By swimming. □On foot. □Others: row row row a boat



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Lesson 8

Channel Tunnel

Getting Started

How can people travel from England to France now? Check ( V ) the box(es).

By airplane. □By boat. □By train.

By taxi. □By bicycle. □By hot air balloon.

By swimming. □On foot. □Others:



row row row a boat

Reading


For many years, England1 and France2 wanted to link1

  1. 1

their two countries with a train tunnel2 under the English

  1. 2

Channel3. This was a huge4 challenge5 for the British and

  1. 3

French3 engineers6. The tunnel would have to 必be是 50

  1. 4

kilometers4 long---one of the longest in the world. But more

  1. 5

importantly, it would have to be safe.



Since() much of the tunnel would be underwater7, an



accident8 (inside the tunnel) could be a disaster9. So the



engineers built10 an escape11 route12. The Channel Tunnel is



actually13 three tunnels side by side. Two of the tunnels are



for trains. In between these two tunnels is a smaller tunnel,



which is used by railroad14 workers. This smaller tunnel can



also be used to get people out if there is an accident.



The Channel Tunnel



was built by two teams of



workers ((who were) digging挖掘 from both



sides of the Channel). The



work was started in 1987



and both teams raced15競賽 to reach抵達 the middle of the tunnel



first首先. They used huge machines, which were called被稱為 “borers5,” which



could dig 75 meters6 a day. [The amount16 of rock17 and



dirt18] (which was)removed19 by these machines) increased20 the size of



Britain by 36 hectares7!



By the time the Channel Tunnel opened in 1994,



almost 13,000 people had worked on the project21. Today,



trains travel through the tunnel at 160 kilometers an hour,



and it’s possible to get from one end to the other in just



twenty minutes!





---by Gillian Flaherty, James Bean, Jane Bowring and Naomi Waterman from Insight Book 1,

2003. Reprinted by permission of International Language Teaching Services Pty Ltd.






Comprehension Check

I. Choose the best answer to each question.

1. Which two countries does the Channel Tunnel link?

(A) England and France.(B) England and Spain. (C) France and Spain.

2. How long is the Channel Tunnel?

(A) 50 centimeters. (B) 50 meters. (C) 50 kilometers.

3. What kind of transportation交通運輸 is the Channel Tunnel for?

(A) Airplanes. (B) Ships. (C) Trains.

4. How many years did it take to build the Channel Tunnel?

(A) Five years. (B) Seven years. (C) Seventeen years.

5. How long does it take to travel from one end of the Channel

Tunnel to the other end?

(A) About 10 minutes. (B) About 20 minutes. (C) About 20 hours.

II. Answer the following questions.

1. How many tunnels are there in the Channel Tunnel?

2. What is the smaller tunnel in between the other two tunnels used for?

3. What were the “borers” used for?

4. What increased the size of Britain?

5. How fast can a train travel through the Channel Tunnel?
Vocabulary

I. Words for production

1. link [l0Hk]v. [T, I] to bring帶 things together一起; to join 連接

link n. [C] 連結;鏈環

The two sides of the river are linked by a bridge.

This website includes包含 some links to other websites.

Linking verb連綴動詞: become/ turn/ get/

Including


2. tunnel ['tKnDl]n. [C] an underground passage通道 (esp. 尤其through穿過 a mountain高山 or a hill小山) 隧道,地道

When our train was in the tunnel, it was so dark that we could not see anything. (=…we could see nothing.)

playground 操場

3. channel ['tN$nDl]n. [C] a stretch延伸 of water水域 connecting() two seas 海峽;a band波段;頻帶 of radio waves波 for broadcasting廣播 television 頻道

the English Channel 英倫海峽

The English Channel separates分開 England from France.

Please turn to the Discovery Channel. My favorite最愛的 program is on.

remote (control)遙控

London bridge is falling down.

Twinkle twinkle little star

How I wonder what they are

4. huge [hjudI] adj. very great巨大的

The huge cockroach() really scared嚇到 me.

