULT >





^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA

CATAPULT >





CATAPULT >





^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA


CATAPULT >





CATAPULT >





^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA


^
BALL-ISTA




Fire, Greek Fire, Jammed, Loading Status and Hole markers




GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

GREEK


FIRE

Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded


Loaded





Version 1.0 April 2002; version 1.1 April 2003 corrected flaming arrow rules and counter sizes for catapults. Version 1.2 added comments on Hervé Tardy’s on-going revisions. Better markers are in the ‘Markers’ file.

Bob Gingell, Version 1.2 April 2004






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