By Susan Steider & Mallory Grams Table of Contents

The Development of Monarchies & Religious Wars

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The Development of Monarchies & Religious Wars


FRQ: Analyze the causes and effects of the French Civil War, the Dutch Revolt, the Thirty Years’ War or the English Civil War. Include significance people.

The Thirty Years’ War started in 1618. It is probably the most commonly known Religious War in Europe. The Thirty Years’ War the longest lasting was of the time. It involved most of the major powers and was fought mostly on Germany’s territory. It was broken up into four phases and ended with the Peace of Westphalia. There were many reasons why change was needed and something had to be done, one was because countries were getting very greedy and another is that Calvinist wanted to be recognized. Also, the four periods all had different outcomes and the Peace of Westphalia was the most important and affective.

There were many different countries involved in the war, and almost all of the major power countries were involved. They all wanted very different things, and it took a long time for them to gain success at their goals. Some didn’t, but most were happy with what they did gain from the war. France’s goal during the war was to get political, and religious independence from the Holy Roman Empire. France wanted the power of the Habsburg Family limited. Spain and the was hoping for the power of the Holy Roman Empire to extend, which is the total opposite of what France wanted. Spain was lead by a member of the Habsburg family, Ferdinand II, which influenced that goal of being expanded. Lastly, Sweden and Denmark wanted a stronger hold on the Baltic region. They wanted it probably mostly because of warm water ports, and having the accessibility to water.

The other reason for beginning the Thirty Years’ War, was that Lutherans were being recognized by the Roman Catholic Church by the German States, but Calvinist were not. Calvinists wanted their rights to be known. John Calvin was the person who began Calvinism. Calvinism believed that the source was of Christian Doctrine was the Bible and that was in agreement with Martin Luther. Also, they both believed in two sacraments, baptism and holy communion. One thing that Calvin believed, that Luther didn’t was that was salvation by election. With one very distinct difference Calvinism and Lutheranism were easy to distinguish.

There were four different periods in the Thirty Years’ War. The first was called the Bohemian Period. That ended with the victory of the Habsburg family along with a Catholic victory. During that phase Maximilian I was very involved with the support of Ferdinand II. The Danish Period was next, starting in 1625.
Similar to the Bohemian Period, it again was a victory of Catholic and Habsburgs. The Swedish Period ended with the Treaty of Prague. The treaty signed in 1635 strengthened the Habsburgs and at the same time weakened the princes in Germany. The last period was the French Period. The Peace of Westphalia is what ended the French Period. Sweden and France gained territory along with Brandenburg. The areas that were formally recognized as independent were Switzerland and Dutch Republic. The right to make treaties and alliances was granted to the German states. That weakened the power of the Holy Roman Emperor. Finally Calvinist, were included with Lutherans and Catholics as part of the Peace of Augsburg. Each individual period had a different ending and the Peace of Westphalia changed many things, including religious groups.

In conclusion, there were many cause and effects of the Thirty Years’ War. All of the causes can be separated by what the countries want, and religion disputes. All of the four periods had there own ending. The Peace of Westphalia

was about many things, including religions beliefs by expanding the Peace of Augsburg. It also incorporated power of countries by giving the German states

more power, and giving a couple areas independence. The Thirty Years’ War was a religious war that included many different countries in some way or another and almost all of the major powers.

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