I hate to tell you this, but you’re making a huge mistake.




5. challenge []n. [C] something difficult困難的 (which requires必要 great effort努力) 挑戰

challenge v. [T] 挑戰

challenging adj. 有挑戰性的

[Digging through the huge rock] was a big challenge for the workers.

Our teacher often challenges us to think about social issues議題;話題.

Sharon finds [that being a nurse is a challenging job], but she loves it.

dig dug dug digging

6. engineer n. [C] a person who designs設計 machines機器, railways火車, etc. 工程師

engineering n. [U] 工程學

The Guandu Bridge was designed by local當地的 engineers.

Gina is studying electrical電的 engineering because she wants to be an engineer.

engine 引擎

electronic電子的(e-mail) / electricity

7. underwater adj. below在…之下 the surface表面 of the water 在水底,水中的,吃水線以下的

Much of the Channel Tunnel is underwater.

Taiwan Strait()

above在…之上

8. accident n. [C] something that happens發生 without an obvious明顯的cause原因, usually something unfortunate不幸的 事故,偶發事件

The car accident was caused by a drunk driver.

It was only an accident. I didn’t do it on purpose().

incident事件 / event事記

9. disaster n. [C] an accident which causes引起 great damage破壞 災難

His carelessness() caused() an awful可怕的 disaster.

The 921 Earthquake was one of the worst natural自然的 disasters to have ever hit侵襲 Taiwan.

bad worse worst最糟的 / hit hit hit hitting打;撞


10. build v. [T] (build, built, built) to make製造 something, esp. something large 建造,建立

building n. [C] 建築物,大樓

It took費 more than ten thousand people to build the Channel Tunnel.

The Taipei 101 Tower塔 is one of the tallest buildings in the world.

Rome was not built in a day.


11. escape n. [C] a way or a device工具;手段 to avoid避免 something bad 逃生,避難裝置

escape v. [I, T] 逃走,避開

Make sure the fire escape is available可提供的.

Only six people escaped from the fire.

I avoided seeing him in the meeting.

something bad / someone I knew / somebody important

12. route n. [C] the way from one place to another 路線

What is the best route to your house?




13. actually adv. in fact事實上; really 實際上

He looks honest, but he is actually a thief.

act行為;表現 action行為;動作 actor/ actress演員 actual事實上 activity活動

He is an honest man.

an apple / orange/ egg/ elephant/ ice cream cone/ engineer/ eraser/ umbrella/

an old/older/ important/ excited/ angry/ honest/ man

14. railroad n. [C] a track路徑 with rails枕木 on which trains run 鐵路

The department store is just across from the main railroad station.




15. race v. [I, T] to compete競爭 against對抗 someone, esp. to see who can move移動 the fastest or who can finish first 競賽;賽跑

race n. [C] 競賽;賽跑

The boys raced to see [who was the fastest in the class].

There are boat races all around Taiwan at the Dragon龍 Boat Festival.

move移動;搬動;感動

16. amount n. [C] a quantity of something 數

She needs that amount of money to pay her credit card bill帳單.

Don’t carry a large amount of cash() with () you. 攜帶

mountain / mount

***Quality is more important than quantity.

Healthy is more important than wealth.

17. rock n. [U, C] the hard硬的 solid堅固的 material材料 that forms() the main() surface() of the earth 岩石

rocky adj. 由岩石形成的,多岩石的

Borers are used to dig挖掘 through穿過 the hard rock.

[The scenery along沿著 the rocky coast海岸] is wonderful.

material girl () / Material Science / material noun

Rocky Mountains

rock and roll / roll egg roll

18. dirt n. [U] soil泥巴,灰塵

dirty adj. 骯髒的

This dirt road is always very muddy (泥濘的)after a heavy rain.

The floor is dirty. Did you mop拖地 it?

ground / playground ()/

19. remove v. [T, I] to take away 移走,拿開

Remove your hand from my bag.

move

20. increase v. [T, I] to become greater in number數字, size尺寸, etc. 增加

increase n. [U] 增加

increasing adj. 持續增加的

increasingly adv. 持續增加地

The heavy rain increased [the difficulty of the rescue解救;救難 work].

