By Susan Steider & Mallory Grams Table of Contents

Development of Monarchies &

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Development of Monarchies &

Religious Wars


Treaty of Nijmegen

  • Time: 1678-1679

  • What: Treaties signed in the Dutch city Nijmegen

  • Importance: it ended the Franco-Dutch War. a war that included the Dutch, French, Spaniards, HRE, Denmark and a few others.

Divine Right

  • Time: early 1600’s

  • What: that the king was appointed by God and he rules for and with God alone

  • Importance: Many Kings took this to an extreme and thought they were untouchable. It was a common theory through European Monarchies.

Thirty Years’ War

  • Time: 1618-1648

  • What: a war over land and religion

  • Importance: It left a large deficit in many countries but formed some of the boundaries that are used today.

War of Spanish Succession

  • Time:1701-1714

  • What: one of the last wars of Louis XIV

  • Importance: Made France bigger

Treaty of Westphalia

  • Time: Oct. 24th1648

  • What: This agreement ended the Thirty Years War

  • Importance: countries gained land and it declared the independence of the Dutch Republic.

St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre

  • Time: August 1572 and lasted several weeks

  • What: a fight between the French Catholics and the Protestants

  • Importance: It was an attempt to wipe out the protestants to make way for the French Catholics to take over and run France.

Edict of Restitution

  • Time: 1555

  • What: an Edict passed by Ferdinand II

  • Importance: it was his attempt in putting the Catholics back together again and reclaim the land they lost to the Protestants

War of three henrys’

  • Time: 1584-1589

  • What: a religious war

  • Importance: It was also known as the Huguenot Wars or the French Wars of Religion. it was the deciding factor into who was going to rule France. A battle for the crown.

Edict of Nantes

  • Time: 1598

  • What: a treaty at the end of the civil religious wars

  • Importance: a Edict passed by Henry IV allowing the Huguenots the right to practice their own religion.

Peace of Utrecht

  • Time: 1713

  • What: an agreement between various European countries

  • Importance: ended the war of Spanish Succession and granted the northern provinces independence from Spain.

Catherine de Medici

Phillip II

  • Time: 1527-1598

  • What: king of Naples

  • Importance: He was the greatest power in the 16th century

Ignatius Loyola

  • Time: 1491-1556

  • What: hard core Catholic

  • Importance: founded the Jesuits

Ferdinand II

  • Time: 1578-1637

  • What: Holy Roman Emperor

  • Importance: He was a main factor in the beginning of the Thirty Years War; He was one of the factors that started it.

Cardinal Richelieu

  • Time: 1624-1630’s

  • What: He was Louis XIV advisor

  • Importance: He was basically the king until Louis was able to take over. He was very good at weakening the influence of the nobles, he wanted to make France the most powerful.

Louis XIV

  • Time: 1643-1715

  • What: The king of France at the time

  • Importance: During his reign Absolutism was at its most prominent, he made France very powerful and combined the state and the king into one. He was stated saying “L’estat, c’est moi!” meaning I am the state.

Henry of Navarre

  • Time: 1553-1610

  • What: also known as Henry of Navarre, and won the War of three Henrys’ as king of France

  • Importance: He was the person who laid the foundation for Absolutism in France. He also started the highway system

Charles I

  • Time: 1622-1642

  • What: King of England, Ireland, and Scotland

  • Importance: He at one point held parliament for 12 years

William of Orange

  • Time: 1688-1702

  • What: He was the prince of Orange

  • Importance: he succeeded in Dutch military success against France and Prussia, which lead to his increase in power. He was also the main contributor in Dutch independence


  • Time: 16th and 18th centuries

  • What: they were protestants and reformists who closely fallowed Calvinism (members of the reformed church)

  • Importance: they became a large political force, their influence lead closely to the religious wars of 1562-1598.

Chapter two: European History

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