[The number of cars in Taiwan] is on the increase.

[An increasing number of people] can’t afford to buy a house.

Modern people rely 倚賴increasingly on computers.

I can’t afford it now.

intereste interesting

people人們/ crowd/ fish; fishes /

There are five peoples in China.

21. project n. [C] a plan (大型) 計畫

project v. [T] plan投影,投射

It is a big project with a 50-million-dollar budget預算.

The tall tree projects a long shadow陰影 on the ground地面.






II. Words for recognition

  1. England n. 英國,英格蘭: England is separated from the European Continent by the English Channel.

    Scotland / Wales/ Greenland/ Iceland/ New Zealand/

  2. France n. 法國: Paris is the capital首都 of France.

  3. French adj. 法國的: Her husband reserved預定 a table at an expensive French restaurant on Valentine’s Day.

  4. kilometer n. [C] 公里: A kilometer is equal to 相等於1,000 meters.

  5. borer n. [C] 鑽鑿機,鑽孔器;鑽鑿的人; bore: bore a well: The worker used a borer to dig a hole in the rock. A tunnel was bored through the mountain. (dig dug dug digging)

    (bear bore born生產): I was born in 1994.

  6. meter n. [C] 公尺: This table is two meters long, one meter wide.

  7. hectare n. [C] 公頃: Our school covers a land of two hectares.


Idioms and Phrases

1. side by side 並排,肩並肩;互相支持

The old couple sat side by side on the bench.

The whole team must work together, side by side.
Word Power


Traffic Facilities

railway 鐵路

subway 地下鐵 (submarine)

highway 公路

freeway 高速公路

bridge 橋

overpass 天橋,高架橋

underpass 地下道

bus stop 公車招呼站

railway station 火車站

platform 月台

wharf 碼頭

port 港口 (passport)

airport 機場

terminal 航廈;(末端的;終點的;學期的)



Grammar Focus

I. …N + (P.P. 被動;完成) (adj)

有些形容詞子句內的動詞是被動語態,可簡化為過去分詞片語,作名詞的後位修飾語。


somebody/ someone + adj.

Am I that easy to forget? / You love somebody new.


Examples

1. [The amount of rock (that was removed by the machines)] increased the size of Britain. N 形容詞子句

→The amount of rock (removed by the machines) increased the size of Britain. N p.p.

2. They used huge machines (which were called ‘borers.’)

N 形容詞子句

They used huge machines (called ‘borers.



N p.p.

Practice

將劃線部分的形容詞子句改為分詞片語。

1. In between the two tunnels is a small tunnel, which is used by railroad workers.

In between the two tunnels is a small tunnel, .



2. The car accident, which was caused by drunk driving酒駕, killed two persons.

→The car accident, , killed two persons.

3. The Channel Tunnel, which was built by 13,000 people, is one of the longest tunnels in the world.

→The Channel Tunnel, , is one of the longest tunnels

in the world.

4. My hometown, which is located座落 on the coast海岸, was hit侵襲 by the typhoon.

→My hometown, , was hit by the typhoon.

5. On the road lay躺 a dog that had been run over輾過 by a car.

→On the road lay a dog . (run ran run running)

(lie lay lain lying躺) (lie lied lied lying說謊)
ans.

2. The car accident, caused by drunk driving, killer tow persons.

3. The Channel Tunnel, built by 13,000 people, is one of….

4. My hometown, located on the coast, was hit….

5. On the road lay a dog run over by a car.

II. N + (who/ which be V-ing)主動;進行 (adj)

還有些形容詞子句內主動語態的動詞可簡化為現在分詞片語,作名詞的後位修飾語。

Examples

1. The tunnel was built by two teams, who dug from both sides of the Channel. (dig dug dug digging)

→ The tunnel was built by two teams, digging from both sides of the Channel.

2. They found a girl who was dancing in the room.

→ They found a girl dancing in the room.

The dog barks, and bites the passenger.--> The dog barks, biting the passenger.

Practice A

將劃線部分的形容詞子句改為分詞片語。

  1. Do you know any English words that begin with “X”?

Do you know any English words ?

  1. I don’t know the man who is talking to my father.

I don’t know the man .

  1. The Channel Tunnel is an underwater tunnel that links England and France.

The Channel Tunnel is an underwater tunnel .

  1. The old lady who lives next door to me has eight cats.

The old lady has eight cats.

  1. The first one (that reaches 到達the end 終點)will get an award獎.

The first one will get an award.

Practice B

將劃線部分改為分詞片語。

People 1 who choose to take a train to cross the English Channel may expect期望 to see an underwater world where fish are swimming all around到處. The reality事實 is that passengers旅客 cannot see anything but除了 the deep gray walls of the tunnel. What’s worse, the Channel Tunnel is quite long. People, 2 who are surrounded圍繞 by darkness, have to stay in the train for 20 minutes. All they can do is watch the unchanging沒變化的 “scenery” 風景outside the window. The trip is even longer if you cross橫越 the Tsugaru Straits through the Seikan Tunnel, 3 which links the Japanese islands, Honshu and Hokkaido. But the Japanese have tried to make that underwater trip less較少 boring. They built two stations inside the Seikan Tunnel where passengers can get off下車 and visit the two museums 4 that were set up設立 to show people the history of the tunnel. (set set set setting)

改寫後的短文:

People 1 may expect to see an underwater world where fish are swimming all around. The reality is that passengers cannot see anything but the deep gray walls of the tunnel. What’s worse, the Channel Tunnel is quite long. People, 2 , have to stay in the train for 20 minutes. All they can do is watch the unchanged “scenery” outside the window. The trip is even longer if you cross the Tsugaru津輕 Straits through the Seikan青函 Tunnel, 3 . But the Japanese have tried to make that underwater trip less boring. They built two stations inside the Seikan Tunnel where passengers can get off and visit the two museums 4 .
Language Use

I.

II.

long長;length長度 / wide寬width寬度/ high高;height高度/ deep深; depth深度/ thick厚;thickness厚度/weight重量







  1. How +adj. + is + S(it)?  It is 100 meters long.

How long is the road? / It is 100 meters long.

  1. What is the length of the road?

  2. How handsome you are. = What a handsome young man you are.

  3. How much does the tree weigh秤重?


III. 看圖完成以下各句

1. It is from the northern北的 tip頂端 to the southern南的 end端 of Taiwan.

2. Mt. Jade玉山, in height高度, is the highest mountain

in Taiwan.

3. The Angel Spring is about away from the station.

4. The truck is loaded裝載 with of rock.

5. He filled裝滿 his car with of gasoline汽油.
Listening

  1. 聽完各個車站的廣播後,回答下列題目。

1. (A) E124. (B) E142. (C) S142.

2. (A) Platform 1. (B) Platform 2. (C) Platform 3.

3. (A) S141. (B) S14. (C) E147.

4. (A) Union Station in Los Angeles.

(B) West Station in Yuma.

(C) Riverside Station in Ontario.
Writing

Writing Complex 複Sentences with Adverbial副詞的 Clauses

有些單句可以改寫成副詞子句,再與另一個單句合併成複句。這樣合併後的副

詞子句,由於更靠近它要修飾的動詞,或與主要子句更靠近,更能貼切地表達因果、時間先後等關係,使句子更有輕重層次。

Examples

  1. The tunnel is underwater. An accident inside could be a disaster. →Since the tunnel is underwater, an accident inside could be a disaster.

  2. This smaller tunnel can be used to get people out. There is an accident. →This smaller tunnel can be used to get people out if there is an accident.

  3. The Channel Tunnel opened in 1994. Almost 13,000 people had worked on the project. →By the time the Channel Tunnel opened in 1994, almost 13,000 people had worked on the project.

Practice

選出適當的連接詞將短文中畫線的兩句合併或改寫成一句。



after when by the time if because although


1England and France decided to link their countries with a tunnel under the Channel. Engineers were faced with a huge challenge. They had to build one of the longest tunnels in the world. 2They also had to make people believe that passengers would be safe in such a long and deep tunnel. Tunnel fires were common at that time. The Channel Tunnel actually includes three tunnels. In between the two train tunnels is a smaller tunnel that serves as an escape route. 3The tunnel opened in 1994. In 1995 this design設計 was put to the test. A fire broke out in a train coming from France, and thirty-one people were trapped. The design worked. Everyone was able to escape through the emergency tunnel.

3. One year after the tunnel opened, this design was put to the test in 1995.

In 1995, one year after the tunnel opened, this design was put to the test.

After the tunnel opened in 1994, this design was put to the test in 1995.

改寫後的短文:

1 . They had to build one of the longest tunnels in the world. 2 . The Channel Tunnel actually includes three tunnels. In between the two train tunnels is a smaller tunnel that serves as an escape route. 3 . A fire broke out in a train coming from France, and thirty-one people were trapped. The design worked. Everyone was able to escape through the emergency tunnel.

ans.

1.

2.

3.

Pronunciation

I. Listen and repeat the following words that contain the /p/or /t/ sound or the /sp/ or /st/ cluster.

/p/ /sp/ /t/ /st/

pin spin top stop

pace space tick stick

park spark treat street

peach speech truck struck

pot spot tile style

II. Listen and repeat the following words that contain the /k/sound or the /sk/ cluster.

/k/ /sk/ /k/ /sk/

key ski cool school

kin skin cream scream

cold scold kill skill
Proverb

Rome was not built in a day.

Workbook Unit 8 Channel Tunnel

  1. 文意字彙:根據文意,選出適當的字,填入下列各句,並注意變化。

1. tunnel

2. Channel

3. challenge

4. engineers

5. project

6.escaped

7. route

8. rocks

9. removed

10.increased

  1. [The number of computer users has _____ a lot in the last decade十年. More and more people are getting used to 習慣learning about the world by computer.

  1. As the fifth longest tunnel in the world, the Hsuehshan Tunnel(雪山隧道)was never an easy _____.

  2. Much of the ShinTen Line is underground, with trains traveling through a _____.

  3. The sign告示 warns警告 of falling 掉落_____.

  4. Due to 由於carelessness of the gatekeeper守門人, a tiger ______ from a cage籠子.

  5. Climbing up to the top of Mt. Jade is a _____ for me, but I’ll manage安排;設法 to make it做到.

  6. The rock is too 太huge to 而不be ______ barehanded徒手; we need some machine.

  7. The English ______ separates分開 England and the European Continent陸塊.

  8. Several outstanding傑出的 _____ worked on the design設計 of Taipei 101 Tower塔.

  9. Is your place on a bus ____? Which stop should I get off?下車



  1. 填入適當的介系詞:請根據句意,填入適當的介係詞

1. The two villages村落 are linked a bridge. Villagers村民 can use the bridge to travel from one village to the other.

2. How to reach a balance平衡 between economic經濟 development發展 and environmental環境的 protection保護 has always been a challenge _____ many countries.

3. Two of the tunnels are used trains, while the third one is used people in case of 如果發生an accident.

4. The 911 Torrential洶湧的;奔流的 Rain increased增加 the amount 量of the water in Shihmen Reservoir (石門水庫) around大約 ten million tons.

5. More than one thousand workers worked the project.

6. The amounts量 traffic交通 in almost all the cities are increasing each year.

7. 2004 when the Hsuehshan Tunnel was open, 11 workers had died at work.

8. Since the Hsuehshan Tunnel is open, it takes only 30 minutes to travel from Taipei to Ilan the tunnel.

9. As the whole team worked side by side, the cleaning job was finished ________ just one hour.
III. 翻譯

  1. 英倫海底隧道實際上是三條隧道並排。

The Channel Tunnel is three tunnels .

  1. 兩條是給火車走的。

Two of are trains.

  1. 中間還有一條比較小的是給鐵路工人用的。

In these two tunnels a smaller tunnel, is used railroad workers.

  1. 英倫隧道是由兩隊工人分別從英倫海峽的兩邊開始挖鑿所建造而成。

The Channel Tunnel was built by two of workers from both sides of the Channel.

  1. 兩隊比賽誰先挖到隧道的中間點。

Both teams to the middle of the tunnel first.

  1. 英國那隊贏了

.
IV. 克漏字:請根據上下文,選出最適當的答案。

For two centuries, England and France wanted to link their countries with a train tunnel. The tunnel would have to be 50 kilometers 1 – one of the longest tunnels in the world. But 2 , it would have to be safe. 3 much of the tunnel would be underwater, an accident inside could be a 4 . The construction was started in 1987, with two teams of workers 5 from both sides of the Channel. They used huge machines, which 6 “borers.” The amount of rock and dirt 7 increased the size of Britain by thirty-six hectares. By the time the Channel Tunnel opened in 1994, nearly 13,000 people 8 on the project. Today, trains travel through the tunnel 9 160 kilometers an hour. It becomes possible to get from one end to 10 in just twenty minutes.

1. (A) deep (B) depth (C) long (D) length

2. (A) important (B) importantly (C) more important (D) more importantly

3. (A) So (B) But (C) Since (D) Though

4. (A) dinosaur (B) disaster (C) supporter (D) sponsor

5. (A) bore (B) bored (C) to bore (D) boring

6. (A) call (B) called (C) is called (D) are called

7. (A) remove (B) removed (C) was removed (D) was removing

8. (A) worked (B) have worked (C) had worked (D) had been working

9. (A) at (B) by (C) onto (D) with

10. (A) two (B) other (C) another (D) the other
Round 11

I.

  1. turn to轉到 program節目 on播放

  2. decade十年

  3. Our teacher often us to think about social issues社會議題

  4. separate分離

  5. on purpose故意

  6. the worst最糟

  7. project計畫

  8. cash現金

  9. To him televesion is an easy from the stress壓力in life.

  10. We thought he didn’t start with his work, but he had been doing it.


II.

1. Rome was not in a day. expect期待

  1. On the road three rocks.

  2. By the time the Channel Tunnel opened, more than 10,000 people on the project.

  3. Two of the tunnels are trains to travel.

  4. The man ( the child away from the burning燃燒的building) was honored表揚as a hero.

  5. is the weight of this rock?

  6. This subway is about 7 meters in . c. deep深的 d.depth深度

  7. On the road lay躺 a dog ( over by a car). run over輾 (lie lay lain lying躺) (lie lied lied lying說謊)

  8. The first one (that is reaching the end終點) will get an award.獎項

  9. O’Neal is taller than Iverson 33 centimeters.


II.

1. Rome
III.
IV.

If you travel in space and look down on the earth, the Great Wall of China is the only one man-made structure that you can see. It is the and also the oldest structure on earth. The Great Wall was actually a series of separate walls that across northern China. In 221 BC, Chin Shihuang began to these separate walls into one long wall. He extended it to a 4 of 1,900 5 . In the following centries, the wall was extended until it 6 more than 3,000 kilometers. Today, the Great Wall is about 2,400 kilometers long. It is five to eight meters wide and five to nine meters 7 . Originally原始地, the Great Wall 8 for miliary purpose目的. Soldiers士兵 could see the enemy敵人 9 from far away on the high watchtowers瞭望塔 of the walls. They sent signals訊號 to each other 彼此10 using smoke during the daytime and fire at night.

1. a series of 一系列

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. originally原始地

8. purpose目的/ watchtower/ signal信號
long / length/ lengthen加長

wide/ width/ widen

deep / depth/ deepen

high/ height/ heighten
Round 12 (L7-8)

Round 13( L1-8)

I.

8. The clerk is cleaning the shelf架 and the books in a new way.

9. It was a big for me when I began college because it was the first time I was away from home.

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